The distribution of sugar residues in gonocytes of the differentiating mouse testis was examined by light microscopy using 22 different kinds of lectins. Characteristic binding patterns of sWGA, VVA, and LEA in gonocytes were observed during prespermatogenesis. sWGA preferentially bound to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of gonocytes on 16.5 days post coitus (dpc). Its reaction decreased thereafter and almost disappeared on 1.5 days post partum (dpp), but reaction reappeared on 4.5 dpp and continued until 6.5 dpp. The VVA reaction was recognized in a few gonocytes on 0.5 dpp, and remained strong until 6.5 dpp. LEA reacted strongly in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of gonocytes from 0.5 dpp to 6.5 dpp. The present study indicates that sWGA, VVA, and LEA are useful markers for gonocytes, and the appearance or disappearance of sWGA and VVA may be related to the differentiation of gonocytes during prespermatogenesis.
The intercalated duct cells were observed in the A and B islets of the chicken pancreas. These cells adhered with each other by intercellular junctional complexes at the apical side. They had many microvilli projecting into the lumen. Abluminally, they displayed extended slender cytoplasmic processes between islet endocrine cells. Administration of alloxan resulted to denser cytoplasm and a more prominent thickening of cytoplasmic processes of the intercalated duct cells, although the blood glucose levels did not show appreciable changes by the treatment. The intercalated duct epithelial cells appeared clearly as stellate cells. The lysosomes increased in size and number with passage of time after alloxan administration. The present findings may suggest that intercalated ducts are not only anatomically important as a structure passing through the islet but also play physiologically by protecting the islet endocrine cells.
Classification of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the chick central retina was studied by retrograde labeling of carbocyanine dye (DiI) and intracellular filling with Lucifer Yellow. Ganglion cells were divided into 4 groups, Group Ic/Is, Group IIc/IIs, Group IIIs, Group IVc, according to sizes of somal area and dendritic field and dendritic branching pattern. Group I cells had small somal area and small dendritic field. They were further divided into 2 subgroups by complexity (subgroup Ic) and simplicity (subgroup Is) of the dendritic arborization. Group II cells had medium-sized soma and dendritic field. They were also divided into subgroup IIc and IIs by the same definitions as those of subgroup Ic and Is. Group IIIs had medium-sized soma, large and simple dendritic arborization. Group IVc in which all cells had large soma, showed large and complex dendritic arborization. Cell populations of each group were 51.8% (subgroup Ic), 21.1% (subgroup Is), 6.2% (subgroup IIc), 14.6% (subgroup IIs), 4.2% (Group IIIs), and 2.1% (Group IVc). Subgroup Ic cells, which were very similar to β-cells in the mammalian central area, represented about a half of the ganglion cell population. Cells in subgroup Is and IIs, which were not reported in the mammalian retina, were found in the chick central retina in relatively high population (35.7%). Morphological features of chick RGCs in the central retina were considered in comparison with those of other vertebrates.
Whether the fungicide carbendazim affects the meiotic spermatocytes and consequently induces chromosome aberrations in the spermatids was determined in the adult rat testis using the micronucleus test. Round spermatids containing micronuclei (MN) were significantly increased in number at stages I and V on days 1 and 4.5 after treatment with carbendazim (100 mg/kg), respectively (p<0.05). Immunocytochemistry indicated that approximately 68% of the carbendazim-induced MN contained kinetochores. These results suggest that carbendazim induces chromosome aberrations in spermatids with a high incidence of aneuploidy.
Plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured in 6 dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation (MR) and 19 canine patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF). In dogs with experimental MR, ANP and BNP concentrations were significantly correlated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (ANP; r=0.852, P=0.0004, BNP; r=0.832, P=0.0008). ANP level was shown to have a predominant effect on PCWP in comparison with BNP using multiple regression analysis. In canine patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic CHF, ANP and BNP concentrations were significantly different among the heart failure classes according to the New York Heart Association functional classification (ANP; P=0.0165, BNP; P=0.0005). In addition, ANP and BNP levels in dogs with decompensated heart failure (n=10) significantly increased in comparison with those in dogs with compensated heart failure (n=9). There was however no correlation between ANP and BNP levels in each heart failure class. In conclusion, plasma ANP and BNP levels may become predictors of PCWP and the severity of heart failure in dogs with MR, although further investigations on ANP and BNP levels in more clinical cases are required.
