We osteometrically examined the skulls of the black giant squirrel (Ratufa bicolor) from three mainland populations (M. Malayan Peninsula, V. South Vietnam, and B. Burma, India and North Thailand) and from two island populations (T. Tioman, and S. Sumatra Islands). The skull in the Malayan peninsula population was significantly smaller than that of the two other mainland populations. It is consistent with Bergmann's rule as shown in the gray-bellied squirrel. The two island populations did not show obvious differences in comparison with the Malayan population in many measurements. In the proportion analysis eliminating the size factor, the differences among populations were not easily confirmed and we concluded that the osteological characters peculiar to each population could not be shown in this species. The first and second principal component scores of M, S, and T populations were intermingled, whereas the V and B populations of V and B were not separated in the chart. We pointed out that the morphological differences were demonstrated between northern and southern groups of the Isthmus of Kra in the mainland populations, and that the two island populations did not show the island-isolation effect in comparison with the M population. The adaptational variation related to feeding and locomotion could not be confirmed among populations of the black giant squirrel as shown in the proportion analysis.
We examined the geographical variation of the skull size and shape of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) from Laos, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Langkawi and some Islands of Tenasserim in Myanmar. Although the influence of the climatic condition on skull size was not confirmed in the mainland populations, the skull became rostro-caudally longer in the populations of Tenasserim and Sumatra because of island isolation effect. The skull size was classified into the following three clusters of localities from the matrix of Q-mode correlation coefficients: 1) Langkawi and Tenasserim, 2) Laos and Thailand, 3) Sumatra and Borneo. The skulls in the population of Java belong to the cluster of Langkawi and Tenasserim in male, however were morphologically similar to those in the cluster of Borneo and Sumatra. The canonical discriminant analysis pointed out that the Laos and Tenasserim populations were separated from the other ones and that the populations of Sumatra, Java and Borneo were intermingled each other.
The kidneys of non-diabetic NOD and wild type ICR mice were examined morphometrically at 3 and 6 months of age. Kidney weights and diameter of renal corpuscles of non-diabetic NOD mice were less than those of ICR mice. No lesions were observed in glomeruli or uriniferous tubules. Renin-positive areas were more common in NOD mice than in ICR mice, but no differences were detected in the Western blot analyses.
Morphogenesis of the olfactory pit (OP), olfactory lamella (OL) and olfactory epithelium (OE) was examined by scanning electron and light microscopy in the barfin flounder (Verasper moseri). At day 0 after hatch, the OP was already formed. At day 14, the cellular differentiation of the OE was prominent. At day 42, the OP became a cavity by the formation of its roof. At day 56, the first OL extended remarkably and was lined with the OE on both sides. The OL increased in number with development. These findings suggest that the OE is functionally active at day 14. The formation of the OL in the OP may be initiated by the stimulus when the barfin flounder touched at the bottom of the sea.
The nucleotide sequences of the DNA gyrase B subunit gene (gyrB) of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme and F. varium were determined and analyzed together with those of F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum and F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii. On the phylogenetic tree constructed, the strains of each fusobacterial species formed distinct clusters with deep sublines. The degree of sequence similarity within each cluster was 93.2% or more, whereas similarities between clusters ranged from 70.1 to 72.7%. These clusters were recovered with 100% bootstrap probabilities and are in very good agreement with the species of Fusobacterium. These data suggest that gyrB is an accurate genealogical marker for the classification of the fusobacterial taxa considered in this study.
Microorganisms from 45 jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) captured from July to December 2002 at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo were identified as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Pseudomonas maltophila, Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. E. coli showed the highest rate of isolation (21.6%). In an in vitro susceptibility test for 29 isolates of E. coli to 14 antimicrobial agents, all the isolates were resistant to penicillin G, vancomycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, bicozamycin, sulfadimethoxine, and olaquindox. Several isolates of them were also resistant to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin. Twenty-nine isolates were divided into 19 serogroups and the most frequently identified serogroups were O8, O114 and O144, which showed the same multidrug-resistant patterns.
