To evaluate the formation of the external iliac vein in Akkaraman sheep and Angora goats, 8 adult healthy Akkaraman sheep and 8 Angora goats of both sexes, 3 to 4 years of age, were examined. The external iliac vein was formed by the deep femoral and femoral veins in 6 Akkaraman sheep and 7 Angora goats and by the medial circumflex femoral and femoral veins in 2 Akkaraman sheep and 1 Angora goat. Results from this study are thought to throw light on the future studies on the venous system, and to contribute considerably to the present anatomical knowledge concerning the external iliac vein of sheep and goats.
The distribution and ontogeny of the galanin-like immunoreactive (Gal-IR) neural structures in the pancreas of cattle, sheep and goat were investigated immunohistochemically. The present study confirmed the previous findings on the immunolocalization of galanin both in the neural elements and endocrine cells of cattle, and reported for the first time its exclusive localization in the neural elements of sheep and goat. The frequency of Gal-IR nerve fibers and nerve cell bodies was high in cattle and low in sheep and goat. Their first detection was at the first fetal trimester in cattle and third trimester in sheep and goat. In cattle, a marked increase in the frequency of Gal-IR nerve fibers was observed from the third trimester to early neonatal stage followed by a decrease after three months postnatal. In contrast to the non-preferential distribution pattern in sheep, the Gal-IR nerve fibers in cattle and goat pancreas were predominantly associated with the acini, excretory ducts and blood vessels, but rarely detected in the pancreatic islets. The Gal-IR nerve cell bodies were observed as isolated bodies in the intra-and interlobular connective tissues and as a group within the intrapancreatic ganglia. At the vicinity of the nerve cell bodies, Gal-IR nerve fibers were observed. The present findings may suggest that: (1) galanin regulates pancreatic function as neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in ruminants; (2) galanin plays a more important role in large than in small ruminants; and (3) particularly in cattle, it exerts its most dramatic effect during perinatal development.
The distribution of retinal blood vessels in the eye of buffalo was studied macroscopically and microscopically in twenty-two eyes of healthy animals. After macroscopic observation, 12 of 22 eyes were used for histological study. Ten eyes were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and two eyes with PAS stain. The present findings revealed that the eye of the buffalo was characterized by the complex network of retinal blood vessels (holangiotic or euangiotic). The central retinal artery and vein pierced the eye through the optic disc and gave off several branches. There were four pairs of primary vessels that were named dorsal, ventral, nasal and temporal retinal arteries and veins. The veins anastmosed with each other at the optic disc to form a somewhat circle. Three patterns of the distribution of blood vessels were described. The distribution of the arteries and veins was the same.
Two cage birds, a two-month-old Fisher's lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) and a one-year-old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), manifested clinical symptoms with general weakness, loss of appetite and ruffled feathers, then died. Pathological findings revealed a large quantity of yellowish-white pseudomembrane on the mucosal membrane of the esophagus and crop in these two birds. Histopathologically, blastospores (5.5 μm long × 3.4 μm wide) and pseudohyphae were detected in the lesions of conspicuous parakeratosis and moderate acanthosis in the stratified squamous epithelium. These two birds were diagnosed as having had candidiasis.
The protective effects of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (LT) and hemorrhagic toxin (HT) toxoids against challenge with spores in guinea pigs were investigated. Purified LT and partially purified HT were obtained from the culture supernatant of C. sordellii strain 3703, and then were treated with formalin to make toxoids. LT, HT and combined LT and HT (LT / HT) toxoid vaccines were prepared by mixing each toxoid with an aluminum phosphate gel as adjuvant. Guinea pigs immunized twice with the respective toxoid vaccines were challenged with spores of strains 3703 or KZ1047. The latter strain does not produce HT. LT toxoid vaccine conferred protection against challenge with strain KZ1047, but not strain 3703, in guinea pigs. All guinea pigs immunized with HT toxoid vaccine died after challenge with spores of either strain. LT/HT toxoid vaccine gave complete protection against challenge with spores of strains 3703 and KZ1047 to guinea pigs. These results suggest that not only LT toxoid, but also HT toxoid, are essential protective antigens of C. sordellii.