To study the immunomodulative activity caused by bovine leukemia virus envelope (BLV Env) peptide, sheep were immunized with two kinds of Th-epitope peptides, peptide 98 (BLV Env 98-117), and 61 (BLV Env 61-78). Four of eight immunized sheep showed specific proliferative responses against both of the peptide stimulations. To characterize the cells responding to the peptides, peptide-specific cells were established from the responding sheep by the continuous stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with either peptide 98 or 61 in vitro. The peptide 98-specific cells consisted of CD4-positive cells, whereas the peptide 61-specific cells consisted of CD8-positive cells and MHC class II-positive cells. In addition, cytokine profile analysis indicated that the peptide 98-stimulated cells expressed IFN-γ but not IL-10, although the peptide 61-stimulated cells expressed IL-10 but not IFN-γ. These results show that BLV envelope peptides 98 and 61 can modulate immune responses of sheep lymphocytes in different ways and may contribute to the pathogenesis of BLV infection.
The effects of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (LPS) and crude capsular antigen (CCA) prepared from Pasteurella multocida serotype A isolated from a duck in the Philippines, on antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Brucella abortus (BA) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the chickens were studied. Chickens injected subcutaneously with LPS and CCA at 1 and 2 weeks of age and immunized intravenously with the mixed antigens of SRBC and BA, at 3 and 4 weeks of age showed significantly increased antibody responses against both SRBC and BA, when evaluated at 7 days after each immunization. In addition, these chickens sensitized intramuscularly with the emulsion of BSA in complete Freund's adjuvant at 5 weeks of age, and then injected into the wattle with BSA at 7 weeks of age also showed significantly increased DTH responses against BSA, when evaluated at 24 and 48 hr after challenge. These results indicate that LPS and CCA of P. multocida serotype A have a property enhancing humoral and cell-mediated immune responses
To clarify the implication of an energy nutrition on a metabolic alteration with advancing lactation, total 270 blood samples were taken from 16 lactating dairy cows. Amounts of dietary allowance and the refusals were measured daily, and the energy (TDN) intakes and a satisfaction (energy balance) of each cow were estimated. Plasma acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose levels were estimated. The data were divided into 3 groups depending on the days in milk; early (up to 70 days postpartum), mid (71 to 140 days), and late (after 141 days) lactation. There were many cases of higher FFA level in early lactation, especially with declining acetate and glucose levels. There were proportional elevations of 3-HB in connection with FFA levels in many samples of early lactation, though the 3-HB increased independently of FFA levels in the most cases of the mid and late lactations. Plasma 3-HB levels increased in many cases of decreased glucose level, especially in the early lactation. Plasma acetate level correlated positively with 3-HB level, but not correlated with glucose level. Higher FFA level and elevation of FFA/3-HB ratio were observed in the conditions of negative energy balance. This implies the metabolic importance of FFA in a ketogenesis of the early lactation.
The optimal condition for methods of lymphocytotoxic crossmatch test for feline renal transplantation was investigated. On separation of viable lymphocytes from whole blood, the best results were obtained when Ficoll-diatrizoate with 1.078 of a specific gravity at 20°C was centrifuged with 800 × g for 30 min at 4°C. A nylon wool column was used to separate T and B cells from lymphocyte fraction. The ratio of T cells in nylon wool effluent cells was 95%, while the ratio of B cells in adherent cells was 41%. Lymphocytotoxic crossmatch tests were performed by using the effluent cells as T cells and the adherent cells as B cells, at 37°C (warm) and 4°C (cold). The ratio of B cells in adherent cells was low, however, the result was utilized as a matching test before transplantation by combining with the T cell result. The trypan blue stain method made it easier than the eosin stain method to distinguish living and dead cells. The lymphocytotoxic crossmatch tests were performed on 15 pairs of healthy cats, and only one pair showed doubtful positive against anti-B cell cold antibodies. During acute rejection after renal transplantation in two pairs which were negative on any anti-lymphocyte antibodies before the transplantation, the anti-T cell warm antibodies became positive in both pairs, and the anti-T cell cold antibodies became positive on one of the two pairs.