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to major antigens of Coxiella burnetii were produced. Some of the MAbs to a 62-kDa protein antigen, peptidoglycan protein complex and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-chains reacted with other bacteria whereas none of the MAbs to outer membrane proteins and LPS outer-core did. The LPS outer-core and OMPs may be useful antigens for specifically detecting antibodies to C. burnetii.
The present report describes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for bovine apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV. This assay was applied to the determination of its concentration and distribution in sera from cattle. The distribution of apoA-IV in lipoprotein fractions separated by ultracentrifugation was mostly recovered in the non-lipoprotein fractions (d>1.21 g/ml, 90%), but, in the case of gel filtration chromatography, apoA-IV was mainly eluted in HDL and non-lipoprotein fractions. The apoA-IV concentrations during early, mid- and late lactating stages in cows were significantly higher than during the nonlactating stage (p<0.05). From early to late lactating stages, the concentration of apoA-IV was unaltered. After 4 days of fasting, the concentration of plasma apoA-IV had decreased significantly (p<0.05) at days 3 and 4, and was returned to the basal level by 3 days of refeeding. These results suggested that the concentration of apoA-IV is modified by nutritional conditions.
Protein kinase C (PKC) is an enzyme activated by diacylglycerols such as 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), phospholipids (in particular phosphatidylserine; PS) and Ca2+, which regulate a wide variety of intracellular functions by phosphorylating multiple substrate proteins and enzymes. The effect of sphingosine, the backbone moiety of sphingolipids, on PKC activity and phosphorylation of endogenous proteins catalyzed by PKC was investigated in nuclei of cow mammary gland. Sphingosine inhibited nuclear PKC activity when lysine-rich histone was used as the substrate. The sphingosine inhibition of the PKC activity was reversed by the excess addition of PS, but not by OAG or Ca2+. Several nuclear proteins, including 56-kDa, 43-kDa, 38-kDa and 36-kDa proteins, were shown to be substrates for PKC. Of the substrate proteins, the 38-kDa and 36-kDa proteins were identified as annexin I, the Ca2+/phospholipid-binding protein; the 56-kDa and 43-kDa proteins have not yet been identified. Sphingosine inhibited phosphorylation of the 56-kDa protein and the 36-kDa annexin I, whereas it enhanced that of the 43-kDa protein. The 38-kDa annexin I species was unaffected by sphingosine. As with the PKC activity, inhibition by sphingosine of phosphorylation of the 56-kDa protein and 36-kDa annexin I was reversed by the excess addition of PS, but not by OAG or Ca2+. In addition, by the excess addition of PS and not by OAG or Ca2+, the sphingosine-enhanced phosphorylation of the 43-kDa protein was reversed and returned to near the level in the absence of sphingosine. It is suggested that sphingosine is involved in the regulation of PKC-dependent phosphorylation in the nucleus by modulating the association of PKC or its substrates, particularly annexin I, with membrane phospholipids in cow mammary gland.
A total of 46 cattle, including 25 as control, 16 with glycogen degeneration and 5 with severe fatty degeneration were studied. Whole blood and liver tissue specimens were used to measure glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities. The present study determined the value of these parameters in diagnosing glycogen and fatty degeneration in cattle from the point of the status of antioxidation and lipid peroxidation. The results showed a significant decrease in hepatic GSH-Px activity and a significant increase in hepatic G6PD activity in cases of fatty degeneration. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in erythrocytic and hepatic GSH-Px and G6PD activities in cases of glycogen degeneration. The results indicated lipoperoxidation process in the liver tissues increased in cases of fatty degeneration. Therefore, supplying animals suffering from fatty liver with sufficient quantities of nutrient antioxidants may be valuable when treatment is considered.
