The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the mouse retina and optic nerve of the prenatal and postnatal mouse by immunohistochemistry. At embryonic day (E) 18, chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and biglycan were detected in the retina and optic nerve. However, aggrecan was seen in the retina but not in the optic nerve. At postnatal day (P) 7, aggrecan and biglycan were clearly observed in the optic nerve, inner nuclear layer and ganglion cell layer and diffuse in the outer retina. C4S diffusely distributed in the retina and optic nerve, but C6S was mainly confined to the photoreceptor layer and optic nerve sheath. At P42, biglycan showed diffuse distribution in the retina and optic nerve with intense staining in nerve-fiber rich layers. Aggrecan showed weak staining at the inner plexiform layer with higher density in the outer and inner nuclear layers, outer plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer. Both C4S and C6S were detected in the optic nerve and retina, but C6S showed strong immunostaining in the photoreceptor layer. The distributions of these proteoglycans with respect of time course during development of the retina and optic nerve suggest that they may have unique or overlapping roles in development and maintenance of the retina and optic nerve.
Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (Gb) has been known to improve blood flow and preclude the tissue from free radical damage. Effects of Gb were examined by using Ki67, a specific proliferative marker for cellular proliferation, and doublecortin (DCX), a marker for immature neurons, indicating degree of neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of adult C57BL/6 mice. The mice were fed with Gb at 40 and 100 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. The increase of Ki67- and DCX-immunoreactive cells in the DG was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Especially, the group having 100 mg/kg Gb showed a significant increase of DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts with well-developed tertiary dendrites. Expression of DCX protein in the Gb groups was also significantly increased upon compared with the vehicle group. The results suggested that repeated intake of Gb would enhance cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse DG.
The complete nucleotide sequences of the fusion (F) protein gene of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated in Japan from 1930 to 2007 (45 strains total) were determined and genetically analyzed. In the deduced amino acid sequences of fusion protein, the 5 potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites and 10 cysteine residues were all conserved in the NDV examined in this study. The major epitopes involved in virus neutralization are conserved in most of the NDV strains isolated in Japan except a few strains. By virus neutralization test, no major antigenic differences were observed among representative strains of each genotype in Japan. All chickens vaccinated with the B1 strain survived without clinical signs after challenge with 2 NDV strains isolated in Japan (velogenic strains, JP/Ibaraki/2000 and JP/Kagoshima/91), which possess amino acids substitutions involved in virus neutralization in the F protein gene.
We surveyed the occurrence of edwardsiellosis on eel farms and investigated the characteristics of Edwardsiella tarda isolated from farm-cultured eels in the Republic of Korea. The occurrence rate of edwardsiellosis was 72% in the investigated samples. Among the edwardsiellosis cases, 46% were found to be mixed infections, with parasites and other kinds of bacteria. Some of the biochemical characteristics of the E. tarda isolates were different from those of the previously reported E. tarda isolated from several kinds of fish from different countries, especially in terms of hydrogen sulfide and indole production. The E. tarda isolated from the eels in the Republic of Korea had the characteristics of two biogroups, the wild-type biogroup and biogroup 1. The enzymatic activity of the E. tarda showed similar patterns to previously reported E. tarda strains and ATCC strains. This is the first it has been reported that E. tarda isolated from farm-cultured eels had some different biochemical characteristics from those of previously reported E. tarda isolated from several kinds of fish.
