The present study was designed to clarify lung-kidney interrelation in fetal rats. On fetal day 20, liquid paraffin (LP) was injected into fetal thoracic cavity to produce pulmonary hypoplasia. No significant difference in body and renal weights were noted between the LP injected and control fetuses. The weight of lung, however, was significantly lower in the LP injected fetuses than in the control ones. Histological examinations on the lung and kidney of the LP injected fetuses revealed that the lung was hypoplastic characterized by rich interstitium and reduced air spaces. In the kidney, mature types of glomeruli and profiles of proximal tubules near them were increased in number. Furthermore, strong expression of EGF immunoreactivity was noted in the apical cytoplasm of epithelium of the proximal tubules in the LP injected fetuses. These findings indicate that lung-kidney interrelation exists in fetal rats during late gestational days, and suggest that interruption of the lung development induces accelerated growth of the kidney in fetal rats.
Xenopus laevis has three distinctive olfactory neuroepithelia. We examined the axonal projection from each of these epithelia to the olfactory bulb by Di-I labeling, and confirmed that the Xenopus primary olfactory pathways involve the dorsal pathway from the olfactory epithelium to the dorsal region of the main olfactory bulb, the ventral pathway from the middle chamber epithelium to the ventral region of the main olfactory bulb, and the vomeronasal pathway from the vomeronasal epithelium to the accessory olfactory bulb. We next examined expression patterns of glycoconjugates in the three olfactory pathways by lectin-histochemistry using 21 biotinylated lectins. Fourteen out of 21 lectins stained the Xenopus primary olfactory system. RCA-I stained the three olfactory pathways uniformly. PHA-E stained only the dorsal pathway. LEL, STL, PNA, ECL and UEA-I stained the dorsal pathway more intensely than the ventral pathway, and among them, only UEA-I stained the vomeronasal pathway. In contrast, s-WGA, DBA, SBA, BSL-I VVA, SJA and PHA-L showed intense stainings in the ventral pathway and moderate stainings in the vomeronasal pathway, but faint or weak stainings in the dorsal pathway. These observations suggest that the ventral pathway expresses glycoconjugates shared commonly with either the dorsal or the vomeronasal pathway. In addition, from the binding patterns of the lectins with a binding specificity for N-acetylgalactosamine, glycoconjugates containing this saccharide seem to play an important role for the organization of the olfactory pathways.
In the chicken proventricular mucosa, aggregations of lymphocytes were localized in three different sites of the lamina propria, namely, underneath the surface epithelium, near the duct orifice of the deep proventricular gland, and in the gland tissue itself. In the lymphoid masses underneath the surface epithelium and in those near the duct orifice, CD4+ T lymphocytes and TCR2+ T lymphocytes occupied their central part, and B lymphocytes were localized in the periphery. CD8+ T lymphocytes and TCR1+ lymphocytes were evenly distributed in the masses. Infiltration of lymphocytes into these sites was first observed on the 20th embryonic day. At 1 week after hatching, CD3+ lymphocytes began to occupy the central area of the masses and His-C1+ B lymphocytes tended to be located in the periphery. Ultrastructurally, M cells were found neither in the epithelium of the mucosa nor in that of the excretory duct close to the lymphoid masses. In the deep proventricular gland, the lymphoid masses had a germinal center consisting of B lymphocytes, surrounded by the T lymphocyte-rich periphery. These masses were first recognized at the 3rd post-hatching week, presumably being formed against possible antigens invading into the lumen of the proventricular gland. On the other hand, the lymphoid masses beneath the surface epithelium and those near the duct orifice existing before the hatching period were considered to be prepared to establish the local mucosal immune barriers against the expectant antigenic invasion.
Leptin is the ob gene product secreted from adipocytes in mammals, and thereby its plasma level reflects body fat content. To establish an assay method for leptin in the dog, rabbit anti-canine leptin antibody was obtained using canine recombinant leptin as an antigen. This antibody reacted to canine leptin much stronger than mouse, rat and human leptins. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using this antibody was developed. The serum leptin levels of 13 healthy dogs were in a range from 1.4 to 5.6 ng/ml with the mean ± SEM of 3.0 ± 0.3 ng/ml.
An unusual case diagnosed as connective tissue-type mast cell leukemia with marked mastocyte infiltration into visceral organs in a seven-year-old female Curly-Coated retriever is presented. Acute circulatory collapse, emesis, diarrhea, abdominal enlargement, icterus, cyanosis, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, hepatomegary, ascites, and right ventricular enlargement were observed. Hematologic and biochemical examinations revealed mast cell leukemia, mature neutrophilia, monocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia, hyperhistaminemia, renal and hepatic injuries. Mast cells were distributed systemically, but predominantly in the diaphragm and liver with a large mass among the serosa of ileum, cecum and colon. Mast cells were stained intensely by both safranin and berberine sulfate.