To characterize amino acid polymorphisms of sheep prion protein (PrP) gene, DNA from 740 sheep of nine breeds raised in Mongolia was isolated and analyzed. A total of 16 genotypes and seven allelic variants of the PrP gene at codons 112, 136, 154, and 171 were found. The MARQ/MARQ genotype associated with susceptibility to scrapie was found in 82.6% of the sheep while the MARR/MARR genotype associated with resistance to scrapie was found in 1.8% of the sheep. The polymorphisms of valine and serine at codon 127, and leucine and arginine at codon 189 were detected in eight Mongolian sheep breeds, suggesting that these polymorphisms are a common feature among Mongolian sheep breeds.
The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on humoral and cell-mediated immunity was assessed using LPS-sensitive C3H/HeN mice. A single injection of LPS significantly decreased the anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antibody titers, but not the number of anti-SRBC antibody producing spleen cells. In contrast, double LPS injection did not significantly decrease the anti-SRBC titers and even increased the number of anti-SRBC antibody producing spleen cells. Similarly, single LPS injection significantly suppressed the swelling of the footpad, but double LPS injection caused milder suppression. These results suggest that a difference in the level and timing of exposure to LPS may influence the immune response to infection or vaccination.
Human CD7 is one of the earliest molecules to appear in T cell development. In this study, putative feline CD7 cDNA was identified based on its similarities with human and mouse CD7 genes. The feline CD7 cDNA contained an open reading frame consisting of 630 nucleotides. The amino acid sequence of feline CD7 had 47.7% identity with that of human CD7, and 52.9% with that of mouse CD7. In addition, the feline CD7 protein fused with histidine tag was expressed in 293T cells. The expression was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay.
Skin lesions in rabbit syphilis are usually diagnostic, but it is occasionally difficult to differentiate these lesions from those of other skin diseases. Skin lesions in 63 cases of rabbit syphilis were analyzed for early and accurate diagnosis. Lesions were found most frequently around the nose (55 cases) followed by the genitalia (22), lips (20), eyelids (12), and anus (10). Sneezing was observed in 33% of cases with nasal lesions. In cases of maternally acquired infection, lesions could be initially found mainly on the face. Rabbits should be examined carefully not only for facial lesions, but also for lesions of the genitalia and anus, locations easily overlooked.
Total 37 Holstein daily cows (body weight: 631.76 ± 18.45 kg, age: 5.47 ± 1.94 years, parturition: 3.71 ± 1.76 times) which became pregnant and gave birth to calves in the same season and lactated continuously were selected for this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: Group A-control, Group B-fed with 30 g/head/day of mixed feed containing supplemental dextran for one year from October 2001. After supplementation of the mixed feed, milk yields and components (fat, protein and solid non-fat) of Group B were compared with those of Group A in the 8th, 10th and 11th months (May, July and August of 2002). Milk yields of Group B were greater than the yields of Group A. In particular, there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between these groups in the July and August values. Milk components of Group B slightly differed from those of Group A before the supplementation, but after the supplementation, concentrations and total amounts of fat, protein and solid non-fat significantly increased more in Group B than in Group A. Thus mixed feed containing dextran can increase the milk production of Holstein dairy cows in the hot season.
Penicillin, the recommended treatment for rabbit syphilis, sometimes induces adverse effects. The efficacy of oral chloramphenicol was evaluated in 39 cases of rabbit syphilis to establish a safe and efficient treatment for this disease in companion rabbits. All cases clinically improved and recovered promptly. Fourteen of 39 cases (35.9%) relapsed, but most remained chloramphenicol sensitive. Since safety take priority over efficacy in treating syphilis in companion rabbits, chloramphenicol should be chosen as a first-line agent, as a general rule. Three-week administration of chloramphenicol may be adequate at the initial onset of disease. When relapse occurs repeatedly or the rabbit owner cannot administer the medicine adequately, treatment with penicillin should be considered.
We examined transition for the percentage of reticulated platelets (RP%) and platelet count in a canine case of Evans' syndrome. The result demonstrated that measurement of the RP% can be useful in evaluating platelet production in the bone marrow and response to treatment.
