Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus within the family Flaviviridae, causes fatal encephalitis with severe sequelae in humans. TBEV is prevalent over a wide area of the Eurasian continent including Europe, Russia, Far-Eastern Asia, and Japan. While it was previously thought that TBEV was not endemic in Japan, the first confirmed case of serologically diagnosed TBE was reported in 1993 in the southern area of Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. In addition, TBEV has been isolated from dogs, wild rodents and ticks in the area. Our epizootiological survey indicated that endemic foci of TBEV were maintained in Hokkaido and other areas of Honshu. TBEV can be divided into three subtypes based on phylogenetic analyses. The Japanese isolates were classified as the Far Eastern subtype, which causes severe neural disorders with a higher mortality rate up to 30%. However, how viral replication and pathogenicity contribute to the neurological manifestations remains unclear. Recent studies have revealed distinctive mechanisms of TBEV pathogenicity and viral genetic factors associated with virulence. This review discusses the recent findings regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of TBEV.
Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is useful for three-dimensional observation of tissues or cells at high-resolution. In this study, SBF-SEM was used to three-dimensionally analyze the characteristics of fibroblast-like cells (FBLCs) in the rat ileal lamina propria (LP). The results revealed that FBLCs in LP could be divided into four types, tentatively named FBLC type I-IV, based on the external cellular appearance, abundance or shape of each organelle, detailed distribution in the LP and relationship with surrounding cells. FBLC-I and -II localized around the intestinal crypt (InC), FBLC-III localized from the lateral portion of InC to the apical portion of the intestinal villus (InV), and FBLC-IV localized in the InV. FBLC-I, -II and -III, but not FBLC-IV, localized beneath the epithelium. FBLC-II possessed thin lamellar-shaped endoplasmic reticula, whereas FBLC-I possessed expanded endoplasmic reticula that occasionally showed a spherical shape. FBLC-III and -IV possessed a cytoplasmic region with high-electron density and no organelles immediately beneath the cellular membrane; this region was found at the epithelial sides in FBLC-III and scattered in FBLC-IV. FBLC-IV were in constant close proximity to villous myocytes throughout the InV and also in contact with FBLC-III especially in the apical portion of the InV. FBLC-I, -II and -IV, but not -III, were constantly found to be in contact with various immunocompetent cells in the LP. Three-dimensional analysis using SBF-SEM indicates that four types of FBLC localized in the rat ileal LP.
The inhibitory activities of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Salmonella Infantis (SI) and Escherichia coli (EC) were evaluated. Original GSE contained 0.24% benzalkonium chloride (BZC), however, 0.0025% BZC solution could not inactivate bacteria. The activity of diluted GSE (×100, ×500 and ×1,000 with redistilled water) against selected viruses and bacteria was evaluated in this study. The GSE solutions were incubated with the pathogens over a period of time after which the remaining viruses were titrated and the bacterial colonies were counted. In the presence of organic material—5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), the test solutions were sprayed at 1 cm and 30 cm distances to test the efficacy of GSE in a spray form. Furthermore, the efficacy of GSE against bacteria on clothes was tested using non-woven cloth. GSE×100 reduced the viral titer of both AIV and NDV even in 5% FBS condition. IBDV showed high resistance to GSE. GSE×1,000 inactivated both SI and EC within 5 sec, even in the presence of 5% FBS. The disinfectant was able to maintain its efficacy in the spray form at 30 cm distance. GSE was also effective against SI and EC inoculated on fabric. GSE is a potential novel disinfectant against viruses and bacteria, effective even within a short contact time.
In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing qualities of phillyrin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of phillyrin with regard to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 0.5 mg/ml. The production of virulence factors—such as rhamnolipid (>78.69%), pyocyanin (>85.94%), and elastase (>89.95%)—that affect the pathogenicity of the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 apparently declined in the presence of 0.25 mg/ml phillyrin. Biofilm formation decreased by 84.48%. In a Caenorhabditis elegans–Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model, diseased worms lived longer (63.33%) in a phillyrin-containing medium than in a drug-free medium, and the drug did not directly kill the pathogen. Therefore, the present work suggests that phillyrin has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the control of infectious pathogens.
