Extracellular matrix components (ECMs) in histological sections of the kidney cortex from the rats with adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy (5 mg/kg, i.v.) were quantified by an immunohistochemical micromethod. Changes in kidney histopathology and urine and blood biochemistry were investigated. Enlarged kidneys were granular on the surface and pale in color in ADR-treated rats, and these rats had kidneys with glomeruli with expanded mesangial area and with capillary aneurysm. Severe albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia and disorders in other nephrotic parameters were observed in ADR-treated rats. Type I and IV collagens, fibronectin and laminin contents in the renal cortex of ADR-treated rats at 10 weeks were 329, 317, 263 and 295%, respectively, higher than in each vehicle control, and those at 28 weeks were 1,211, 930, 1,057 and 1,012%, respectively. The glomerular sclerotic abnormalities progressed in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between the ECM levels and serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. In conclusion, microquantification provided useful information for accurate diagnosis and prognosis of nephrotic lesions and is a good tool to assess the advancement of renal disorders in patients with nephropathy.
To study the biology of reproduction of male Korean ring-necked pheasants kept under natural conditions of temperature and photoperiod, testicular weight, serum testosterone concentrations, testosterone release from the luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testis in vitro and sperm production were measured. Significant changes associated with seasonal cycles were found. Testis weight decreased dramatically in August, remained low until February, rapidly increased from March to high levels to June, and decreased subsequently. Serum testosterone concentrations remained little from August until February, but increased sharply in March to reach the highest levels in April. Thereafter, the concentrations decreased significantly from June. The testosterone release was low from August to February, increased abruptly in March to reach the highest levels in May, and showed rapid decrease thereafter. Sperm production decreased to nondetectable levels from August to February, increased markedly in March, reached a peak in May, and sharply decreased thereafter. Thus, the pheasants breed from late March to late June. These results indicate that the Korean ring-necked pheasant, under natural conditions, exhibits characteristics of a seasonal cycle in reproduction.
The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a new useful tool to examine the surface structure of specimens with a higher resolution than the conventional scanning electron microscope. In the present study, we used the AFM to observe the surface of paraformaldehyde-fixed human lymphocytes processed for histochemistry using a biotinylated lectin, wheat germ agglutinin, followed by colloidal gold and silver-enhancement method. Before the treatment, no particles were attached to the cell surface. After treatment, many particles about 100 to 150 nm in diameter were visualized on it. Since we could observe the same cells on the slide glass before and after treatment, the AFM has the advantage to enable us the repeated imaging of samples treated with various kinds of histochemistries.
Thirty-six cases of feline urine marking problem were collected through the cooperation of veterinary practitioners in the Kanto, Chubu, and Kansai areas in Japan, for an assessment of the clinical effect of treatment with a synthetic analogue of a feline cheek gland pheromone-like product. The mean frequency of urine marking was 14.2 times/week (median, 10; range, 1-77) at pre-treatment week (preW), and decreased significantly from the first week of treatment, dropping to 4.2 times/week (median, 2; range, 0-44) at the fourth week of treatment. This effect continued until the fourth week after cessation of treatment. These 36 cases were divided into 3 groups based on the effectiveness of treatment as demonstrated in the fourth week of treatment; 37% was categorized as the totally eliminated group (urine marking was not seen), 40% as the reduced group (the frequency of urine marking was equal to or less than 50% that of the preW), and 23% as the unchanged group (the frequency of urine marking was more than 50% that of the preW). Effectiveness of treatment in these groups was 38%, 24%, and 38% at the fourth week after the cessation of treatment, respectively. The decreasing rate of urine marking was compared between cats with and without intercat aggression, and it was revealed that the frequency of marking was sustained at high level in cats with intercat aggression. These results suggest that this pheromone treatment is as effective in Japan as has been reported in other countries for solving feline urine marking problems.
Serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in 5 calves in the same lineage with growth retardation. They had normal appetites, activities, body proportion, and laboratory test results. Calves with growth retardation had higher serum GH concentrations and lower serum IGF-1 concentrations. These findings suggested defects in the GH-IGF-1 axis, such as in the GH-receptor.