One hundred and 63 Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates from pigs, consisting of 65 isolated in 2003 and 98 isolated in 2007, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. All 163 B. bronchiseptica isolates were sensitive to polymyxin B and cefoperazone/sulbactam; the majority of the strains were sensitive to amikacin (149/163; 91.4%), gentamicin (132/163; 81.0%), ampicillin/sulbactam (127/163; 77.9%) and ciprofloxacin (115/163; 70.6%). A high level of resistance was found for furazolidone (100%), ampicillin (90.2%), cefazolin (89.0%), streptomycin (87.7%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (74.2%) and tetracycline (64.4%). Comparison of the data revealed that isolates with multiresistance to at least six or eight of the 17 antimicrobials used became more frequent, with the proportions increasing from 32.3% or 16.9% in 2003 to 90.8% or 41.8% in 2007.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of NEFA and glucose on carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) mRNA expression in cultured bovine hepatocytes using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and ELISA methods. The results indicated that CPT-I transcription increased gradually, but that CPT-I translation was not significantly changed, with glucose concentrations ranging from 0 to 3.0 mmol/L (P<0.01). Furthermore CPT-I transcription and translation were enhanced significantly when the NEFA concentrations increased from 0 to 1.2 mmol/L and decreased significantly when the NEFA concentrations increased from 1.2 to 4.8 mmol/L (P<0.01). A high concentration NEFA was found to reduce fatty acid oxidation, potentially explaining the development from NEB to ketosis in dairy cows.
Prototheca zopfii is divided into three genotypes, one of which, P. zopfii genotype 2, appears to be the main causative agent of bovine protothecal mastitis. However, the difference in pathogenicity between genotypes 1 and 2 has not been well investigated. In the present study, we experimentally infected normal bovine mammary gland with P. zopfii genotype 1 to investigate its pathogenicity. The mammary gland infected with P. zopfii genotype 1 showed no clinical signs. However, the histopathologic features of the infected mammary gland consisted of interstitial infiltrates of macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts with neutrophils in acinar lumens. Algae were present in macrophages and free in the alveolar lumens and the interstitium. Histopathology of the resultant tissue samples revealed that genotype 1 also induced a granulomatous lesion in the cow teat, similar to the mastitis lesion due to genotype 2.
We retrospectively studied the clinical and laboratory features and outcomes of chronic enteropathy in Shiba dogs. Among 99 dogs with chronic enteropathy, 21 Shiba dogs (21%) were included in the study (odds ratio, 7.14). No significant differences were seen in signalment, clinical signs, symptoms or laboratory profiles between the Shiba and non-Shiba groups. Severe histopathological lesions in the duodenum were a common finding in the Shiba group. The median overall duration of survival in the Shiba group was 74 days, while that of the dogs in the non-Shiba group could not be determined because more than half of the cases remained alive at the end of this study. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). The 6-month and 1-year survival rates for the Shiba group were 46% and 31%, respectively. Conversely, the 6-month, 1-year and 3-year survival rates for the non-Shiba group were 83%, 74% and 67%. The results obtained here demonstrated that the Shiba dog is predisposed to chronic enteropathy and shows severe duodenum lesions and poor outcomes, indicating a breed-specific disease.
To obtain B-mode ultrasound images of mammary glands in dairy heifers at different stages of growth, 25 clinically normal Holstein heifers were used. The heifers were divided into 5 groups (n=5/group) by stage of their growth: 2-month-old (group 1), 5-month-old (group 2), postpuberty (group 3), mid (group 4), and late (group 5) pregnancy. Furthermore, the sections of mammary glands were observed grossly at postmortem examination in one heifer in each group. Ultrasound images varied with the development of mammary glands. In group 1, the mammary glands had distinctive ultrasonographic findings: an oval to fusiform homogeneous hypoechoic structure. In all groups except group 1, mammary tissue consists of two major areas: a homogeneous, medium echogenic area and a poorly-defined, heterogeneous, hypoechoic area mostly in the superficial part. The superficial hypoechoic area spread more extensively and more irregularly with the development of mammary glands. Most pregnant heifers had irregular and extremely hypoechoic or anechoic areas like lactiferous sinus in the glands. The gross findings of mammary glands suggested that the hypoechoic areas of various shapes represented the lactiferous sinus and ducts. Thus, these results indicate that B-mode ultrasound imaging can visualize the internal structures of udders and could be a useful tool for evaluation of mammary glands in heifers.