Six atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 15 strains were isolated from pneumonic lesions of naturally infected dead pigs from the same farm in Japan. Genetic analyses of apx genes revealed that the atypical isolates contained the toxin-associated genes apxIBD, apxIIICA, apxIIIBD, and apxIVA, but not apxIICA. Coinciding with the result of the atypical gene profile, analyses of toxin protein production revealed that these atypical isolates expressed only ApxIII but not ApxII. A mouse pathogenicity test showed that the atypical isolate tested seemed to be less virulent than the typical isolates. This is the first report describing the emergence of atypical A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 15, which does not produce ApxII due to the absence of apxIICA genes, in Japan.
We previously showed that the promoter region of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGFR) gene elicits high transduction efficiency, with transgene expression restricted to canine breast tumor cells. However, it was unclear whether this promoter induces tumor cell-specific transgene expression in canine urothelial carcinoma cells. Furthermore, compared with studies in human cancer cells, the utility of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene promoter for therapeutic transgene expression in canine cancer cells has not been evaluated thus far. Here, we compared the activity of these promoters in canine mammary tumor and urothelial carcinoma cells. Our results showed that compared with the TERT promoter, the hEGFR promoter was more useful as a tumor-specific promoter to induce efficient transgene expression in canine tumor cells.
Megaesophagus (ME) is a common esophageal disease in dogs and the prognosis is generally poor, especially with aspiration pneumonia (AP). We retrospectively investigated the clinical features and prognosis of canine ME in Japan. Twenty-eight dogs were included in this study, with the Miniature Dachshund breed being significantly overrepresented (odds ratio: 4.33). Most cases (21 of 28) were diagnosed as idiopathic ME and Myasthenia gravis was the most common cause of secondary ME. The overall median survival time (MST) was not reached and the 3-month survival rate was 85.7%. Ten dogs were diagnosed with AP, at least once during the study period, and the MST of ME dogs with AP was 114 days. The survival time overall and even with AP, was notably more prolonged compared to the previous studies. We hypothesized that treatment for canine ME could prolong the survival time, even in those with both ME and AP.
The mutations of TP53 gene are frequently observed in canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS). The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of tumor cells with TP53 gene mutations. Tumor tissues were divided into three or four regions and TP53 gene mutations were examined. TP53 gene mutations were detected only in parts of the HS tissues from six of the eight dogs, and the frequency of the mutant allele varied (0–65%) among the tumor regions. This study suggests that canine HS can exhibit intratumor heterogeneity. Further studies are needed to examine the clinical significance of the intratumor heterogeneity of TP53 gene mutations.
Ticks transmit a wide range of viral, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens, which are often zoonotic. Several novel tick-borne viral pathogens have been reported during the past few years. The aim of this study was to investigate a diversity of tick viral populations, which may contain as-yet unidentified viruses, using a combination of high throughput pyrosequencing and Batch Learning Self-Organizing Map (BLSOM) program, which enables phylogenetic estimation based on the similarity of oligonucleotide frequencies. DNA/cDNA prepared from virus-enriched fractions obtained from Ixodes persulcatus ticks was pyrosequenced. After de novo assembly, contigs were cataloged by the BLSOM program. In total 41 different viral families and order including those previously associated with human and animal diseases such as Bunyavirales, Flaviviridae, and Reoviridae, were detected. Therefore, our strategy is applicable for viral population analysis of other arthropods of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitos and lice. The results lead to the contribution to the prediction of emerging tick-borne viral diseases. A sufficient understanding of tick viral populations will also empower to analyze and understand tick biology including vector competency and interactions with other pathogens.
Two Large Yorkshire piglets were diagnosed as persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV). In case 1, the white cord-like structure extending from optic disc to lens was observed in the normal-sized right eye. Case 2 showed buphthalmos of the right eye. The internal structure of the right eye was unclear due to bleeding, but a white cord-like structure was slightly observed. In both cases, histological examinations revealed the fibrovascular cord-like structure in hyaloid vitreous. The retina was detached, and dysplastic nervous tissue was observed in anterior vitreous. Immunohistochemistry using various neural markers suggested that dysplastic nervous tissue was derived from the detached neural retina. By the characteristic macroscopic and histopathological features, both cases were diagnosed as PHPV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of swine PHPV.