Maximum serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels of healthy calves were seen at 1 day after birth, and thereafter rapidly decreased until 5 days after birth. They stabilized until 2 weeks after birth, then gradually decreased until 4 weeks after birth. Serum T4 levels of calves with endemic goiter tended to be lower than those of healthy ones, but showed similar levels to those of adult cows. T3 levels of calves with goiter were similar to those of healthy ones, but showed higher variation. T4/T3 ratio of calves with goiter were significantly lower than those of healthy ones and adult cows. While individual levels of serum T4 and T3 at just after birth could not be considered as a diagnostic index, the T4/T3 ratio could be adopted as a diagnostic index of endemic goiter.
To elucidate one way of the shock mechanisms, the hemodynamic alterations were examined in 7 dogs with heartworm (HW) extract-induced shock. The first alteration observed after injection of HW extract was a decrease in right ventricular end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP). After that, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, LV systolic pressure, and LV dp/dt fell significantly, followed by a decrease in the cardiac output of all dogs to below the detectable level (1.00 l/min). Since RVEDP depends on blood flow into the right ventricle, the decrease in RVEDP means a reduction in venous return. Therefore, this study showed that the first trigger of a decrease in blood pressure in HW extract-induced shock is the reduction in venous return.
A 5-year-old male Shiba dog with progressive neurologic signs was examined by computed tomography (CT). A CT image of the brain disclosed a large, spherical high-density lesion in the thalamus and diencephalon. Serum LH, FSH and testosterone levels were all low. Macroscopically the large mass was connected with the sella turcia, and it was histopathologically diagnosed as a pituitary chromophobe carcinoma. An aspermatogenesis was observed in the testes. Therefore, it was suggested that the low levels of gonado-tropin secretion from the pituitary gland due to the pituitary tumor resulted in the failure of maturation of spermatozoa and spermatids.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine responsible for regeneration, development and maintenance of various organs, and growth, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. A full-length feline HGF cDNA was cloned and sequenced by RT-PCR from cat liver. Feline HGF consists of 728 amino acid and contains α- and β-chains encoded in a single open reading frame. The predicted amino acid sequence of feline HGF showed 93.2, 93.3 and 93.3% homology with those of human, mouse and rat HGF, respectively. The putative proteolytic processing site, all cysteine residues, and four potential glycosylation sites are conserved in all species. Therefore, feline HGF is expected to have a similar three-dimensional structure to human, mouse and rat HGF.
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a molecular chaperone, is ubiquitous and involved in numerous cellular processes. To contribute to the relatively small collection of vertebrate Hsp90 sequences in the gene data bank, we cloned and sequenced horse (Equus caballus) Hsp90a and β cDNAs. This enabled identification of horse-specific primers for development of a convenient PCR-based method that could monitor horse stress tolerance. We analyzed the sequence data comparatively and phylogenetically with other Hsp90 cDNA sequences, and identified vertebrate-specific and isoform-specific conserved regions to facilitate future molecular investigations of Hsp90 functions. We found 4 highly conserved regions to vertebrate Hsp90 exclusively and 27 amino acids conserved among but differing between Hsp90 a and Hsp90 β sequences. Protein-based phylogenetic trees revealed high conservation between mammal species within Hsp90 a and β clusters. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid substitution levels suggests that horse Hsp90 β has undergone strong purifying selection, while rat Hsp90 β and hamster Hsp90 a have been positively selected. Surprisingly, fish Hsp90 a genes clearly clustered with Hsp90 β genes, and no distinct placement of fish Hsp90 a protein was found. The Hsp90 a isoform is apparently the result of β gene duplication. Our results highlight the importance of organism-and isoform-specific Hsp90 functional analyses in describing the role of Hsp90 in cells.