An examination of the effects of artificial stress induced by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) on total and differential leukocyte counts, plasma cortisol levels, metabolic profiles and peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function was performed on Japanese Black steers kept in a cold environment, with the following regimes; 1) -5°C·ACTH (100 IU/day for 3 days), 2) 0°C·ACTH, 3) 15°C·ACTH and 4) 15°C·PBS. Blood samples were collected before and at 1, 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr prior to the application of the stressor. The plasma cortisol level was found to greatly increase at one hr after the first treatment of ACTH, particularly so in animals exposed to -5°C. Total leukocytes (-5°C and 0°C experiments, respectively), the monocytes (-5°C), neutrophils and eosinophils (-5°C, 0°C and 15°C, respectively) obviously increased just after the first administration, although lymphocyte counts at -5°C were inversely related to those described above. All of these tendencies were augmented by the cold environment except for eosinophils. The chemiluminescent (CL) response of PMN decreased in the ACTH-administered steers at an early stage of post-administration, however, it tended to recover from the lower-than-base value in the cold-affected steers. ACTH administration resulted in higher plasma glucose (Glu) compared to a control, although only steers housed at -5°C evidently showed lower plasma inorganic phosphorus (IP). No abnormal serum acute phase protein, or immunosuppressor, was noted. ACTH thus appears not only to promote physiological reactions but also to temporarily suppress PMN cellular immune function in Japanese Black steers. Although, a cold environment rapidly restored the CL activity to over the pre-administrational value, suggesting that a vital response was activated by crymo-stimuli.
Dog β2-microglobulin was purified from the urine of dogs with potassium dichromate induced tubular damage. It was purified by sequential use of anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Comparisons of the amino acid sequence of the dog protein with human, mouse, and rabbit β2-microglobulin, indicated a high degree of similarity. The dog protein was very similar to human β2-microglobulin in that it had a molecular weight of 11.8 kDa and contained two half-cystinyl residues. Dog and human β2-microglobulin were demonstrably different at 24 of the 99 positions compared. The data supported the conclusion that the purified protein was dog β2-microglobulin and that all four proteins from dog, human, mouse, and rabbit were closely related.
This study was performed to investigate the effects of isoprothiolane on cell growth and the production of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 by bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. Isoprothiolane increased proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner at the concentration of 0.05 to 5 μM when cultured either with or without serum-supplemented medium. In contrast, isoprothiolane (0.0005-5 μM) significantly inhibited the production of IL-1 and IL-6 by mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, the cytokines, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α tended to inhibit the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that isoprothiolane regulated mammary epithelial cell growth in vitro possibly by modulating the production of cytokines.
Effects of intravenous injection of Vitamin B2 (VB2) on the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductivity of peripheral blood neutrophils and the somatic cell counts (SCC) in quarter milk of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis were investigated. The NBT reductivities of neutrophils were enhanced at 2 days after single injection of VB2 (5.0 and 2.5 mg/kg), and were also enhanced at 4 days after initial injection of continuous 3 days of VB2 (2.5 mg/kg). The SCC in quarter milk were significantly decreased at 3, 7 and 14 days after initial injection of continuous 3 days of VB2 (2.5 mg/kg), however, S. aureus in the infected quarter was not cured bacteriologically by VB2 injection.
We determined the nucleotide sequence of a portion of BamHI-C fragment of Marek's disease virus serotype 2 (MDV2) strain HPRS24 which was suspected to contain the homologue of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene UL10, encoding glycoprotein M (gM). An open reading frame whose translation product exhibited significant similarities to HSV-1 gM protein and respective proteins of other herpesviruses of 37.5% and 45.5% to 31.8%, respectively, was identified. A number of distinct transcriptional consensus sequences were found upstream of the first putative start codon of MDV2 UL10 protein. In transcriptional analysis, the gene was transcribed into an 1.5 kb RNA. The primary translation product comprises 424 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 46.9 kDa. The predicted MDV2 UL10 protein contains eight hydrophobic domains with sufficient length and hydrophobicity to span the lipid bilayer conserved in the genomes of all herpesviruses which have been sequenced so far. In the region located between the first and second hydrophobic domains, two potential N-linked glycosylation sites were presented. Interestingly, highly charged residues were abundantly possessed in the carboxy-terminal part of the MDV2 UL10 protein. By comparison of the amino acid sequence of the MDV2 UL10 gene with the homologues from other herpesviruses, the data might contribute for further evidence of the evolution of herpesviruses from a common progenitor and an ancient example of MDV2 belonging to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. In addition, the existence of corresponding genes in human, mammalian, and avian herpesvirus genomes, suggests indirectly an important role for gM in the natural life cycle of the virus.
