Tensin2 (Tns2) is an essential component for the maintenance of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) structures. Tns2-deficient mice were previously shown to develop mild glomerular injury on a DBA/2 background, but not on a C57BL/6J or a 129/SvJ background, suggesting that glomerular injury by the deletion of Tns2 was strongly dependent on the genetic background. To further understand the mechanisms for the onset and the progression of glomerular injury by the deletion of Tns2, we generated Tns2-deficient mice on an FVB/N (FVB) strain, which is highly sensitive to glomerular disease. Tns2-deficient mice on FVB (FVBGN) developed severe nephrotic syndrome, and female FVBGN mice died within 8 weeks. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that FVBGN mice exhibited severe glomerular defects with mesangial process invasion of glomerular capillary tufts, lamination and thickening of the GBM and subsequent podocyte foot process effacement soon after birth. Aberrant laminin components containing α1, α2 and β1 chains, which are normally expressed in the mesangium, accumulated in the GBM of FVBGN, suggesting that these components originated from mesangial cells that invaded glomerular capillary tufts. Compared to Tns2-deficient mice on the other backgrounds in previous reports, FVBGN mice developed earlier onset of glomerular defects and rapid progression of renal failure. Thus, this study further extended our understanding of the possible genetic background effect on the deterioration of nephrotic syndrome by Tns2 deficiency.
The chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Marek’s disease virus (MDV) infect chickens worldwide; a single or dual infection by these viruses has a great impact on poultry production. In the present study, we examined the existence of CAV antigen and its inclusions in Marek’s disease (MD) lymphomas in chickens in the slaughterhouses of Iwate prefecture, Japan. Forty-nine spleens and 13 livers with different degrees of nodular lesions were histopathologically examined at our laboratory. Grossly, the tested organs showed various sizes and anatomical architectures. Based on the cellular morphology and the infiltrative nature of the neoplastic lymphocytes, MD was confirmed in 76% (37/49) of the spleens and 92% (12/13) of the livers. The lesions of MD, according to the pattern of lymphocytic accumulation in the affected organs, were divided into multifocal, coalesced and diffuse. CAV intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected within the small and the large bizarre lymphocytes of the MD lymphomas in 2 livers and 9 spleens, and the immunostaining test for CAV confirmed the persistence of CAV antigens and inclusions in the neoplastic cells. This study demonstrated the persistence of CAV infection within the neoplastic cells of naturally occurring MD lymphomas in chickens.
Calcinated egg shell (Egg-CaO), of which the main component is calcium oxide, was evaluated in the forms of powder and aqueous solutions for their efficacies as disinfectants against avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli. Egg-CaO powder inactivated these viruses within 3 min in the presence of 33% of fetal bovine serum (FBS). In Egg-CaO solutions, except AIV, all pathogens were inactivated within 1 hr, even in the presence of 5% of FBS. Without FBS, all pathogens, except AIV, were inactivated within 3 min, and AIV within 1 hr. In addition, persistence of virucidal activity against AIV and NDV of Egg-CaO powder was confirmed after exposure to sunlight for 2 weeks or resuspension with water for 7 times, simulating field harsh environments. Chick growth test was conducted to ensure the safety of the use of Egg-CaO powder in chicken cages and showed that it is safe to add Egg-CaO in litter or feed. In conclusion, Egg-CaO can be useful for the enhancement of biosecurity at farms.
A total of 1,320 tracheal samples from 66 broiler flocks sent to slaughterhouses and 42 tracheal samples from 42 flocks of local chickens in the field were collected for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) gene detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using nucleocapsid-specific primers and spike-specific primers. Prevalence in broiler flocks was 39.4% (26/66) and in local chicken flocks was 11.9% (5/42). Several IBVs similar to Japan were detected in Taiwan. One-direction neutralization revealed that the reference antisera did not offer protection against the IBVs similar to those from Japan.