A solitary firm nodule was found in the lung of a sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis). Histologically, it was a biphasic lesion composed of epithelial and stromal cell elements and exhibited a leaf-like growth pattern. The epithelial cells were immunohistochemically positive for pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, napsin A, and thyroid transcription factor-1, and the stromal cells were positive for vimentin and partially positive for desmin and α-smooth muscle actin. These observations were consistent with pulmonary adenofibroma, which is an extremely rare lesion in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary adenofibroma in an animal.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the intra-articular (IA) injection of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) to the management of chronic pain in dogs. In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study sixteen dogs with osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia were distributed into two groups: 25 IU BoNT/A (BoNT) or saline solution (Control) was administered IA in each affected joint. All dogs received oral supplements (90 days) and carprofen (15 days). The dogs were assessed by a veterinarian on five occasions and the owner completed an assessment form at the same time (baseline to 90 days). The data were analyzed using unpaired-t test, Fisher’s exact test, analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test (P<0.05). There were no differences between groups in the veterinarian and owner assessments. Lower scores were observed in both groups during 90 days after IA therapy in the owner assessments (P<0.001). Compared with baseline, the Vet score was lower from 15–90 days after IA injection in the BoNT group, and at 15 and 30 days in the Control group (P<0.001). Both treatments were safe and reduced the clinical signs associated with hip osteoarthritis. However, IA BoNT/A (25 IU) did not provide better pain relief than the control treatment.
Equine Glandular Gastric Disease (EGGD) is a common disease in sport horses. This disease might be associated with usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for treating inflammatory diseases. Although gastroscopy has been an effective method for diagnosis, but a less invasive, and inexpensive method is preferred. This study used proteomic technology to identify candidate serum proteins that might be used as markers of NSAIDs induced EGGD. Five Thoroughbred horses were given high doses of NSAID, phenylbutazone to treat lameness. The experiment was divided into three periods: (i) Pre-EGGD period, (ii) during EGGD period, and (iii) Post-EGGD period. Gastroscopy were used to diagnose EGGD, serum was collected to perform gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in order to identify serum proteins in each group. The candidate serum proteins were computationally predicted for the interaction between phenylbutazone and proteins, tissue specific expression, and association to gastric ulceration. After EGGD induction, all horses showed clinical signs of colic with marked congestion and erosion appearing in the mucosa of the glandular stomach whereas no change was observed in the mucosa of non-glandular stomach. Our proteomic results identified 14 proteins that might be used as EGGD markers. These proteins were highly expressed in the glandular stomach and some proteins were associated with phenylbutazone or ulcer development. However, confirmation of these candidate marker proteins is required with specific antibodies in the larger horse population before they can be considered for application in the field.
This study evaluated the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium in dogs. Six healthy beagle dogs were anesthetized four times with a minimum 14-day washout period. On each occasion, the dogs were administered 1.25-, 1.5-, 1.75-, or 2.0-fold of the individualized minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane and received an infusion of rocuronium (0.5 mg/kg followed by 0.2 mg/kg/hr) for 120 min. Neuromuscular function was monitored with acceleromyography and train-of-four (TOF) stimulation of the left hind limb. Time to achieve TOF count 0 (onset time), time from the onset of neuromuscular blockade to the reappearance of TOF count 4 (blockade period), and time from the onset of rocuronium infusion to attaining a 70 or 90% TOF ratio (TOFR70 or TOFR90) were recorded. There were no significant differences in the onset time, blockade period, and plasma rocuronium concentration between the sevoflurane MAC multiples. The TOFR70 and TOFR90 were dose-dependently prolonged with the sevoflurane MAC multiples. There were significant differences in the TOFR70 and TOFR90 between the 1.25 sevoflurane MAC (median: 55 and 77.5 min, respectively) and 1.75 sevoflurane MAC (122.0 and 122.6 min; P=0.020 and P=0.020, respectively), 1.25 sevoflurane MAC and 2.0 sevoflurane MAC (126.0 and 131.4 min; P=0.020 and P=0.020), and 1.5 sevoflurane MAC (97.5 and 121.3 min) and 2.0 sevoflurane MAC (P=0.033 and P=0.032). In dogs, sevoflurane anesthesia produced dose-dependent prolongation of recovery from neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium.