Five groups of 4 mice each were inoculated with 106 Cryptosporidium muris oocysts. They were necropsied on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The stomach mucosa from each group were made into 10% suspension in physiological saline and were orally inoculated to 2 mice each. Recipients given suspension from infected mice on day 6, 8 and 10 shed oocysts from 6, 9 and 6, respectively. Similarly, White Leghorn received 106 Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were killed daily between 1 and 6 days. Recipients given bursa of Fabricius or caecum of donor birds on days 4, 5 and 6 shed oocysts. The endogenous stages of murine and chicken Cryptosporidium were able to infect the appropriate host.
Immunological protection of mammalian hosts against tick infestation has been proposed as the most sustainable alternative tick control method to the current use of acaricides which has several limitations. The success of this method is dependent on the identification of key molecules for use as tick vaccine antigens. Proteolytic enzymes are involved in a wide range of cellular processes in eukaryotes such as development regulation and nutrition, thus they can be considered as good target antigens for a tick vaccine. In the present study we used primers designed based on the consensus amino acid motifs flanking the conserved active sites C25 and N175 present in all papain-like cysteine proteinases to amplify by polymerase chain reaction, sequence and characterize two Haemaphysalis longicornis tick cysteine proteinase genes. Based on the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences, both genes were identified as members of the cysteine proteinase gene family by presence in their sequences of consensus motifs flanking the conserved active sites C25, H150 and N175 that are present in all papain-like cysteine proteinases. Both genes are about 1.2 kb in size and show high sequence homology predominantly to invertebrate cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinases.
A male 14-year-old Arab horse was pathologically diagnosed as equine motor neuron disease (EMND), which was kept as a breeding horse on a farm in Tokachi district of Hokkaido in Japan. On examination of the peripheral nerves, the most characteristic feature was Wallerian-type degeneration revealed by myelinoclasis associated with myelin ovoids which were sometimes infiltrated by macrophages. The other abnormalities were axonal swellings which were surrounded by thin myelin sheaths. Ultrastructurally, the axonal swelling was due to an accumulation of neurofilaments, and was accompanied by a thin and degenerating myelin sheaths. In teased nerve fiber preparations, the most conspicuous change was myelinoclasis represented by segmentation into myelin ovoids or balls. Occasionally, segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration characterized by multifocal axonal swelling were observed.
An 8-year-old Holstein cow had tumor nodules and enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum, and metastatic tumor masses in the pelvic cavity. The neoplastic cells were characterized by squamous features and intracytoplasmic vacuoles carrying microvilli, some of which contained periodic acid Schiff-positive globular cores, but tubular structures or goblet cells were absent. Many neoplastic cells stained positively for keratin, and occasional cells were positive for thymosin. The presence of secretory granules in the cytoplasm was confirmed by electron microscopy. This neoplasm was considered to be of thymic hormone-secreting epithelial cell origin.
An embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was found in the pleura of a 2-year-old Holstein cow after first delivery. The most predominant cells in the tumor were relatively small in size, but considerable numbers of more differentiated cells of larger sizes mingled with the small cells. The most differentiated cells were characterized by multinucleation, abundant cytoplasm containing cross-striated fibrils, intense immunoreactivity for desmin, and weak or negative reactivity for vimentin. Such cells, lacking mitotic activity and displaying weak or no reactivity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were considered to be malignant counterparts of myotubes or muscle fibers. This neoplasm seems to follow normal skeletal muscle embryogenesis, and to be capable of differentiation into the final stage of muscle development.
The pharmacokinetics of sarafloxacin applied by oral gavage at a dose of 15 mg/kg b.w. was studied in eel (Anguilla anguilla) at water temperature of 24°C. Sarafloxacin levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with a quantitation limit of 0.07 μg/ml or gram. The time to peak plasma concentration, Tmax, was 12 hr and peak concentration, Cmax, was 2.64 μg/ml. The absorption rate constant (ka) was 0.23 hr-1 (r=0.996). The drug disposition curve after Tmax was fitted to a two-compartment open model. The distribution rate constant (α) was 0.085 hr-1 (r=0.972), and the half-life (tt½α) was 8.15 hr. The elimination rate constant (β) was 0.023 hr-1 (r=0.909), and the half-life (t½β) was 30.13 hr. The estimated area under the curve, AUC, was 56.7 μg.hr/ml. The peak concentrations of drug in liver, kidney, muscle, and skin were 13.39 (12 hr), 5.53 (12 hr), 1.82 (24 hr), and 0.78 μg/g (40 hr), respectively. The time for sarafloxacin mean levels to fall below detectable limits in the plasma, muscle, and skin were 7 days but for the liver and kidney were 14 days.