Examination of our necropsy records for the period 2005 to 2014 yielded 41 cases of the endomyocardial form of restrictive cardiomyopathy among 327 cats with evidence of heart disease, and here, we reviewed their epidemiological and clinical features. The medical data obtained retrospectively included signalment, presenting complaints, findings of physical examination, results of various diagnostic tests, methods of treatment and survival times. Except for one Chinchilla Persian cat, all were domestic short-haired cats. The mean age at death was 7.3 ± 4.5 years (median, 6 years; range, 4 months to 19 years), and males accounted for 61% (25/41) of the total. Dyspnea was the most common clinical sign, being evident in 83% (35/41) of the cats. Hind limb paresis or paralysis due to aortic thromboembolism was evident in 41% (17/41). Arrhythmias of atrial origin were common. Echocardiography commonly revealed left atrial or biatrial enlargement with severe endocardial thickening of the left ventricle. Most of the affected cats had a poor outcome; the disease duration ranged from 1 to 977 days, and the median survival period was 30 days.
Assessment of muscle mass is important for evaluating muscle function and rehabilitation outcomes. Ultrasound has recently been successfully used to estimate muscle mass in humans by measuring muscle thickness. This study attempted to standardize procedures for measuring femoral muscle thickness ultrasonographically, as well as quantify the reliability and validity of ultrasound evaluations of muscle thickness compared to measurements made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in dogs. We evaluated the quadriceps femoris (QF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles of 10 clinically healthy Beagle dogs. Scans were taken in 5 different sections divided equally between the greater trochanter and proximal patella. MRI was performed, followed by T1-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with MRI, and muscle thickness was measured with MRI and ultrasonography. The thickness of the QF, BF and ST muscles as measured by ultrasound at slices 1–3 (from the proximal end to the middle of the femur), 2–4 (middle of the femur) and 2 (more proximal than the middle of the femur), respectively, was correlated with muscle thickness and CSA as measured by MRI. These sites showed a flat interface between muscle and transducer and were situated over belly muscle. No correlation between measurement types was seen in SM muscle. We must confirm this assessment method for various breeds, sizes, ages and muscle pathologies in dogs, thereby confirming that muscle thickness as measured ultrasonographically can reflect muscle function.
A xenogeneic DNA vaccination has been licensed for use in dogs with locally controlled stage II and III oral malignant melanoma (OMM). At present, there are limited outcome data for dogs with OMM treated with surgery and immunotherapy. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review the outcome and survival of 32 dogs affected by OMM that were treated with a combination of surgery and the xenogeneic DNA vaccination (with the addition of radiotherapy in some cases) and to determine the influence of surgical margins and delay in receiving vaccination. The overall median survival time (MST) was 335 days (95% CI: 301–540 days), and the overall median progression-free survival (PFS) was 160 days (mean 182 days, 95% CI: 132–232 days). Stage, completeness of surgical margins and delay in administration of the vaccine did not appear to statistically influence survival or PFS, although these results may reflect the low statistical power of the study due to small numbers. Further studies are required to assess whether the addition of any adjuvant treatment to surgery, including immunotherapy, is able to significantly prolong survival in cases of canine oral melanoma.
This study investigated the changes in lymphocyte subsets during the trilostane medication of Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) dogs. The cortisol level and lymphocyte subsets of eight dogs with PDH were monitored 0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the initiation of trilostane treatment. White blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, CD3+ (T lymphocyte), CD4+ (helper T lymphocyte), CD8+ (cytotoxic T lymphocyte) and CD21+ (B lymphocyte) cells were measured. Although the post-ACTH stimulation test cortisol level was significantly lower during trilostane treatment, changes in the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+ counts were not observed. Meanwhile, significant decrease was observed in WBC counts during trilostane treatment. These indicate that long-term trilostane treatment has little effect on the lymphocyte subsets in PDH dogs.
The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serves as a prognostic marker and indicator of disease relapse, as well as a means of evaluating treatment efficacy in human and canine lymphoma patients. As an extension of our previous study for the construction of clinically useful GeneScan system, we utilized the GeneScan system for detecting CTCs in canine lymphoma patients. Samples from the primary lesion and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 32 dogs with lymphoma at initial diagnosis. All samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor gene rearrangements (PARR) followed by GeneScan analysis. Common clonal rearrangements with identical amplified fragments were detected in both the primary lesion and PBMCs in 19 of the 32 dogs (59.4%). However, the detection rate of CTCs varied among the anatomical classification of lymphoma studied. GeneScan analysis following PARR would facilitate studies on determining the clinical significance of CTCs in canine lymphoma patients.