The relation between complete or partial ligation of extrahepatic portosystemic shunting and intraoperative mesenteric portovenography (IMP) was evaluated in 72 canines. Of the 72 dogs, 55 had complete ligation and 17 underwent partial ligation of abnormal vessels. IMP allowed evaluation of the number of intrahepatic portal branches and ratio of the diameter of cranial (CrPV) and caudal main portal vein (CaPV) at the shunt location. Nearly all cases in the complete ligation group and nearly half of the cases in the partial ligation group had three or more portal vein branches. CrPV/CaPV was 0.75 ± 0.24 in the complete ligation group and 0.29 ± 0.15 in the partial ligation group. CrPV/CaPV can be an effective new method for assessing IMP.
A 4-year-old male Toy Poodle was presented with a history of status epilepticus. On presentation, neurological examination revealed a delay in postural reactions in the right pelvic limb. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a fluid-containing cystic lesion that compressed the mesencephalon, hippocampus, and amygdala. The cyst was surgically removed via left rostrotentorial craniotomy. The final diagnosis was an intracranial ectopic choroid plexus cyst. The patient has remained free of seizures for 18 months after surgery. This is the first case report of an intracranial ectopic choroid plexus cyst that was surgically removed in a dog.
This study was undertaken to establish a method for measuring mRNA expression by using real-time RT-PCR in the diagnosis of canine meningiomas. When performing real-time RT-PCR, it is essential to include appropriate control tissues and to select appropriate housekeeping genes as an internal standard. Based on the results of our study, RPS18 constitutes a suitable internal standard for the comparison of mRNA expression between normal meninges and meningiomas. The results showed increased mRNA expression of VEGFA and EGFR; however, mRNA expression of KDR was reduced. Measuring mRNA expression by using real-time RT-PCR with appropriate control tissues and internal standards can provide useful information to understanding the pathogenesis of canine meningiomas, which corresponds with immunohistochemical findings.
Limb-sparing surgery is one of the surgical options for dogs with distal radial osteosarcoma (OSA). This case report highlights the novel application of a three-dimensional (3D)-printed patient-specific polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/β-TCP) scaffold in limb-sparing surgery in a dog with distal radial OSA. The outcomes evaluated included postoperative gait analysis, complications, local recurrence of tumor, metastasis, and survival time. Post-operative gait evaluation showed significant improvement in limb function, including increased weight distribution and decreased asymmetry. The implant remained well in place and increased bone opacity was observed between the host bone and the scaffold. There was no complication due to scaffold or surgery. Significant improvement in limb function and quality of life was noted postoperatively. Local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis were identified at 8 weeks postoperatively. The survival time from diagnosis of OSA to death was 190 days. The PCL/β-TCP scaffold may be an effective alternative to cortical allograft in limb-sparing surgery for bone tumors.
We investigated the effects of genetic background on the responses to superovulation in Japanese Black cattle. The genotype frequencies of GRIA1 and FSHR relating to ovulation and follicular development in each of the major bloodlines—Tajiri, Fujiyoshi, and Kedaka—were analyzed. The Tajiri line had the lowest frequency of G allele homozygosity of c.710A>G in GRIA1 among the three bloodlines, and deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was detected. Genotype frequencies of c.337C>G, c.871A>G, and c.1973C>G in FSHR were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in all bloodlines. The results of generalized linear mixed-model analyses showed that farm, levels of plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration, age in months, repeated superovulation, c.337C>G in FSHR, and bloodlines had significant effects on the responses to superovulation. The number of transferable embryos in the group heterozygous for c.337C>G in FSHR was significantly higher than that in the group homozygous for the C allele. The Kedaka line showed a significantly higher number of ova/embryos, fertilized embryos, and transferable embryos than the Tajiri and Fujiyoshi lines. The concentration of circulating AMH is a useful endocrine marker for antral follicle counts. This study revealed the effects of genetic background on the responses to superovulation using levels of plasma AMH concentration as a covariate. The prominent effect of genetic background on superovulation in the Kedaka line requires additional studies to confirm the genomic regions and polymorphisms that are involved in the trait.