Eight strains of Chlamydia psittaci were isolated in Japan from the nasal and conjunctival swabs of six household cats using the L929 cell line of mouse fibroblast origin. The isolates were identified as C. psittaci on the basis of the formation of characteristic inclusion bodies in the cell culture detected by Giemsa stain and immunofluorescence. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of the ompA gene amplified from the three isolates with the published sequence of feline FEPN strain of C. psittaci showed almost 100% homology.
Ten thousand or more cranes migrate from Siberia and stay at the Izumi Plains, in the northern part of Kagoshima prefecture, Japan, every winter season. Four hundred and twenty samples of cranes feces were obtained 1995 to 1997 and investigated for Salmonella. As a result, twenty-nine of Salmonella strains were isolated. All isolates were determined to be identical, Salmonella Typhimurium (O4:i:1,2), since all of them indicated the same patterns of plasmid profiling and antibiotic sensitive spectrums. The isolates showed a high pathogenicity to chicken, and most of them were isolated in the latter half of the winter season; therefore the cranes were infected with the isolates during the winter season.
A non-arthropathic dose and disposition of ofloxacin, a potent new quinolone antimicrobial agent, were assessed in male juvenile (3-month-old) dogs, when administered orally at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day once daily for 8 consecutive days. Ofloxacin concentrations in sera and articular cartilages were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Macroscopically, arthropathy characterized by fluid-filled vesicles in articular surface of the humerus and femur was observed in animals receiving 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of ofloxacin, but not in those given 5 mg/kg/day. At 20 mg/kg/day, arthropathy of comparable severity also occurred on day 2. Microscopically, the cavity formation in the middle zone of the articular cartilage was first identified and then necrotic chondrocytes were found numerous around the cavity, followed by appearance of chondrocyte clusters. In pharmacokinetics, peak serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentrations (AUC0-24) were increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, no remarkable differences in these two parameters were noted between a single and repeated treatments, suggesting no accumulation of the drug. The articular ofloxacin concentration 2 hr after treatment was approximately 1.8 (day 2) to 2.0 times (day 8) higher than the serum concentration. Based on these results, a non-arthropathic dose of ofloxacin in male juvenile dogs following an 8-day treatment is considered to be 5 mg/kg/day, and its Cmax, AUC0-24 and articular cartilage concentrations 2 hr after treatment were 3.4 μg/ml, 35.1 μg·hr/m l and 7.0 μg/g, respectively, under these experimental conditions. Thus, arthropathy due to ofloxacin may be predicted by monitoring serum drug concentration.
The cellular immune responses against major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) of Theileria sergenti were characterized. Three cattle were immunized with recombinant MPSP (C type) encapsulated by mannan-coated liposome. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) against MPSP were detected in all immunized animals. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that T cell lines derived from each animal expressed relatively high levels of interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA, low levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNAs, but no detectable level of IL-4 mRNA. From the results of T cell epitope-mapping, T-cell lines from two animals responded to DTSKFTPTVAHRLKHAEDLF (residues 61 to 80), while other animal responded to GTGKVYDFVGNFKVTKVKFE (residues 141 to 160). The MPSP-type specific response of a T-cell line was observed in the latter region of MPSP. These data suggest that immunization with cocktail vaccine consisting of different types of MPSP may be necessary in the field trial.
The coexistence of interleukin (IL)-1β with IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) in bovine colostrum and the possibility of simultaneous transfer of these cytokines to neonates via colostrum have been demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IL-1ra on the mitogenic response of calf peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by concanavalin A (ConA), which was mediated by IL-1. Pretreatment of PBMC with recombinant bovine (rb) IL-1ra alone significantly suppressed the proliferation of ConA-stimulated cells. However, in the presence of rbIL-1β, the suppressive activity of rbIL-1ra was counteracted. These results suggest that coexistence of IL-1ra with IL-1 in colostrum may have no effect on the activation of the neonatal immune system by IL-1 β.