A fibroblast cell line derived from LEC rat was approximately twofold more sensitive to heat treatment at 45°C than were that from WKAH rat in terms of heating time required to attain 50% loss of survival in a colony forming assay. The present study was carried out for understanding the mechanism underlying the higher sensitivity of LEC rat cells to heat treatment. Although apoptosis was not found in WKAH rat cells, the percentages of apoptotic cells in LEC rat cells significantly increased after heat treatment. LEC rat cells showed significantly lower sensitivity in induction of cell death and apoptosis to ceramide, a lipid signaling molecule that is associated with heat-induced apoptosis, than did WKAH rat cells. SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK suppressed the induction of cell death in both heated LEC and WKAH rat cells, but SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mapk, did not. The relative surviving fractions of heated LEC and WKAH rat cells in the presence of both SB203580 and SP600125 were higher than those of cells in the presence of SP600125 alone. The amounts of hsp70 protein in WKAH rat cells increased from 4 to 12 hr after heat treatment, but did not in LEC rat cells. These results suggest that higher thermosensitivity in the fibroblast cell line from LEC rat is due to low inducibility of hsp70 protein after heat treatment.
Polysaccharides isolated from fungi, Phellinus spp. is well-known material with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. We have assessed the adhesion- and abscess-reducing capacity of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysaccharides from Phellinus spp. combination in a rat peritonitis model. In 72 Sprague-Dawley rats, experimental peritonitis was induced by means of the cecal ligation and puncture model (CLP). After 24 hr, the abdomen was reopened and the ligated cecum was resected. Peritoneal fluid samples were taken for microbiological examination. Rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups: ringer lactate solution (RL group), polysaccharides from Phellinus gilvus (PG group) and Phellinus linteus (PL group), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC group), and their combinations (PG+CMC and PL+CMC groups). Adhesions and abscesses were noted at day 7 after CLP. RT-PCR assay for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its cellular receptor (uPAR), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was performed to assess the cecal tissue. Microbiological examination showed polymicrobial bacterial peritonitis. Adhesion formation was significantly reduced in PG+CMC and PL+CMC groups (P<0.05). The incidence of abscesses was reduced in all treated groups except the RL group (P<0.05). uPA, uPAR, and TNF-α mRNA were highly expressed in the PG+CMC and PL+CMC groups, as compared to the RL group. We concluded that the combination of polysaccharides and CMC had significant adhesion- and abscess-reducing effects compared with their single treatment and the effects may act by modifying the fibrinolytic capacity of uPA, uPAR and TNF-α produced from activated macrophages in a rat peritonitis model.
In the present study, we performed enzymatic characterization of Haemaphysalis longicornis serine proteinase (HlSP) with a view to shed light on the mechanisms of blood digestion in the hard ticks. Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant HlSP (rHlSP) was shown to potently hydrolyze the synthetic substrates Bz-(DL)-Arg-pNA, Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA and Suc-Ala-Ala-Ala-pNA and yielded an activity of 31.5, 88.2 and 18.3 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively at an optimum temperature of 25°C. However, the enzyme showed little activity to hydrolyze the substratese Suc-Arg-Pro-Phe-His-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-MCA and Pyr-Phe-Leu-pNA. The optimum pH for the enzyme was shown to be 4.0 to 5.0. Several inhibitors such as antipain, leupeptin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), specific for serine proteinase were shown to inhibit enzyme activity by 20-82%, while E-64 (specific for cysteine proteinases) and pepstatinA (specific for aspartic proteinases) had shown only little inhibitory effects on it. This is the first report on enzymatic characterization of a functional serine proteinase from the hard ticks.