To evaluate the prognostic criteria for identifying cows at an increased risk of a fatal outcome from acute Escherichia coli mastitis, the potential cut-off values for five diagnostic parameters associated with a high mortality were determined by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. These criteria were hematocrit value >32%, blood non-esterified fatty acid concentration >0.4 mEq/l, antithrombin activity <120%, platelet count <15 × 104/ml and presence of dysstasia. Exceeding the cut-off values for at least three parameters on day 2 after onset predicted fatality (predictive value 87.5). When these prognostic criteria were applied to 34 clinical cases, cows that met three criteria were seven times more likely to die than cows that met fewer than three criteria.
A 12-year-old female American shorthair cat presented with a one-month history of hematuria and general lethargy. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed complete thickening of the left uterine wall. At a diagnostic laparotomy, a large mass arising from the left uterine horn was discovered, and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Histological diagnosis revealed a T-cell high-grade lymphoma of the uterus. After the ovariohysterectomy, the patient achieved complete remission and was maintained by combination chemotherapy from 14 days after surgery. However, relapse occurred in the urinary bladder wall on day 287, and the patient died of postrenal acute renal failure on day 310. This is the first report of a feline case of primary uterine lymphoma that was treated with ovariohysterectomy followed by systemic chemotherapy.
Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments.
Use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate experimental animal has increased in recent years. Although wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS) is one of the biggest problems in captive marmoset colonies, the molecular mechanisms, biochemical markers for accurate diagnosis and a reliable treatment remain unknown. In this study, as a first step to finding biochemical marker(s) for the accurate diagnosis of WMS, we conducted blood cell counts, including hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelets, and examined serum chemistry values, including albumin, calcium and levels of serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), using a colony of marmosets with and without weight loss. MMP9 is thought to be an enzyme responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix components and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions, such as human and murine inflammatory bowel disease, which, like WMS, are characterized histologically by inflammatory cell infiltrations in the intestines. The values of hematocrit and hemoglobin and levels of serum albumin and calcium in the WMS group were significantly decreased versus the control group. The platelet values and serum MMP9 concentrations were increased significantly in the WMS group compared with the control group. MMP9 could be a new and useful marker for the diagnosis of WMS in addition to hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum albumin and calcium. Our results also indicate that MMP9 could be a useful molecular candidate for treatment.
A 14 month-old intact microminipig, weighing 8 kg, showed ST-segment elevation in A-B lead electrocardiogram during cardiac catheterization followed by ventricular tachycardia, which degenerated into ventricular fibrillation. Although a direct current defibrillation of 360 J was applied, ventricular tachycardia re-occurred for another 2 times and the direct defibrillation was repeated. After returning to normal sinus rhythm, a marked ST-segment elevation was still observed on leads II, III and aVF together with a remarkable decrease in contractility of inferior wall. The heart was excised for precise macroscopic and histological examinations, but there was no dissection, embolus or thrombus in the coronary arteries. These findings suggest that right coronary artery vasospasm could have caused the ischemic attack, leading to lethal arrhythmias.
To determine the effect of long-distance (approximately 600 km) road transportation on the blood biochemistry of laboratory animals, we investigated the changes in serum biochemical parameters in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs transported by truck from Osaka to Tsukuba, Japan. The concentrations of serum cortisol, total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase in monkeys increased during transportation. Serum cortisol and total bilirubin levels in dogs also increased during transportation, but serum triglyceride decreased. Serum parameter values in truck-transported monkeys and dogs returned to baseline levels within two weeks following arrival. Taken together, these results suggest that a two-week acclimation period is the minimum duration required for adaptation following road transportation.
To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one’s own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence.
Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne apicomplexan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic anemia with highly variable clinical outcome. In this study, we sequenced the 254bp Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region (ITS1) of 54 B. gibsoni isolates from 14 different geographical regions of Japan. The 54 isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni isolates reported in GenBank database (97.2–100%). Consistent with previous reports, phylogenetic analysis showed that B. gibsoni isolates from Japan formed the same clade with those from U.S.A., Australia, India and Taiwan. Our finding indicates that B. gibsoni ITS1 region is highly conserved among isolates from dogs in Japan, making it a useful genetic marker for molecular epidemiology of the parasite.