A five-year-old West Highland white terrier dog was admitted to the teaching hospital of Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University due to swelling and pain of the foot pads. Examinations revealed that the dog had renal failure and calcinosis circumscripta on its foot pads. The diagnosis was metastatic calcinosis circumscripta secondary to renal failure. An oral charcoal adsorbent (Kremezin®) was used to treat this condition. Following this treatment, a significant decrease in the Ca × P value (the serum calcium level × the serum phosphorus level) was observed, and the dog's condition improved dramatically. This case suggests that charcoal adsorbent (Kremezin®) may be useful for treating metastatic calcinosis circumscripta in dogs.
The isolate from the rabbit with dermatophytosis which was transmitted to the owners was proved to be Arthroderma benhamiae (-) by mating experiments as well as by chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene analysis.
The mechanism of agglutination phenomenon of Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae was analyzed. Circulating microfilariae were collected from a D. immitis-infected microfilaremic dog and cultured in the several kinds of sera from dogs and animals. The agglutination of D. immitis microfilariae is a specific phenomenon due to some immune complexes formed with the anti-microfilarial antibody, heat-instable factor(s) and excretory-secretory products of microfilariae. Only live microfilariae were agglutinated and the agglutinated microfilariae remained alive as long as 27 days in culture in vitro.
To determine the immunological response in lactating dairy cows infected with Salmonella (S.) Takoradi, the relationships among distributions of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subpopulations, endotoxin concentrations and dynamics of inflammatory cytokines in blood were investigated. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells was significantly lower in the affected cattle than in the control cattle (p<0.05) to decrease in the number of CD4+ T cells in the infected cattle. In contrast, the numbers of γδ-T cells, MHC class II-positive cells were significantly higher in the affected cattle than in the control cattle (p<0.01 respectively). Endotoxemia was found in all but one of the affected cattle. Serum IL-1 and IL-6 bioactivities were significantly higher in the affected cattle than in the control cattle (IL-1, p<0.05; IL-6, p<0.01). Serum TNF-α activities and levels were not detected in the control and affected cattle. The activities of proinflammatory cytokines determined by the bioassay are important to the relationships between concentration of endotoxin, cytokines and clinical signs, such as leukocytosis, leukopenia, fever or bacterial shedding. Serum IL-2 levels were lower in the affected cattle than in the control cattle. Serum IFN-γ was not detected in the affected cattle except one. These results by the ELISA seemed to reflect the condition of subpopulation in the PBMCs from the shedding cattle. The present results suggest that cellular immunity is suppressed while the humoral immunity is activated in acute bovine salmonellosis.
Histopathological examination of the heart, particularly the right atrium including the sinoatrial (SA) node, was carried out in 9 Holstein dairy cows with idiopathic atrial fibrillation (AF; AF group) and 12 healthy cows of the same breed (control group) in order to establish the correlation between idiopathic AF and histopathological changes in the heart in dairy cows. None of the 9 cows had clinical evidence of other diseases, and they consisted of 5 cases of short-term AF which lasted a few days or weeks, and 4 cases of long-term AF which lasted more than 1 month. The pathological changes found in the present series included multifocal or fairly large areas of myocardial fibrosis in the right atrium (in all the 9 cows of the AF group and 2 of the 12 controls-however, the changes were qualitatively and quantitatively much more severe in the former group); SA nodal architecture changes (in 3 of the 4 cows with long-term AF); and atrial dilatation (in 3 of the 4 cows with long-term AF). The results suggest that the fibrotic lesions of the right atrial myocardium may represent the anatomical changes that underlie idiopathic AF in dairy cows.