Postpartum uterine disease due to poor uterine involution continues to be a significant factor that contributes to poor reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle. Therapy that increases the frequency, duration and strength of uterine contractions in the postpartum period might enhance uterine involution, resulting in improved reproductive performance. The objective of this clinical trial was to study the effect of two uterine ecbolic therapies, oxytocin and prostaglandinF2α on uterine involution, postpartum endometritis, and reproductive performance. A randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted in 118 dairy cows from two research herds that had normal parturition and expulsion of the fetal membranes. Within 24 hr after calving, cows were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular injections twice a day of 50 IU of oxytocin, or 25 mg of dinoprost (PGF2α) or saline (control) for 7 days. Cows were monitored from day 3 to day 63 ± 3 days postpartum by transrectal palpation of the uterus, vaginoscopy, Metricheck® examination and by endometrial cytology. Blood samples were collected for measurement of progesterone in weeks 3 (21 ± 3 days), 5 (35 ± 3 days), 7 (49 ± 3 days), and 9 (63 ± 3 days) postpartum. Herd breeding records were obtained to determine reproductive performance in all cows. Neither oxytocin nor prostaglandin F2α therapy during the first week postpartum had any significant effect on the rate of uterine involution, prevalence of endometritis or reproductive performance, compared to untreated controls. Ecbolic drugs, as used here, are not recommended for use in clinical practice to improve involution or reproductive tract health in normal cows.
This study investigated whether treatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor U0126 during in vitro maturation (IVM), which has previously been reported to improve oocyte developmental competence, is practical for use in calf production using ovum pick up (OPU)-derived oocytes. Two Japanese Black cows were repeatedly and simultaneously treated to stimulate follicular growth and were prepared for OPU. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from one cow using a collection medium containing 5 µM U0126 and were cultured in medium supplemented with the same concentration of U0126 for the first 2 hr of IVM; COCs from the other cow were used as controls without U0126 treatment. The cows were exchanged between the two groups at every sequential OPU (n=8). The number of oocytes developing to blastocysts in the U0126-treated group (39.1%, 34/87) was significantly higher than that in the control group (22.1%, 19/86). Eight blastocysts produced with U0126 treatment were transferred to recipients, and four normal calves were obtained. The results indicate that embryos develop efficiently from OPU-derived oocytes treated with U0126, and that these embryos may be of practical use in calf production.
RNA interference (RNAi) can inhibit Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in a gene-specific manner. In this study, we constructed a transgene expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets the noncoding region of the IAV RNA gene encoding nucleoprotein (NP). To investigate the antiviral effects of the shRNA, we generated two transgenic mouse lines with this transgene. Unfortunately, there was no apparent difference in IAV resistance between transgenic and non-transgenic littermates. To further investigate the antiviral effects of the shRNA, we prepared mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from transgenic and non-transgenic mice. In experimental infections using these MEFs, virus production of mouse-adapted IAV strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) in the transgenic MEFs was suppressed by means of the down-regulation of the viral RNA gene transcription in the early stages of infection in comparison with non-transgenic MEFs. These results indicated that expression of the shRNA was able to confer antiviral properties against IAVs to MEFs, although the effects were limited. Our findings suggest that the shRNA targeting the noncoding region of the viral RNA (vRNA) of NP might be a supporting tool in developing influenza-resistant poultry.
We detected parapoxviruses from environmental samples and calves with and without intraoral clinical signs and conducted molecular and serological analyses. Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) was detected from a calf showing anorexia, frothy salivation, and erosion in the mucosa of the lip and tongue. At the time that PCPV was detected, bovine papular stomatitis viruses (BPSVs) were detected in environmental samples as well as in calves without intraoral clinical signs. BPSV, but not PCPV, was detected in the same calf after 22 days. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genetically different PCPV strains exist in Japan. This is the first report on the detection of PCPV and BPSV sequentially in the same calf and coexistence of PCPV and BPSV in the same farm in Japan.