The immunohistochemical reactivity of seven clones of mouse monoclonal antibodies raised to Nipah virus antigens were investigated using formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded porcine and equine lung tissues from experimental Nipah and Hendra virus infection, respectively. Either microwave irradiation or enzymatic digestion effectively unmasked the viral antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Four clones showed positive reaction to both Nipah virus-infected porcine lung tissue and Hendra virus-infected equine lung tissue. Two clones (11F6 and 13A5) reacted with Nipah virus-infected porcine lung tissue, but not with Hendra virus-infected equine lung tissue. These Nipah virus-specific monoclonal antibodies may therefore be useful for immunohistological diagnosis of Nipah virus infection and for further research on Nipah virus pathogenesis.
A case of intestinal adenocarcinoma with metastases to the pancreas and regional lymph node was found in a 9-year-old, captive female cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) with intermittent diarrhea. At necropsy, the tumor mass was located in the ileo-cecal junction causing circumferential thickening and annular stenosis. Microscopically, the lesions at primary and metastatic sites showed typical features of mucinous adenocarcinoma as seen in humans, including intracellular and extracellular mucin production and characteristic appearance of a signet ring of the tumor cells. The diagnosis was confirmed by histological evaluation, positive cytokeratin immunostain, and mucin production demonstrated by PAS and Alcian blue stain. It is speculated that the development of intestinal carcinoma was partly attributable to the excessive absorption of a diet of refined food, unbalanced nutrition, and the nature of these animals to develop stress easily.
Expression of osteopontin (OPN) was investigated in the spinal cords of rats with clip compression injury. Western blot analysis demonstrated that OPN protein increased significantly in the spinal cord during the early stages after injury. The increased expression of OPN was partially paralleled by that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Immunohistochemical staining showed that OPN was expressed in proliferating activated microglia/macrophages in core lesions and in some astrocytes at the periphery of lesions. These results indicate that expression of OPN protein increases mainly in activated microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury, suggesting that OPN is related to cell proliferation during the early stages after injury, probably leading to tissue remodeling.
Neutrophil elastase (NE) released from neutrophils during inflammation is related to tissue disturbance and organ failure. We investigated the effects of an orally active NE inhibitor, ONO-6818, on acetic acid induced colitis in Syrian hamsters. The ulcer area, hemoglobin level in the colonic lumen, NE activity, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the colitis control animals were significantly increased compared to the normal control ones. Either oral or subcutaneous treatment with ONO-6818 had significant inhibitory effects on the ulcer area, hemoglobin level and NE activity in the colonic lumen, but ONO-6818 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on tissue MPO activity. We conclude that NE is closely related to the development of inflammation in acetic acid-induced colitis in Syrian hamsters and that the condition is improved by the inhibition of NE.
To investigate which brain regions are involved in the anticipatory activity in rats restricted feeding for 2 hr, we examined c-Fos expression before and after feeding. Only the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (tPVN) showed c-Fos expression before feeding than after feeding. After the anticipatory locomotor activity rhythm was established, lesioning the tPVN attenuated this rhythm, but not the light-dark entrained rhythm. The anticipatory increase of blood corticosterone levels was not established in long-term tPVN-lesioned rats. These results suggest that the tPVN is involved in the expression of anticipatory reactions under a food-restricted regimen.
Antibacterial effects of bovine lactoferrin were studied in vitro against microorganisms isolated from mastitic milk in Tokachi area, Hokkaido, Japan. Microorganisms isolated were Eschelichia coli (11 isolates), Klebsiella pneumoniae (5 isolates), enterococci (8 isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (10 isolates), coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, 13 isolates), streptococci (11 isolates), Protothecazopfii (7 isolates) and yeast-like fungi (9 isolates). Lactoferrin has been known as a multifunctional protein and its antimicrobial effect is one of the most essential function of it. In order to compare their susceptibilities against lactoferrin, the minimal inhibitory concentration values were estimated by a microplate assay method using 96-well microplate, which involved measuring the optical density of the cultures. Prototheca zopfii was highly sensitive to bovine lactoferrin and complete inhibition of this microorganism was observed even at the low concentration of 7 μg/ml. On the other hand, E. coli and enterococci showed resistance against lactoferrin action and staphylococci showed strain-dependent resistance.