To clarify the phylogenic relationship of channel catfish with other fishes, the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene of the catfish was cloned and sequenced. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belonging to the family Ictaluridae in the order Siluriformes showed a 78.4-87.4 % similarity to all but one fish of the family Cyprinidae and river loach Crossostoma lacustre of the family Balitoridae in the order Cypriniformes in which genes had already been sequenced, and a 97.2 % similarity to the goldfish (Carassius auratus) belonging to the family Cyprinidae. Within the family Cyprinidae, a 78.8-89.2% similarity to one another was recorded. In addition, the similarity rate between the family Cyprinidae and the family Balitoridae reached a value of 77.8-79.9% in the order Cypriniformes. Furthermore, in an unrooted phylogenetic tree consisting of four branches among eight fishes, channel catfish and goldfish appeared in the same branch. These results suggested that the Cyt b gene of the channel catfish in the order Siluriformes was closely related to that of a goldfish in the order Cypriniformes. The results were not agreement with the morphological classification. Genetic reclassification of the fishes may be necessary to identify the ancestor. This is the first report on the cloning and complete sequencing the Cyt b gene of the channel catfish which may contribute to the genetic reclassification of catfishes belonging to the order Siluriformes.
Sporozoites of Toxoplasma gondii preincubated with lactoferricin showed decreased activity in penetration of mouse embryonal cells. Mice inoculated with 105 sporozoites preincubated with lactoferricin showed a higher survival rate than those inoculated with the same number of untreated sporozoites. Likewise, sporozoites of Eimeria stiedai preincubated with lactoferricin also showed decreased activity in penetration of rabbit hepatobiliary cells. Rabbits inoculated with 105 sporozoites preincubated with lactoferricin shed fewer oocysts than those inoculated with the same number of untreated sporozoites. These results indicate that lactoferricin is effective to reduce the infectivity of sporozoites of Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria stiedai.
Encephalitozoon spores were isolated in a primary tissue culture of the kidneys from an encephalitozoonosis-suspected rabbit in a municipal zoo in Hokkaido. The isolated spores were morphologically characteristic of microsporidial ones in chromotrope stain, and proven to be E. cuniculi by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a species-specific primer set and by direct DNA sequencing of the PCR products.
The relationship between malignancy and number of crypts (crypt multiplicity) comprising aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was investigated, by studying changes in the mucous nature of ACF with 5 crypts or less, ACF with 6-13 crypts, adenomas and invasive adenocarcinomas induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in distal colon of rats. A paradoxical Con A-staining was performed for goblet cell mucins. Of the sulfomucin-dominant ACF with 1-3 crypts, 82.6% had labile class III mucin, similar to the distal colon in the normal rats. However, in most of the goblet cell mucin produced by the ACF with 4-5 crypts with an indicated relation to colorectal carcinoma or the sialomucin (SiM) -dominant ACF with 1-3 crypts, mucin types other than class I were rarely present. The incidence of class I mucin decreased with the increase in crypt multiplicity of ACF or in the degree of histological malignancy, with the lowest incidence of 40% in adenocarcinomas. In contrast, the incidence of class II mucin increased markedly with the increase in crypt multiplicity of ACF or in the degree of histological malignancy, with the highest incidence in adenocarcinomas (95%). The ACF with 6-13 crypts had a mucous profile similar to that of adenomas. These results suggested that malignancy of ACF related to the crypt multiplicity. In the ACF with 1-3 crypts, SiM-dominant ACF had the potential to progress to malignant lesions.
Light microscopic and transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations were performed on the aortas of two 4- and 6-year-old deer affected with cervine ataxia and two 6-month- and 4-year-old healthy deer. Examination of the aortas from affected deer by transmission electron microscopy revealed the absence of distinct elastic laminae in the internal elastic lamina and tunica media, but discontinuous and irregular clumps of elastin were present. Scanning electron microscopy disclosed immature architecture of elastic fibers in the aortas from the copper-deficient deer, and the architecture was similar to that of a 6-month-old healthy deer.
To detect serum antibody against Pasteurella multocida (P.multocida) in infected rabbits, a modified immunoperoxidase assay was applied. An outbreak of P.multocida infection in rabbits started from sudden death. The infected rabbits had severe fibrinous and purulent pneumonia with hemorrhage, and a large number of P.multocida (A:12) was isolated from the trachea and lungs of the animals. Antibodies of IgM and IgG to P.multocida were assessed by immunohistochemical staining using the sera of the animals as primary antibodies and applying them to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of P.multocida attached to calf fibrin. IgM antibodies to P.multocida were first detected 7 days after the onset of the disease. IgG antibodies began to rise on the 7th or 14th day. These results suggested that the modified immunoperoxidase assay could detect antibodies against P.multocida.