We investigated the effects of motor activities on transmitter release in mouse nerve-muscle preparations of the diaphragm muscle (DPH), extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL), and soleus muscle (SOL). Mice were divided into a control group, a motor-restricted (RST) group, and a motor-compelled (CMP) group. The quantal content (m) of endplate potentials was measured intracellularly. In DPH the motor activity was unaffected. In the CMP group the m value of the EDL group increased with increases in the cooperativity of Ca2+ in transmitter release. Compared with the CMP group, the SOL of the RST group had a smaller m value with increases in the cooperativity of Ca2+ in transmitter release. These results suggest that motor activities can influence neuromuscular activity specific to different systems, however, the motor compulsion specifically activated the function of EDL and the motor restriction activated the function of SOL, and these effects might lead to altered activity of the release of transmitter quanta in motor nerve terminals of mice.
The age-related changes in two types of theta rhythms recorded from the hippocampus in young (4 months-old), mature (12-13 months-old) and aged (22-25 months-old) rats were investigated. The type 1 theta rhythm was measured from hippocampal EEG recorded from walking rats and the type 2 theta was measured from the EEG induced by reticular pontin oralis nucleus (PON) stimulation in urethane anesthetized rats. The peak frequency and the peak power were detected from power spectra calculated on each theta sample by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). No age-related alteration was observed on the peak frequency of type 1 theta rhythm. However, on type 2 theta rhythm, the peak frequency was decreased in the aged rats compared with the young and the mature rats. The type 2 theta rhythm is cholinergic, and therefore this result suggests that age-related deterioration can be clearly observed in the cholinergic system including the hippocampus in rats.
In vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent development of oocytes with homogeneous (category 1), or heterogeneous ooplasm (category 2) were investigated. No significant differences were observed in the nuclear maturation and total fertilization rates between the two categories. However, category 2 oocytes showed a higher normal fertilization rate due to their lower incidence of polyspermy as compared to category 1 oocytes. Electron microscopic study revealed that all category 2 oocytes had cortical granules lined up next to the plasma membrane, and that some category 1 oocytes still had small clusters of cortical granules after maturation. Although the proportion of cleaved zygotes was higher in category 2, the percentages of cleaved zygotes that developed to the blastocyst stage did not differ between the two categories. These results demonstrate that oocytes with heterogeneous ooplasm have a higher capacity for normal fertilization due to the reduction in polyspermy. This can be attributed to the normal distribution of cortical granules in category 2 oocytes after maturation.
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) has been used as a vector of live recombinant vaccines for cattle which express the genes of other pathogens. Because of the importance of the choice of the promoter which allows the efficient expression of the foreign genes in the BHV-1 vector, we compared the relative efficacy of various promoters integrated in the BHV-1 genome. The promoter sequences of the BHV-1 thymidine kinase (tk), gB, gC, SV40 early, and pseudorabies virus (PRV) immediate early (IE) genes were placed at the upstream of the open reading frame of the chloramphenycol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene and the promoter-CAT sequences were integrated into the tk gene of BHV-1 by homologous recombination. The promoter activity was assayed by measuring the CAT activity in the extracts of Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with the recombinant BHV-1. The PRV IE promoter was activated earlier and maintained at a higher level activity than the BHV-1 gB or gC promoters throughout the most of the growth phase of BHV-1. At the late phase, however, the activities of the BHV-1 gB and gC promoters reached the higher level. The BHV-1 tk promoter activity was low and the SV40 early promoter was hardly activated when integrated into the BHV-1 genome.
Infection of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), a lentivirus, is thought to sporadically occur throughout the world, but seroepidemiological surveys concerning the incidence of BIV are limited and have not been undertaken in Korea. A total of 266 sera from different twenty dairy (Holstein) and twenty-six Korean native beef (Hanwoo) farms of the south-western part of Korea was analyzed for the presence of anti-BIV antibodies by Western blotting. Thirty five percent and 33% of dairy and beef cattle, respectively, were BIV-seropositive. By nested polymerase chain reaction, it was confirmed that these seropositive cows had provirus in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To demonstrate the correlation with BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, these sera were also analyzed for anti-BLV antibodies by immunodiffusion test, resulting in high prevalence of BLV infection but relatively a few dual infections. We report herein the first serological detection of antibodies to BIV in Korea.