A subcutaneous pale brown-colored mass was observed macroscopically in the ventral neck of a 16-week-old Wistar rat on day 18 of gestation. The mass was well demarcated from the adjacent tissues with partial invasion into connective tissues. Necrosis and hemorrhage were evident throughout the mass. The mass comprised a diffuse sheet and a nest-like structure of epithelial cells with prominent squamous metaplasia. The neoplastic cells tested immunopositive for keratin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and p63. A portion of the neoplastic cells exhibited a similar immunoreaction of prominin-1 to the ductal and acinar cells in normal submandibular and parotid glands. Collectively, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma derived from epithelial/myoepithelial lineages in the submandibular and/or parotid glands.
An intraocular mass lesion was found in the left eyeball in a spayed female Pembroke Welsh Corgi dog. The surgically resected left eyeball was pathologically examined. Histologically, the mass lesion consisted of proliferation of the atypical cuboidal or columnar epithelial cells, arranging in papillary, tubular or solid form. In addition, some neoplastic cells showed oncocytic change characterized as large oval cells with numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic granules. Cytoplasm of the oncocytic cells showed dark blue granules by phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stain. Immunohistochemically, the oncocytic cells were intensely positive for cytochrome C. Based on these findings, the ocular mass was diagnosed as iridociliary adenocarcinoma with oncocytic change. The findings indicate that the oncocytic changes of the neoplastic epithelial cells might be caused by mitochondrial accumulation.
Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) expressed in human podocytes has been highlighted as a causative autoantigen of human idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, its expression was found to be minimal or absent in murine and rat podocytes. In this study, immunofluorescence revealed the expression of PLA2R in the glomerular podocytes in the kidney tissue sections of dogs. We then attempted to culture canine podocytes and investigate the expression of PLA2R in these cells. Glomeruli were isolated from dog kidneys and cultured to obtain podocytes using nylon mesh-based isolation method as followed for isolating rat podocytes. The cultured cells expressed PLA2R mRNA and protein in addition to other podocyte markers (synaptopodin, podocin and nephrin). These results indicate that the canine podocytes express PLA2R.
During artificial insemination of an 18-year-old female Japanese Black cow, a mass that was of a hen’s egg size was found in the vagina. On necropsy, the firm mass, measuring approximately 3.5 × 3.5 × 3.0 cm, was located at the superior region of the vagina. The cut surface of the mass was gray-white in color with occasional necrotic or hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the mass was composed of tumor cells arranged in solid nests of various sizes with an occasional tubular structure separated by a delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumor cells had a hypochromatic nucleus and abundant, faintly eosinophilic cytoplasm. The tumor cells contained diastase-sensitive periodic acid-Schiff positive granules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CAM5.2 and carcinoembryonic antigen, but not for vimentin, p63, estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor, α-smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein and chromogranin A. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a clear cell carcinoma of the vagina.
Stimulation with heavy metals is known to induce calcium (Ca2+) mobilization in many cell types. Interference with the measurement of intracellular Ca2+ concentration by the heavy metals in cells loaded with Ca2+ indicator fura-2 is an ongoing problem. In this study, we analyzed the effect of heavy metals on the fura-2 fluorescence ratio in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by using TPEN, a specific cell-permeable heavy metal chelator. Manganese chloride (30–300 µM) did not cause significant changes in the fura-2 fluorescence ratio. A high concentration (300 µM) of lead acetate induced a slight elevation in the fura-2 fluorescence ratio. In contrast, stimulation with cadmium chloride, mercury chloride or MeHg (3–30 µM) elicited an apparent elevation of the fura-2 fluorescence ratio in a dose-dependent manner. In cells stimulated with 10 or 30 µM cadmium chloride, the addition of TPEN decreased the elevated fura-2 fluorescence ratio to basal levels. In cells stimulated with mercury or MeHg, the addition of TPEN significantly decreased the elevation of the fura-2 fluorescence ratio induced by lower concentrations (10 µM) of mercury or MeHg, but not by higher concentrations (30 µM). Pretreatment with Ca2+ channel blockers, such as verapamil, 2-APB or lanthanum chloride, resulted in different effects on the fura-2 fluorescence ratio. Our study provides a characterization of the effects of several heavy metals on the mobilization of divalent cations and the toxicity of heavy metals to neuronal cells.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-Newcastle disease virus (NDV) activities of baicalin from Scutellaria baicalensis, a Traditional Chinese Medicine in vitro. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) were infected with NDV, and quantitative analysis of apoptotic cells was performed using flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities of baicalin were studied using the MTT method. The results showed that the maximal safe concentrations of baicalin to CEFs was 1 × 2−2 mg/ml. Baicalin could directly kill NDV, inhibit the infectivity of NDV to CEF and block intracellular NDV. It inhibited the apoptosis of NDV-infected CEFs and suppressed the spread of NDV. These results indicate that baicalin has strong anti-NDV activity and has the potential for use as components of an antiviral drug.
Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. TNF-α promotes inflammation and induces apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility. We genotyped the TNF-α gene in 74 bTB-infected Holstein cows and 90 healthy control animals. The influence in the exon 3 region of TNF-α polymorphisms on bTB susceptibility was subsequently investigated by association analysis. Our finding demonstrated that the g.27534932A>C polymorphism of the TNF-α is associated with bTB in Holstein cattle. The susceptibility of cattle with the g.27534932A>C genotype compared with the CC genotype was 4.11-fold (95% CI, 1.27–13.36; P=0.02) higher. The g.27534932A>C polymorphism located in exon 3 of the TNF-α gene, and the functional consequence was missense. The deduced amino acid sequence for the protein product revealed an arginine to serine conversion at position 159, which may affect initiation of protein synthesis and disrupt normal TNF-α function that protects animals against mycobacterial infection. A significant association was observed with the A allele as a risk factor for bTB susceptibility (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.21–12.17; P=0.02). In conclusion, this is the first report showing that the g.27534932A>C polymorphism may contribute to TNF-α-mediated bTB susceptibility.
A two-year-old castrated male Pomeranian dog was referred with the chief complaints of coughing and subcutaneous emphysema. On physical examination, the crepitant areas were palpable. When auscultated, the right chest was absent of respiratory sound, while the sound of the opposite side was enhanced. Radiographs presented pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. On computed tomography, hypoattenuated bulla-like lesion at right middle lung lobe and trapped air in mediastinum were shown. After patient stabilization, surgery for excision of affected lobe was performed. During follow-up period, there were no recurrence and complication on radiographic examination. Based on clinical and pathological findings, the dog was diagnosed as congenital lobar emphysema.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (P<0.05) and serum urea nitrogen (P<0.05) and glucose concentration (P=0.05) before calving, and lower serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration (P<0.05) and milk yield (P<0.05) and earlier resumption of luteal activity (P<0.05) after calving; their calves showed lower BW (P<0.05) and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (P<0.001) and higher plasma insulin concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, IR at 3 weeks prepartum in dairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves.
In the present report, the incidence and prognosis of ovarian diseases were evaluated in correlation to the grades of the fatty livers (FL). 233 animals were diagnosed with a FL, based on fat deposition of >10% into the hepatic parenchyma obtained from liver biopsy, and were eventually cured of the FL. These 233 animals were classified into mild group (n=99: hepatic fat deposition rates ranging from 10 to <30%), moderate group (n=56: hepatic fat deposition rates ranging from 30 to <60%) and severe group (n=78: hepatic fat deposition rates of >60%). The incidence of ovarian diseases and the culling rate were, respectively, 40.0% and 10.0% in mild group, 58.3% and 37.5% in moderate group, and 84.9% and 69.7% in severe group. The incidence of ovarian diseases and the culling rates in severe group were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in mild and moderate groups. It was, therefore, concluded that the elevated incidence of ovarian disease and culling rates tend to be dependent on the higher severity scores of the fat deposition rates in dairy cows with FL and that cases with severe FL, with a fat deposition rate of 60% or higher, were greatly associated with death and culling.
Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss.