The plasma N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) concentration is measured for determining the diagnosis and severity of heart failure in dogs. However, it is still unclear whether measurements of circulating NT-proBNP levels provide clinical utility as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy. Thus, we investigated the surgical correction-related changes of plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in 9 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were conducted both before and after surgery. Similarly, the plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were determined using an enzyme immunoassay for canine pro-BNP. The International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) class and murmur grade were significantly improved after surgery compared with before surgery. Vertebral heart size (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) were significantly decreased after surgery. Fractional shortening was significantly decreased and relative wall thickness (RWT) was significantly increased after surgery. Furthermore, the plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were significantly decreased by surgical correction. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration showed significant positive correlation with the ISACHC class, murmur grade, VHS and CTR and significant negative correlation with the RWT. Therefore, measurement of plasma NT-proBNP levels can be used to monitor the effectiveness of therapies such as surgical correction of PDA.
Prekallikrein (PK) deficiency is an uncommon disorder in dogs. In this report, we describe a case of a dog that was referred for neurological defects and had a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and normal prothrombin time (PT) with no hemostatic defects. By using human PK-deficient plasma, the dog was diagnosed to have PK deficiency. The nucleotide sequence of normal canine PK cDNA was determined and compared with the genomic sequences of PK in the affected dog. The comparison revealed that the dog had a point mutation in exon 8 that leads to an amino acid substitution in the fourth apple domain of PK. This is the first report showing a point mutation of PK in a dog with PK deficiency.
It is strongly suspected that equine influenza virus (EIV) is the origin of canine influenza virus (CIV, H3N8), which was first isolated in U.S.A. in 2004, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. Although the distribution of influenza virus sialoreceptors seems to be associated with this interspecies transmission, there have been scant data of comparison about distributions of sialoreceptors on the whole respiratory tract between horses and dogs. We examined the histological distribution of influenza virus sialoreceptors on the upper and lower respiratory tract in detail in both animals using double lectin staining with Maackia amurensis (specific for SAα2,3Gal) and Sambucus sieboldiana (specific for SAα2,6Gal). SAα2,3Gal was observed on the surface of ciliated epithelial cells in the nasal mucosa, trachea and bronchus in both animals. The results may indicate that dogs are susceptible to EIV without alteration of receptor binding specificity.
A percutaneous renal biopsy was performed on a 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat with pleural effusion, mild azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and proteinuria. Glomerular lesions included mild diffuse hypercellularity and numerous capsular adhesions with segmental sclerosis/hyalinosis of glomerular tufts. Electron microscopy revealed many subendothelial dense deposits with characteristic outer protrusion of glomerular basement membrane. Diffuse and global granular deposits of IgG and C3 were detected along the capillary walls. Tubulo-interstitial changes were mild at the time of biopsy, but progression of the disease was predicted because of the many capsular adhesions of the glomerular tufts. The cat was fed a prescription diet without any other specific or symptomatic therapy after renal biopsy, and died 43 weeks after the biopsy. At necropsy, extensive tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration had developed throughout the cortex and outer medulla, and most glomeruli had extensive global sclerosis or obsolescence with less prominent depositions of IgG and C3.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breed on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of caffeine (CF) and the hepatic metabolic capacity in sheep. CF was administered as a single intravenous dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. in Morkaraman (MK), Akkaraman (AK) and Anatolia Merino (AM) sheep breeds. The plasma levels of CF and its primary metabolites, theobromine (TB), paraxanthine (PX) and theophylline (TP), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters of CF and its metabolites were calculated. Plasma TB+PX+TP/CF metabolic ratio was determined as an alternative to CF clearance for the determination of hepatic metabolic capacity. In the three breeds, all kinetic parameters of CF differed significantly (P<0.05) except for volume of distribution. Elimination of CF was slow in the MK (ClT; 0.03 ± 0.01 l hr/kg, t1/2λz; 15.74 ± 7.35 hr) and AM (ClT; 0.05 ± 0.02 l hr/kg, t1/2λz; 9.68 ± 5.21 hr) breeds when compared with the AK breed (ClT; 0.08 ± 0.01 l hr/kg, t1/2λz; 6.84 ± 0.79 hr). There was significant correlation (r2=0.904, P<0.01) between CF clearance and the plasma TB+PX+TP/CF ratio calculated at 7 hr after CF administration. The plasma TB+PX+TP/CF ratios were statistically different (P<0.05) among the breeds (MK, 0.155 ± 0.062; AK, 0.468 ± 0.107; AM, 0.254 ± 0.099). These results suggest that the pattern of drug biotransformation should be consistently tested for all breeds within species. Further studies are needed to determine the biochemical and molecular events underlying such an effect.