The expression of cyclins A, D1, D2 and E were examined immunohistochemically in 5 canine normal testes and 31 testicular tumors, including 14 seminomas, 11 Sertoli cell tumors and 6 Leydig cell tumors. In canine normal testes, cyclin A expression was detected in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes. This suggests that A-type cyclins may play some role in canine spermatogenesis. Cyclin A expression was also observed in 13/14 (92.9%) seminomas and 2/11 (18.2%) Sertoli cell tumors, but no positive reaction was observed in Leydig cell tumors. Parallel examinations for cyclins D1, D2 and E gave negative results in canine normal testes and testicular tumors. High levels of cyclin A expression in canine seminomas indicate that the neoplastic germ cells may be arrested at the spermatogonia and primary spermatocyte stages of differentiation.
The plasma and urine kinetics of flunixin-meglumin (FNX, 2 mg/kg, i.v.) in rabbits were examined. Unusual pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained, including high binding percentage with plasma protein (> 99%), a short elimination half-life (< 4 hr) and a relatively large Vd-area (0.5 L/kg). These profiles indicate that some active transport mechanisms are involved in FNX disposition. The recovery of FNX from urine was approximately 9 % of the dose within 24 hr following the injection. The estimated renal clearance of the unbound drug nearly corresponded to the renal blood flow rates, indicating that active tubular secretion in the renal re-absorptive tract may be involved in the disposition. The effect of a concomitant administration of pravastatin (PV) on FNX disposition was also examined. PV is a representative substrate of a transporter in human liver cells (OATP-2). After the PV administrations, the Vd-area of FNX and total body clearance markedly decreased, indicating that FNX is actively taken up and metabolized in liver cells by an OATP-2 like transporter. In conclusion, there are at least 2 active transport pathways for FNX pharmacokinetics in rabbits, one is renal tubular secretion and the other is in the sinusoidal section of the liver.
Changes in ascorbate content in primary cultured rat hepatocytes exposed to oxidative stress derived from water soluble radical initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) were examined. Cells were exposed to 0.05 and 5 mg/ml of AAPH as `mild' and `severe' oxidative stresses, respectively. Lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes was induced by `severe' oxidative stress, but not by `mild' oxidative stress. Ascorbate decreased at 6 hr after administration of both `mild' and `severe' oxidative stresses, and recovered to the control level after a further 6 hr. In cells treated with `severe' oxidative stress, however, total ascorbate (reduced form plus oxidized form) had increased 24 hr after administration. These results indicated that consumption alone did not account for the increase of ascorbate in hepatocytes under oxidative stress.
The effectiveness of 6 antitumor agents has been evaluated for canine mammary gland tumor (CMG-6) serially transplanted into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CMG-6 diagnosed as a solid carcinoma was subcutaneously transplanted into SCID mice and six antitumor agents were intravenously given to the mice as a single injection. The effectiveness was evaluated by Treatment group/Control group percent (T/C %) and statistical significance determined by Mann-Whitney's U-test in tumor volume. The minimum effective doses (MEDs; mg/kg) of mice were as follows; cyclophosphamide (CPM) 65, doxorubicin (DXR) 6, cisplatin (CDDP) 5, vincristine (VCR) 1.6, vinblastine (VLB) more than 5.5, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 105. Clinical effects of the drugs were predicted based on area under the curve (AUC) of dogs given a clinical dose (AUCdog)/AUC of mice given a MED (AUCmouse) ratios from published references. The AUC ratios were as follows; CPM 2.24, DXR 0.19, CDDP 1.20, VCR 0.04, VLB <1.24 and 5-FU 1.15. Drugs indicating more than 1.0 in AUCdog/AUCmouse ratio were CPM, CDDP and 5-FU, and would be suggested as effective in the original patient with CMG-6. The combination chemotherapy using clinically equivalent doses in CDDP and CPM, which were the two highest values in AUCdog/AUCmouse ratio by single agent therapy, was performed and shown to have additional effects as compared to the responsiveness of each agent against CMG-6.
