Glycerol has been recently used to induce muscle adiposity in mice. However, its effects on the rat muscles have not been investigated previously. Therefore, we investigated the regeneration outcomes of rat muscles following glycerol-induced injury at different time points. Glycerol injection induced myofiber degeneration with extensive inflammatory infiltration on day 4 followed by appearance of regenerating myotubes on day 7 after injury without adipocyte infiltration. Meanwhile, a significant collagen deposition at early stage of regeneration that increased together with persistent inflammatory infiltration up to day 14 after injury indicates impaired regeneration. In conclusion, glycerol injury in rats is more suitable as a fibrosis-inducing model than in mice due to earlier and higher accumulation of fibrous tissue with lacking adipogenesis.
The name “Actinomyces suis” was applied to each actinomycete isolate from swine actinomycosis by Grässer in 1962 and Franke in 1973. Nevertheless, this specific species was not included in the “Approved List of Bacterial Name” due to absence of the type cultures. Therefore, “Actinomyces suis” based on the description of Franke 1973 has been considered as “species incertae sedis”. We isolated a number of Actinomyces strains from swine. The representative strains of them was designated as Chiba 101 that was closely similar to the description in “Actinomyces suis” reported by Franke in 1973. Interestingly, it was found that the biological characteristics of these strains were also very similar to those of Actinomyces denticolens. Furthermore, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) value between strain Chiba 101 and the type-strain of Actinomyces denticolens (=DSM 20671T) was found to be 99.95%. Sequences of the housekeeping genes and 16S rRNA gene showed 100% homology. These results strongly suggested that “Actinomyces suis” Franke 1973 is the same species as Actinomyces denticolens. Since actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces denticolens have been demonstrated in horses recently, it is necessary to recognize that Actinomyces denticolens is the pathogenic actinomycetes in broader range of animals.
Stability of α-amylase (α-A), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lipase, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and total esterase activity (TEA) in two pools of porcine saliva was studied after 1 and 4 days at 4°C, and after 30, 90 and 360 days at −20° and −80°C. At 4°C, BChE, lipase and TEA were stable less than 1 day, α-A less than 4 days and ADA for up to 4 days. At −20°C, BChE and TEA were stable less than 30 days, α-A and lipase less than 90 days and ADA up to 360 days. At −80°C, TEA was stable less than 30 days, α-A and lipase less than 360 days, and BChE and ADA for up to 360 days.
We investigated possible associations of SLA class II haplotypes with serum antibody titers against a swine erysipelas vaccine, reproductive and meat production traits using a population of selective breeding Duroc pigs. In the selective breeding Duroc pigs, four SLA class II-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles were assigned by using PCR-sequence specific primer technique. Low-resolution haplotype (Lr)-0.30 and/or Lr-0.13 were deduced from the SLA class II alleles in the population of SLA-defined Duroc pigs. SLA-homozygous piglets with the Lr-0.30 haplotype had relatively lower serum antibody titers against the vaccine compared to those with Lr-0.13. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive performance between the SLA-defined pigs with two SLA class II haplotypes. Weaning and rearing rates until the body weight of 105 kg was reached in homozygous piglets with Lr-0.30 were significantly lower than those in homozygous piglets with Lr-0.13. The SLA-defined pigs had lower birth and weaning weights, body weights at 60 days of age, and daily weight gains than non-selective breeding Duroc pigs. Furthermore, the SLA-defined pigs had slightly lower back fat thickness compared to the non-selective breeding pigs. The rib eye areas of homozygous or heterozygous pigs with Lr-0.13 were larger than those of homozygous pigs with Lr-0.30 and non-selective breeding pigs. These data suggested that SLA haplotypes had the potential as useful genetic markers for selective breeding in the population of SLA-defined Duroc pigs.
We examined the pathogenesis of the attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/JPN/2000 in pigs. The virus used in this study was passaged three times in primary bovine kidney (BK) cells and once in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells after isolation. A plaque assay demonstrated that this virus exhibited the small plaque (SP) phenotype. There was no clinical or histological evidence of vesicular lesions in pigs intraorally inoculated with 106 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/ml of the SP virus (SPV) of FMDV O/JPN/2000. Although fever was detected from 2 or 3 days post inoculation (dpi), there was no other prominent clinical sign up to 6 dpi. Virus shedding from saliva and nasal swab samples was not observed in any pigs inoculated with the SPV of FMDV O/JPN/2000. In the foot, mild lamellar degeneration of prickle cells in the upper layer of the stratum spinosum was histologically observed without development into vesicular or necrotic lesions. Immunohistochemical virus antigen- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive reactions observed in the foot at 1 dpi seemed to disappear after 3 and 6 dpi. Our findings suggest that the SPV of FMDV O/JPN/2000 had low pathogenicity against pigs by intraoral inoculation.