The offspring of a beef cow affected with L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) was kept in a pen at a BSE-dedicated animal facility till the offspring was 48 months of age. The steer was then euthanized and subjected to a test for BSE. The abnormal isoform of the prion protein was not detected in the brain and spinal cord of the steer. Transmission of L-BSE was not observed during 4 years of observation, though the steer was born when the dam was in the terminal stages of the disease.
Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is an effective treatment for canine Cushing's disease, as well as human Cushing's disease. In humans, only the pituitary adenoma tissue is resected by TSS. However, in dogs, the whole pituitary including normal tissue is resected. Hence, central diabetes insipidus (CDI) may complicate the postoperative course in almost all dogs with Cushing's disease treated by TSS. However, it is difficult to assess the duration of the postoperative CDI, and whether it may be transient or permanent. In this study, postoperative CDI in 21 dogs with Cushing's disease and its predicted prognosis by preoperative parameters was investigated. In this study, CDI after TSS was classified as either transient or permanent based on the requirement for desmopressin. Preoperative circulating serum cortisol concentrations and pre- and post-operative plasma AVP concentrations were not significantly different between the transient CDI dogs and permanent CDI dogs. The duration of postoperative CDI was not correlated to the signal intensity ratio (posterior lobe of the pituitary/cerebral cortex), which is obtained from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the pituitary height/brain area (P/B) ratio of the permanent CDI dogs was significantly greater than that of the transient CDI dogs. In addition, there was a significant difference between the enlarged-pituitary (P/B ratio > 0.31) transient CDI dogs and the permanent CDI dogs. These results suggest that the incidence of postoperative permanent CDI is strongly influenced by the pituitary size.
We report here the non-contrast and contrast-enhanced computed tomography performed in two calves with brain abscess and multiple pulmonary abscesses with pharyngeal abscess, respectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography was useful in the diagnosis of these diseases in both calves. The diseases were confirmed by histopathological examination.
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been reported to promote axonal regeneration when transplanted to rodent spinal cord injury models. OECs are available from the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory mucosa (OM). Although harvesting OECs from the OM is less traumatic, OECs originating from the OM are less proliferative than those from the OB (OB-OECs). One possible reason for this difference is coexisting fibroblasts. Here, we examined the effect of coculturing either fibroblasts from the OB (OB-Fibs) or fibroblasts from the OM (OM-Fibs) on the proliferation of OB-OECs. Proliferation of OB-OECs was significantly higher in 5:5 coculture with OB-Fibs and in 7:3 and 5:5 cocultures with OM-Fibs than without fibroblasts. These results indicated that coculture with both OB-Fibs and OM-Fibs promoted the proliferation of OB-OECs.
We attempted to characterize the influence of undernutrition on erythropoiesis in toxicity studies. Male rats were divided into the following 5 groups: dietary restriction groups in which feeding was restricted by 33% or 66% for 14 days (R33 and R66); phlebotomy groups in which 1% or 4% of total blood volume was removed by serial phlebotomy for 14 days (PB01 and PB04); and a nontreated group (NT). Toxicological parameters such as hematology and blood chemistry were evaluated. The body weight gains in the R33 and phlebotomy groups (PB01 and PB04) were similar and were less than that observed in the NT group. Decreases in peripheral blood reticulocytes, bone marrow erythroids and the unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) were observed as changes that suppressed erythropoiesis in the R33 and R66 groups. However, increases in reticulocytes and UIBC were observed as opposite changes in the phlebotomy groups. In addition, an increase in the blood urea nitrogen level and a decrease in the serum alkaline phosphatase level were observed as changes reflecting poor nutrition in the phlebotomy groups. Decreased reticulocytes which are related to poor nutrition were not observed. However, increases in those cells as reflected by a loss of blood were observed in the phlebotomy groups. Even if undernutrition suppresses erythropoiesis, the ability of erythropoiesis to respond to a demand appears to be retained. In repeated dose toxicity studies, decreased food consumption is often observed in the drug administration groups. Our study results provide useful information for hematological evaluations in toxicity studies.