Adult dogs have a complex apical delta structure in all root apexes of teeth. This complex structure may affect the formation of apical lesions in the teeth such as apical abscesses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of enamel matrix protein (EMP) which was used for periodontal regeneration therapy after an experimental apicoectomy for an assumed apical lesions of the teeth in dogs. The maxillar canine roots and maxillar fourth premolar buccal mesial roots in five beagles were experimentally apicoectomized under general inhalation anesthesia. After the root apex was exposed and excised, EMP was applied on the surface of the exposed dentin. After 12 weeks, dogs were euthanized, and the experimental teeth together with the surrounding soft and hard periodontal tissues were collected for histological evaluation under a light microscope. In the EMP group, the size of the defect where the root apex was removed was smaller than that of the control group. New cementum was dominantly achieved in the EMP group compared to the control group. Furthermore, new collagen fibers that bridged area between the new cementum and new alveolar bone were detected only in the EMP group. The present results demonstrated marked apical periodontal regeneration after apicoectomy in the EMP group. These results, therefore, suggest that the application of EMP can effectively induce the regeneration of periodontal structures in apicoectomized dogs.
To investigate the development of fresh and frozen swamp buffalo embryos after transfer to synchronized recipients, 14 fresh embryos and 28 frozen embryos, collected from Thai swamp buffalo cows of an elite herd at the Surin Breeding Center, were transferred nonsurgically to 31 synchronized recipients buffalo cows. One fresh embryo was transferred to each of 14 recipients. Twenty eight frozen embryos were transferred to 17 recipients of which 7 cows received 1 embryo, 9 cows received 2 embryos and 1 cow received 3 embryos. Pregnancy was diagnosed by real time B-mode ultrasonography one month after transfer and confirmed by rectal palpation one and two months later. The pregnant cows were kept under observation until calving. The results of fresh embryo transfer showed that 5/14 (35.7%) were pregnant after 30 days, 4/14 (28.6%) remained pregnant until the 3rd month and 2/14 (14.3%) calved. With the frozen embryos, only one cow which received three embryos became pregnant and remained so for 3 months although the embryo did not survive to full term. The overall pregnancy rate using frozen embryos was 5.9% (1/17). The study demonstrated the possibility of performing embryo transfer in elite buffalo herds for genetic improvement, however the use of frozen embryos needed further investigation.
The effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) supplement was investigated in twenty eight FSH-treated buffalo cows. Animals were assigned to three groups; Group I: GnRH was given at standing heat (n=9), Group II: GnRH was given 8-12 hr after standing heat (n=8) and Group III: Control group with FSH alone (n=11). The responses (no. of corpora lutea and no. of anovulatory follicles), the number of recovered embryos and transferable embryos among the three groups were compared following slaughter of the animals on days 6 to 7 after first mating. The results indicated that the application of GnRH in FSH-treated animals gave no advantage by increasing in the number of ovulations or recovered embryos in all the treatment groups (P>0.05); 4.33 ± 3.35 vs 3.88 ± 4.09 vs 4.5 ± 2.68 for corpora lutea, and 2.33 ± 2.24 vs 2.0 ± 3.20 vs 1.91 ± 2.74 for recovered embryos respectively. GnRH treatment tended to reduce the number of anovulatory follicles but the finding was not significant; 6.11 ± 3.3 vs 7.38 ± 4.84 vs 10.18 ± 2.74 follilcles (P>0.05). The supplementation of GnRH at 8-12 hr after standing heat seemed to produce more transferable embryos than those of treated at standing heat or the controls 1.63 ± 2.77 vs 1.25 ± 1.67 vs 1.36 ± 1.69 embryos respectively.
Anti-Borna disease virus (BDV) antibodies were detected from cats in Japan, Philippines and Indonesia by using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Positive rates were 3.1%, 3.8% and 2.0% in Japan, Philippines and Indonesia, respectively. There was no differences in the positive rate of anti-BDV antibodies between male and female cats and among habitats. While, a significantly (P<0.05) higher prevalence (6.5%) was found in the oldest age group (more than 6 years) cats.