A new reassortant H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a duck meat product that was illegally taken on board a passenger flight from China to Japan in March 2018. Sequencing analysis revealed that the H7N3 isolate, A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE30-1/2018 (Dk/HE30-1) (H7N3), was a reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) that contained the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of Chinese H7N9 HPAIV. Dk/HE30-1 (H7N3) possessed a novel polybasic sequence motif PEVPKRRRTAR/GLF at the HA cleavage site that has never previously been reported in H7 HPAIVs. The HA antigenicity of Dk/HE30-1 (H7N3) slightly differed from that of H7N9 HPAIVs previously reported. These findings will help further our knowledge of the circulation and genetic evolution of emerging AIVs in endemic areas.
We compared the temporomandibular joint structure between species of the order Carnivora and investigated its variation among family lineages. We also investigated the effect of the masticatory muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) on temporomandibular joint structure. The masticatory muscle is composed of multiple muscles, which contract in different directions and exert pressure on the temporomandibular joint. We investigated the effect of the ratio of each muscle’s PCSA—an indicator of muscle force—and muscle size relative to body size on temporomandibular joint structure. The temporalis PCSA relative to body size showed the highest correlation with temporomandibular joint structure. When the temporalis PCSA is large relative to body size, the preglenoid projects caudally, the postglenoid projects rostrally and the pre-postglenoid angle interval is small, indicating that the condyle is locked in the fossa to reinforce the temporomandibular joint. Most Carnivora use blade-like carnassial teeth when slicing food. However, dislocation occurs when the carnassial teeth are used by the temporalis muscle. Our results suggest that the temporomandibular joint is reinforced to prevent dislocation caused by the temporalis muscle. In Mustelidae, the temporomandibular joint with a rostrally projecting postglenoid is suitable for carnassial biting using the temporalis muscle. In Felidae, the force of the masseter onto the carnassial teeth is diverted to the canine by tightening the temporomandibular joint. In Canidae, the masticatory muscle arrangement is well-balanced, enabling combined action. Hence, reinforcement of the temporomandibular joint by bone structure is unnecessary.
A bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) housed in the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium (PNPA) presented with symptomatic pneumonia caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. The dolphin was treated with micafungin. On days 2 and 11 after the first administration of micafungin, results from a physical examination and laboratory test indicated a decline of body temperature (BT) and leukopenia, with lowest BT, white blood cells (WBCs), and segmented neutrophils (SEGs) of 34.2°C, 600 cells/µl, and 67 cells/µl, respectively. BT, WBCs, and SEGs returned to normal range after administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of micafungin-induced decline of BT and leukopenia that was successfully treated with G-CSF in a bottlenose dolphin.
The nutria (Myocastor coypus) was introduced to South Korea in 1987 for breeding of individuals for fur and meat industry, and was accidentally released into the wild. Here, we report the development of microsatellites for the nutria collected from South Korea using Illumina MiSeq genome sequencing to identify the genetic variability and demographic history of these introduced populations. A total of 626,282 microsatellite sequences were identified, and nine polymorphic loci were characterized. We used four novel loci developed and three previously known loci to investigate the genetic diversity of twelve South Korean populations. A low level of diversity was found, and no signature of genetic structuring was revealed among populations, indicating that Korean nutria individuals originated from a single population or a highly inbred reared herd.
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus type 1 (EEHV1) is the most important causative agent of an acute fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We employed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to develop a rapid and simple detection method for EEHV1 in blood. When used to test 21 clinical samples collected in Japan, the EEHV1 assay correctly identified one positive and 20 negative clinical samples. It was observed that when samples were spiked with synthetic DNA plasmids including EEHV1 polymerase gene, the detection limit of the LAMP assay was 101.2 copies/µl and 100-fold higher than that of conventional PCR. These advantages of the LAMP assay for EEHV1 detection may facilitate better veterinary practices for treating elephants suffering from the acute disease.