Distribution of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) at the three stages of estrous cycle in Japanese Black cows was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry. Ovarian dynamics were observed twice daily using ultrasonography until the ovariectomy performed on Day 7 (First group, n=3), Day 10 (Second group, n=3) and Day 18 (Third group, n=3) (Day 0=estrus). Expression of ERα represented by immunohistological staining intensity in cells was determined using a light microscope equipped with a digital camera. A tendency toward higher expression were observed in theca interna (TI) of DF when compared with those in mural granulosa cells (mGC), antral granulosa cells (aGC) and theca externa (TE). ERα expression in the Third group was lower than that in the First Group in mGC, and it was also lower than that in the second group in TE (P<0.05). ERα expression in luteal cells was higher than those in the stromal cells in CL. No significant difference of ERα expression was observed within luteal or stromal cells, except in the Second group in the luteal cells, in which significantly higher expressions than that in the Third group (P<0.05) were observed. The results showed that, 1) ERα was present in developing DF on Day 7, early regressing DF on Day 10 and preovulatory DF on Day 18, especially in the TI, and a few were localized in the mGC, and 2) ERα was highly expressed in the luteal cells and the expression decreased in combination with regression of CL.
The full-length cDNA of dog preproendothelin-3 (PPET3) was cloned from lung tissue using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Aside from the poly (A) tail, the full-length cDNA was 1976 bp. A polyadenylation signal sequence and one copy of a consensus sequence, ATTTA, which is related to mRNA turnover, was found in the 3' noncoding region. The cDNA had a 594-bp open reading frame encoding a 198-amino acid polypeptide. Regions corresponding to a bioactive mature ET3 peptide, an intermediate form known as big-ET3, and an ET3-like peptide were observed in dog PPET3. Expression of PPET3 mRNA was detected throughout the organs examined, which included heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, pancreas, duodenum, colon, uterus, ovary and testis.
Transmission of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) in sheep via natural contact and nasal secretions was examined. OvHV-2-free lambs were produced by separating newborn lambs from their mothers within 5 days of birth and raising them in an isolation facility. Transmission experiments via natural contact were conducted by keeping OvHV-2-free lambs with OvHV-2-infected sheep of different ages. Six of the infected ewes in this experiment were pregnant and gave birth during the experimental period. OvHV-2 was not transmitted from the adult sheep, though viral DNA was consistently detected in their peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). On the other hand, OvHV-2 was transmitted from recently infected lambs to sheep at 10 or 12 weeks after the onset of contact. In addition, we attempted the experimental transmission of OvHV-2 via nasal secretions, by transferring nasal washings from infected sheep to the nostrils of uninfected sheep. Sheep receiving the nasal washings from infected adult sheep maintained their negative status for 15 months, whereas sheep receiving nasal washings from recently infected lambs acquired OvHV-2 by 8 months. The results of these experiments support that OvHV-2 is more easily transmitted to negative sheep by recently infected lambs than by adult sheep. Further, it is supposed that the nasal cavity is a portal for entry and shedding of infectious OvHV-2 in sheep.
In Latin America, rabies cases related to frugivorous bats have been reported since 1930's. Recently, two viruses isolated from Artibeus lituratus were proved to be vampire bat variants by monoclonal antibodies panels , but their genetic information is not well known. In this report, four rabies viruses were isolated from frugivorous bats (Artibeus spp.) in Brazil and their nucleoprotein gene sequences were determined. These isolates were found to be genotype 1 of lyssavirus and showed the maximum nucleotide sequence homology of 97.6-99.4% with vampire bat-related viruses in Brazil . These results indicate that the Brazilian frugivorous bat rabies viruses in this study are closely related to vampire bat-related viruses that play a main role in rabies virus transmission to livestock in Brazil.