In this study, we evaluated methods of determining the velocity patterns of pulmonary venous flow (PVF) in dogs and then investigated the relationship of the patterns to cardiac functions in heartworm disease (HD) by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). The results revealed that there was a good correlation between PVF patterns determined by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and TTE in animals lying on their left sides. The measurement of S and D wave velocities (PVS and PVD) by TTE was shown to allow clinical determination of the velocity patterns of PVF in dogs. The HD groups showed significant increases in PVS and PVD, and S and D wave time-velocity integrals (S-TVI and D-TVI) of the right cranial lobe PVF, when compared with the normal group, as determined by TTE (P<0.05). In contrast, the HD groups produced significant decreases in PVD and D-TVI of the right caudal lobe PVF compared with the normal group (P<0.05), and a significant increase in the ratio of S-TVI to (S-TVI + D-TVI) (P<0.05). It is, therefore, suggested that measurement of the velocity patterns of the right cranial and caudal lobe PVF could be one method of assessing the stages of obstructive lesions in the pulmonary artery.
In order to examine the safety of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in dogs with impaired renal excretion route, benazepril was administered orally, and plasma concentrations of benazeprilat, the active metabolite of benazepril, were determined in dogs with renal mass reduction (1/4th kidney) created by right-side nephrectomy and ligation of branches of the left renal arteries. Five dogs were administered benazepril orally at a given dose (0.5 mg/kg body weight) and 4 other dogs received 20 times that dose (10 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 15 consecutive days before (intact kidney period) and after (1/4th kidney period) creation of kidney impairment. Six control dogs received surgical treatment, but no drug. After creating a 1/4th kidney, plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations increased to approximately 30 mg/dl and 2.0 mg/dl, respectively, and renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased to 37% and 30% of pre-treatment values, respectively. However, these parameters did not change significantly during the 1/4th kidney period both in the 0.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg groups. In the 0.5 mg/kg group, plasma benazeprilat concentrations increased to approximately 20 ng/ml to 340 ng/ml 2 hr after each administration, and there were no significant differences between the plasma benazeprilat concentrations during the intact and 1/4th kidney periods. In the 10 mg/kg group, plasma benazeprilat concentrations varied in the individual dog, but did not increase with the days of administration, and were not significantly different on each administration day between the intact and 1/4th kidney periods in either dose group. The AUCs(0-24) of plasma benazeprilat concentrations determined on the 15th administration day were not different between the intact and 1/4th kidney periods in dogs of either dose group. Plasma ACE activities decreased after drug administration in dogs of both groups. Benazepril seemed to have a high safety, and the adjustment of dosage regimen might not be needed in dogs with mild to moderate renal function impairment because the drug was excreted both from the kidneys and liver.
A 1-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat was referred with anorexia and weight loss. Hematologic findings indicated nonregenerative anemia, severe neutropenia and monocytosis. The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive reaction by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dysgranulopoiesis with slight increase in blast cells were observed in bone marrow smears. On the basis of blood and bone marrow findings, the cat was diagnosed as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL), which possibly corresponds to a kind of the subtypes in human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
Seven Thoroughbred horses were laparotomized and Force Transducers were fixed on the proximal jejunal and cecal serosa. After observation of the digestive tract motility in consciousness, cisapride (0, 0.5, 0.75 or 1 mg/kg) was orally administered. In horses treated with 0.75 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg cisapride, the migrating contraction (MC) of the jejunum was significantly increased in frequency.
No significant cytotoxic effect was observed in WKAH rat cells by the treatment of wortmannin, a radiation sensitizer, at concentrations lower than 30 μM for 24 hr. The relative surviving fractions of LEC rat cells were slightly, but significantly, lower than those of WKAH rat cells at each concentration of wortmannin. When the wortmannin-treated WKAH rat cells were X-irradiated, the relative surviving fractions decreased in a wortmannin concentration-dependent manner. On the contrary, no significant difference was observed between the survival curves of untreated and wortmannin-treated LEC rat cells after X-irradiation.
All stages of degeneration and regeneration in chicken tracheal epithelium were studied morphologically following an intratracheal inoculation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Viral antigen was detected in the cytoplasm of tracheal epithelium from 1 to 7 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.) with a peak on 3 d.p.i. At 1 d.p.i., almost all epithelial cells were involved in the degeneration. At this time, labelling index of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in the basal cells showed significantly high value compared with control. At 2 and 3 d.p.i., a great number of basal cells were recognized, but the BrdU labelling index tended to decrease. At 4 and 5 d.p.i., the BrdU labelling index of basal cells significantly decreased than 1 d.p.i., and a few number of regenerated immature ciliated epithelia appeared. At 6 to 11 d.p.i., the ciliated columnar epithelia increased rapidly in number, and returned to the normal appearance except for non-ciliated patch by 13 d.p.i. These results suggested that the tracheal epithelial cells infected with IBV degenerated within 24 hours and proliferating activity of basal cells functioned immediately, and 3 to 4 days later, these basal cells were differentiated to the ciliated epithelia.