To define the source of circulating inhibin in female Asian elephants, the immunolocalizations of the inhibin α, βA and βB subunits, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) and cytochrome 17α-hydroxylase P450 (P450 c17) were investigated. Concentrations of immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin, progesterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during the estrous cycle were measured by radioimmunoassay. Inhibin immunoreactivity in follicular fluid and homogenate of corpora lutea was also measured. Immunolocalizations of inhibin subunits, 3β-HSD, P450arom and P450c17 were detected in the granulosa cells of antral follicles and luteal cells. The follicular fluid contained high levels of ir-inhibin and bioactive inhibin. The homogenate of corpora lutea also contained ir-inhibin. Serum ir-inhibin remained at low levels during the early non-luteal phase, began to increase from the late non-luteal phase and continued to increase during the early luteal phase. Serum ir-inhibin showed maximal levels in the middle of the luteal phase and gradually decreased to baseline three weeks prior to progesterone decline. The serum ir-inhibin levels were positively correlated with progesterone throughout the estrous cycle. On the other hand, ir-inhibin was negatively correlated with FSH during the late non-luteal and early luteal phases. These findings strongly suggest that the corpus luteum is one of the sources of inhibin as well as granulosa cells in the Asian elephant.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is closely related to various cell reactions. In B-cells, Syk is involved in early B-cell receptor signaling, which affects cellular survival, proliferation and differentiation. Although the kinetics of Syk mRNA and its activity are variable in different types of tumor cells, Syk may have a relation to tumor progression in many human tumors, including B-cell lymphoma/leukemia. In this study we examined whether Syk mRNA expression was changed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-induced persistent lymphocytosis (PL) and lymphoma. As a result, we demonstrated that the Syk mRNA expression was significantly increased in PL samples, whereas it was decreased in tumor samples. Moreover one cow, which Syk mRNA expression has been lowest among PL cattle, developed lymphoma three months later and the expression significantly decreased. These data suggest that Syk mRNA expression dynamics is closely related to BLV-induced disease.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza has spread throughout the world since April 2009 and has caused many human deaths since its first report in humans. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus was first identified in a Canadian pig herd in April 2009 and has been reported in more than ten countries, including Korea. We developed a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on the matrix gene that discriminates pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus from endemic swine influenza viruses. The sensitivity of this assay was 100 copies of in vitro-transcribed target RNA and 0.01 tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/ml) of virus and was as high as those of conventional influenza A virus common matrix reverse transcriptase PCR assays and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays (1 to 200 copies) developed for detecting pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses from human and pig samples. This one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay would be a good tool in monitoring pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus among pig herds on a regular basis.
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is considered to be associated with leukemia, lymphoma and immunodeficiency-like diseases in koalas. We therefore conducted a pilot study of KoRV infection in five Queensland koalas in Kobe Municipal Oji Zoo. By polymerase chain reaction to detect partial env and pol genes of KoRV in genomic DNA isolated from whole blood and feces, all five koalas were found to be positive for KoRV proviruses. We succeeded in culturing koala lymphocytes from less than 1 ml blood for over 14 days in the presence of recombinant human interleukin-2. By coculturing the lymphocytes with human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, we isolated KoRVs from all five koalas. We designated these isolates as strains OJ-1 to OJ-5. By electron microscopy, we observed C-type retroviral particles in HEK 293T cells chronically infected with KoRV strain OJ-4. This is the first report on the isolation of KoRV from koalas in a Japanese zoo.