An Okhotsk snailfish (Liparis ochotensis) kept at Nagoya aquarium exhibited sudden death. Microscopically, the fish showed multiple granulomatous foci in the gills, liver and kidney. Multiple yeast-like organisms as well as pseudohyphal elements were observed within granulomatous lesions. Immunohistochemically, the hyphae were negative for both Asperigullus and Mucor spp., and a weak positive for Candida sp. The seminated-PCR product was consistent with Candida parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This is the first record of disseminated mycotic granulomatous lesion due to C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis infection in fish.
Although chondroinductive growth factors are considered necessary for chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), independent and spontaneous chondrogenesis has been previously demonstrated in adult horses, bovine calves and adult human BMSC. Surprisingly, adult canine BMSC under similar culture conditions previously failed to demonstrate chondrogenesis. The present study evaluated independent chondrogenic potential of BMSC sourced from three young dogs in the absence of known chondroinductive factors. BMSC were culture expanded in 10% DMEM up to third passage (P3). At each passage, the phenotype of BMSC was evaluated by RT-PCR gel electrophoresis and qPCR. BMSC exhibited a chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of dexamethasone and TGF-β1 as verified by the expression of Sox-9, type II collagen and aggrecan. Sox-9 was significantly downregulated (P<0.05) from P1−P3 compared to P0 while type II and X collagen, and aggrecan were significantly downregulated at P3 compared to P0. There was a significant (P<0.01) negative correlation between passaging and Sox-9, type II collagen and aggrecan gene expression. These results indicate that independent chondrogenic potential and phenotype retention of BMSC decreases in a passage-dependent pattern. Therefore, caution should be exercised for future experiments evaluating the chondrogenic potential of BMSC after extensive expansion cultures in 10% DMEM.
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an infectious agent that can cause canine distemper (CD), a lethal disease. Immunization is an effective method to control the infection; however, some cases of failed immunization are observed in animal hospitals every year. Therefore, in this study, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of the H gene of isolated CDVs. We first constructed a modified MDCK cell line, which constitutively expressed signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), a specific receptor for CDV. The modified cell line was more suitable for propagation of CDV than the original MDCK cell line. Next, 9 CDVs were successfully isolated from 20 dogs with suspected CD-associated diseases. Of these CDV isolates, three were from vaccinated dogs. The analysis indicated that the H gene sequences of these 9 viruses were highly similar. The present study further supported the finding that the majority of CDV in China belonged to the genotype Asia-1, which was different from vaccine strains (America-1 and America-2). Although the clinical application of the vaccine suggested that it is effective against CDV infection, it remains an open question whether a novel vaccine based on the genotype of the Asia-1 strain would be more suitable for protection of dogs against Asia-1 CDVs infection.
Severe papillomatosis occasionally causes astasia leading to euthanizing cattle. There are currently a limited number of reports on virologic approach in severe bovine papillomatosis. Here we report a full genome characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) from the case of severe papillomatosis. A calf developed numerous papillomas on the skin and some nodules in the upper gastrointestinal tract at seven months old. The skin lesion was diagnosed as the epithelial papilloma with BPV antigen expression, while the gastrointestinal lesions were diagnosed as the fibropapilloma without BPV antigen. Full genome analysis revealed that BPV-1s detected in all the lesions were exactly the same. Compared with the reference BPV-1 sequence, there was a single nucleotide insertion in the upstream regulatory region.
A serologic survey of Brucella infection was performed in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica, n=71), Baikal seals (P. sibirica, n=7), ringed seals (P. hispida hispida, n=6), and beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas, n=4) inhabiting Russian waters, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Brucella abortus and B. canis as antigens. The sera of 4 Caspian seals (4%) tested positive for B. abortus. The same sera samples demonstrated weaker yet detectable affinity for B. canis antigens. Several discrete bands against B. abortus and B. canis antigens were detected on Western blot analysis of the ELISA-positive seal sera; the bands against B. canis were weaker than those against B. abortus. The sera of 3 beluga whales (75%) were positive for B. abortus antigens but showed no binding to B. canis antigens in the ELISA. The positive whale sera showed a strong band appearance only against B. abortus antigens in the Western blot analysis. Many detected bands were discrete, while some of them had a smeared appearance. The present results indicate that Brucella infection occurred in Caspian seals and beluga whales inhabiting Russian waters, and that the Brucella strains infecting the seals and the whales were antigenetically distinct.