Of 822 calves, ranging in age between one day and six months necropsied between 1996 and 1998 at Miyazaki University, histological examination showed that 25 (3.0 %) had ocular lesions. These ocular lesions consisted of suppurative inflammation (13 cases), cataract (seven cases), and retinal atrophy (five cases). Inflammatory changes were classified as suppurative keratitis (one case), keratitis and uveitis (ten cases), and uveitis and retinitis (two cases). Cataract was subclassified into three categories; cortical (three cases), nuclear (one case), and mature (three cases). These lesions were characterized by degenerative changes in the lens fibers and the appearance of eosinophilic globules known as Morganian globules. In the most severely affected case, there was capsular rupture of the lens, resulting in severe infiltration by eosinophils and histiocytes of the whole anterior chamber. Almost all the calves with retinal atrophy had been suffering from severe hydranencephaly and three had significantly raised levels of neutralization antibodies for the Akabane and/or Aino viruses. This study indicates that congenital arbovirus infections may predispose calves to ocular diseases, especially retinal atrophy.
A number of pale-stained cell foci were observed within a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma which developed in a 10-year-old male mongrel dog. The foci were composed of hepatocyte-like cells, but did not contain glycogen granules in their cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the focus cells coexpressed both bile duct type cytokeratin and vimentin. Electronmicroscopically, they were abundant in cytoplasmic organelles and contained bile pigments. Bile canaliculi were noted between the focus cells. The focus cells in the present case were considered to be neoplastic hepatocytes expressed bipotential features of hepatic stem cells.
The mechanisms of ischemic neuronal death have been focused on glutamate receptor activation and subsequent elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dizocilpine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, pretreatment on Fos expression and parvalbumin (PV, calcium binding protein) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of the mongolian gerbil after global ischemic insults. The number of PV-immunoreactive (PV-ir) neurons in CA1 were significantly decreased from 1 day after cerebral ischemia, while dizocilpine pretreatment completely suppressed the loss of PV-ir neurons in CA1. Dizocilpine pretreatment also protected the structural loss of microtubule-associated protein 2 immunoreactivity in CA1 after ischemic insults. In addition, dizocilpine pretreatment increased Fos expression in both hippocampal CA3 and CA4 after 3 hr ischemic reperfusion as compared to that of the saline pretreated group. Subsequently, the Fos-defined cellular activity of PV-ir neurons was slightly increased by dizocilpine pretreatment in the hippocampal area. This study demonstrated that NMDA receptor mediated calcium influx was associated with the loss of PV-ir neurons in CA1 hippocampal region, and that dizocilpine pretreatment increased Fos expression and the neuronal activity of PV-ir neurons in the non-vulnerable region of hippocampus after cerebral ischemia. Based on this data, we conclude that the protective effect of dizocilpine may be induced by the regulation of calcium overload, or by the upregulation of a neuroregenerative initiator such as Fos protein.
Three dogs diagnosed as having asthenozoospermia were given three intramuscular injections of 50 mg testosterone(T)-depot plus 250 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) at 2-week intervals, and their plasma T and testicular transferrin (Tf) concentrations, testicular histology, and semen quality were examined during the period of hormone therapy. Plasma T concentrations temporarily increased, and there was a slight improvement in spermatogenesis. Increased Tf concentrations suggested that Sertoli cell function in all three dogs was promoted by hormone treatment. The results showed that semen quality, especially the percentages of motile sperm and abnormal sperm, were improved between 1 and 5 weeks after the start of T-depot plus PMSG treatment.
Pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9), a new type of equine herpesvirus isolated from Gazella thomsoni, in horses was investigated by intranasal inoculation of EHV-9 (107 pfu) to two conventionally reared 8-months old half-bred weanling horses. Fever higher than 39°C was recorded. Virus was recovered from nasal swabs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both horses developed neutralizing antibody to EHV-9. Perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells and glial reaction were found in the olfactory and limbic systems. The results suggested that EHV-9 has a pathogenicity in horses.
The correlation between maternal serum antibodies in beef calves at 2 days old and protection against diarrhea induced by natural bovine rotavirus (BRV) infection was examined. Virus neutralizing (VN) antibody titers against BRV in sera from calves that developed diarrhea by BRV infection within 14 days of age (BRV-diarrheal calves) were significantly lower than those from calves that had no diarrhea. In the BRV-diarrheal calves, a positive correlation was found between the VN antibody titers and age of the onset of diarrhea. There were negative correlations between the VN antibody titers and duration of the diarrhea, VN antibody titers and cumulative diarrhea scores, and the VN antibody titers and duration of virus shedding. These results suggest that the VN antibody titers against BRV in newborn calf serum could be an indicator of protection against BRV-induced diarrhea.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker from jellyfish Aequorea victoria is considered to have potential use in the study of host-pathogen relationships, by tracing infections in living cells, organs and animals. We compared the pathogenicity of Sendai virus with an inserted GFP gene (GFP-SeV) with that of its wild-type (Wt-SeV) to determine the usefulness of the recombinant virus in long-term infection of BALB/c nude (nu/nu) mice. The results indicated that the presence of GFP in infected cells could be analyzed easily and sensitively. GFP helped in identifying and in understanding the cellular sites of viral replication in vitro and in vivo. However, the GFP insertion into the Wt-SeV genome, led to decreased pathogenicity, altering the in vivo viral kinetics.