A 15-year-old female mongrel dog showed abdominal swelling, marked hemorrhagic ascites and vulvar discharge, and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Grossly, the uterus was enlarged bilaterally without apparent mass formation. Histologically, the uterine muscular wall was composed of proliferated sinusoidal vessels. In some areas, irregular and small vessels proliferated markedly, while in others, pleomorphic and atypical tumor cells forming irregular vascular structures were predominant. From these findings, the case was diagnosed as diffuse bilateral hemangiosarcoma of the uterus that invaded to the ovary and broad ligament. The relationship between the tumor and angiomatosis was discussed.
A very rare case of the liver lesion characterized by formation of multinucleated giant hepatocytes with inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in two young (1.5 years and 2 years old) cats bearing thymic malignant lymphoma. Histopathological features of this liver lesion were very similar to giant cell hepatitis (GCH) in human neonates and infants. Therefore, the lesion was diagnosed as feline GCH.
The inotropic effect of diazepam, a benzodiazepine derivative, and its mechanism of action were examined using guinea pig heart and single ventricular cell preparations. In Langendorff hearts and right ventricular free-wall preparations, diazepam (10 to 100 μM) produced a monophasic negative inotropic effect in a concentration dependent manner. Neither a central type (flumazenil 1 μM) nor a peripheral type (PK11195 10 μM) of benzodiazepine receptor antagonist antagonized the monophasic negative inotropic effects of diazepam. Diazepam (10 to 100 μM) shortened action potential duration of papillary muscle in a concentration dependent manner. In isolated single ventricular cells, diazepam (30 and 100 μM) inhibited the calcium current (ICa) in a concentration dependent manner. Diazepam produced a significant decrease in ICa elicited by first depolarizing pulses, however, the decrease of ICa was not augmented during a train of depolarizing pulses. Thus, diazepam appears to produce a tonic block of cardiac calcium channels and the mode of inhibition is clearly different from the use-dependent block of verapamil. From these results, it was concluded that diazepam produces a monophasic negative inotropic effect that is independent of the benzodiazepine receptor, and is probably mediated through an inhibition of ICa in guinea pig heart preparations.
The feasibility of fecal steroid analysis for pregnancy diagnosis and sex determination were tested in sika deer (Cervus nippon). Feces were collected from captive sika deer in June (non-breeding season and late-pregnancy period) and October (breeding season), and also from the rectum of 24 female sika deer (19 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant females) shot as part of programs for population control in February and March (mid-pregnancy period). In mid- and late-pregnancy periods, fecal progesterone concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant female than in male and non-pregnant female deer. In October, fecal testosterone concentrations were higher in adult male deer, and no difference was found between young males and females. These results suggest that fecal steroid analysis would be a useful means for estimating pregnancy status and for detecting adult male among wild deer.
Three hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against LSCC-BK3 cells which are susceptible to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection were produced and characterized. The MAbs, designated T7, Q11 and Q13, inhibited the attachment of IBDV to LSCC-BK3 cells. Furthermore, these MAbs bound to LSCC-BK3 but not to nonpermissive cells in flow cytometry. MAb T7 detected a 110-kDa membrane protein of LSCC-BK3 cells, whereas Q11 and Q13 reacted with membrane proteins of molecular weights 58-, 85-, 90- and 110-kDa. These observations imply that the 110-kDa protein recognized by all the MAbs is associated with IBDV binding. The MAbs established in this study are useful for studying the interaction between IBDV and its target cell.
To detect the molecules that interact with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), the chicken B lymphoblastoid cell line, LSCC-BK3, which is permissive for virulent IBDV infection was investigated. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized plasma membrane fraction from the cells was subjected to a virus overlay protein binding assay. The IBDV specifically bound to proteins in LSCC-BK3 plasma membranes with molecular weights of 70, 82 and 110 kDa. This is the first report to demonstrate cellular molecules that interact with virulent IBDV.