In isolated hepatocytes, the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) is metabolized into a mono-glucuronide and a glucuronide/sulfate diconjugate. Little is known about the fate of the diconjugate in the liver. The present study focused on the metabolism and dispostion of BPA diconjugate in the liver using a perfusion method. In Sprague-Dawley rats, BPA (15,150 or 1,500 nmol) was applied into the liver. In male rats, the infused BPA was conjugated to both glucuronide and a diconjugate during passage through the liver. The diconjugate was observed at high-dose application of the substrate. In female rats, the chemical was conjugated almost exclusively to the glucuronide in all doses utilized in this study. In both the male and female rats, the resultant metabolites were preferentially excreted into the bile. These results suggest that BPA is conjugated primarily to mono-glucuronide in rat liver; and that in males, diconjugate production occurs under conditions of high-dose exposure to BPA.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR.
Canine herpesvirus-1 (CaHV-1) is a globally distributed pathogen causing reproductive, respiratory, ocular and neurological disorders in adult dogs and neonatal death in puppies. This pathogen is considered poorly immunogenic, and neutralizing antibodies are found for only a short time following exposure. Further, seroprevalence can be affected by several epidemiological factors. A virological survey was conducted in a high-density population breeding kennel in Central Italy. There were several factors predisposing animals to CaHV-1 infection, such as age, number of pregnancies, experience with mating and dog shows, cases of abortion, management and environmental hygiene. Serum neutralization (SN) and nested PCR assays were used to estimate prevalence of CaHV-1. None of the submitted samples tested positive for nested PCR, and none of the sera tested CaHV-1 positive. No association was observed between antibody titers and risk factors, and no sign of viral reactivation was detected in either males or females. These results suggest that CaHV-1 is not circulating within this kennel and that further studies are needed in order to better understand the distribution of the virus within Italy.
A restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with direct PCR technique to differentiate goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses (GPV and MDPV) was developed based on comparison of the NS gene of GPV and MDPV. Both GPV and MDPV genomic DNA can be amplified with 641 bp using the specific PCR primers. The PCR fragments can be cut into 463 bp and 178 bp only in the case of MDPV-derived PCR products, whereas the GPV-derived PCR products cannot. The method established in this study can be used to differentiate GPV and MDPV with high specificity and precision, by using a direct PCR kit and QuickCut enzyme, as quickly as conventional PCR.
The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas. Up to 30 ml of breast milk were collected from each mother by hand. Then, the milk samples were frozen and sent to Nihon University. The levels of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, moisture, vitamins, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids, lactose and other carbohydrates in the milk were analyzed. The breast milk samples exhibited the following nutritional values: protein: 6.6–8.5%, fat: 6.9–16.4%, carbohydrates: 2.5–9.1%, ash: 0.9–1.0% and moisture: 67–83%. We designed two kinds of milk substitutes based on the data obtained and the nutritional requirements of dogs, cats and rodents. The nutritional composition of the milk substitutes for the first and second stages was as follows: protein: 38 and 26%, fat: 40 and 40%, carbohydrates: 13 and 25%, ash: 6 and 6% and moisture: 3 and 3%, respectively. In addition, the substitutes contained vitamins, minerals, taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, lactoferrin, nucleotides and other nutrients.
In general, the nasal cavity of turtles is divided into two chambers: the upper chamber, lined with the olfactory epithelium containing ciliated olfactory receptor cells, and the lower chamber, lined with the vomeronasal epithelium containing microvillous receptor cells. In the nasal cavity of soft-shelled turtles, however, differences between the upper and lower chamber epithelia are unclear due to the presence of ciliated receptor cells in both epithelia. In the olfactory organ of vertebrates, the surface of sensory epithelium is covered with secretory products of associated glands and supporting cells, playing important roles in the olfaction by dissolving odorants and transporting them to the olfactory receptors. Here, the associated glands and supporting cells in the olfactory organ of soft-shelled turtles were analyzed histochemically and ultrastructurally. The upper chamber epithelium possessed associated glands, constituted by cells containing serous secretory granules; whereas, the lower chamber epithelium did not. In the upper chamber epithelium, secretory granules filled the supranuclear region of supporting cells, while most of the granules were distributed near the free border of supporting cells in the lower chamber epithelium. The secretory granules in the supporting cells of both epithelia were seromucous, but alcian blue stained them differently from each other. In addition, distinct expression of carbohydrates was suggested by the differences in lectin binding. These data indicate the quantitative and qualitative differences in the secretory properties between the upper and lower chamber epithelia, suggesting their distinct roles in the olfaction.