Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent protozoon that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including humans. It is frequently used as an Apicomplexan parasite model in research. In this review, the invasion mechanism of T. gondii is described as a representative Apicomplexan parasite. The invasion machinery of T. gondii consists of the moving junction and the glideosome, which is a specific motor system for Apicomplexan parasites. I provide details about the moving junction, parasite-secreted proteins and host adhesion receptors, the glideosome, and calcium signaling, which generates the power for the gliding mobility of T. gondii. A detailed understanding of parasite invasion can be useful for the development of new effective drugs to inhibit this event and disrupt the Apicomplexan life cycle.
Glycerol has been recently used to induce muscle adiposity in mice. However, its effects on the rat muscles have not been investigated previously. Therefore, we investigated the regeneration outcomes of rat muscles following glycerol-induced injury at different time points. Glycerol injection induced myofiber degeneration with extensive inflammatory infiltration on day 4 followed by appearance of regenerating myotubes on day 7 after injury without adipocyte infiltration. Meanwhile, a significant collagen deposition at early stage of regeneration that increased together with persistent inflammatory infiltration up to day 14 after injury indicates impaired regeneration. In conclusion, glycerol injury in rats is more suitable as a fibrosis-inducing model than in mice due to earlier and higher accumulation of fibrous tissue with lacking adipogenesis.
The name “Actinomyces suis” was applied to each actinomycete isolate from swine actinomycosis by Grässer in 1962 and Franke in 1973. Nevertheless, this specific species was not included in the “Approved List of Bacterial Name” due to absence of the type cultures. Therefore, “Actinomyces suis” based on the description of Franke 1973 has been considered as “species incertae sedis”. We isolated a number of Actinomyces strains from swine. The representative strains of them was designated as Chiba 101 that was closely similar to the description in “Actinomyces suis” reported by Franke in 1973. Interestingly, it was found that the biological characteristics of these strains were also very similar to those of Actinomyces denticolens. Furthermore, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) value between strain Chiba 101 and the type-strain of Actinomyces denticolens (=DSM 20671T) was found to be 99.95%. Sequences of the housekeeping genes and 16S rRNA gene showed 100% homology. These results strongly suggested that “Actinomyces suis” Franke 1973 is the same species as Actinomyces denticolens. Since actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces denticolens have been demonstrated in horses recently, it is necessary to recognize that Actinomyces denticolens is the pathogenic actinomycetes in broader range of animals.
Stability of α-amylase (α-A), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lipase, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and total esterase activity (TEA) in two pools of porcine saliva was studied after 1 and 4 days at 4°C, and after 30, 90 and 360 days at −20° and −80°C. At 4°C, BChE, lipase and TEA were stable less than 1 day, α-A less than 4 days and ADA for up to 4 days. At −20°C, BChE and TEA were stable less than 30 days, α-A and lipase less than 90 days and ADA up to 360 days. At −80°C, TEA was stable less than 30 days, α-A and lipase less than 360 days, and BChE and ADA for up to 360 days.
We investigated possible associations of SLA class II haplotypes with serum antibody titers against a swine erysipelas vaccine, reproductive and meat production traits using a population of selective breeding Duroc pigs. In the selective breeding Duroc pigs, four SLA class II-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles were assigned by using PCR-sequence specific primer technique. Low-resolution haplotype (Lr)-0.30 and/or Lr-0.13 were deduced from the SLA class II alleles in the population of SLA-defined Duroc pigs. SLA-homozygous piglets with the Lr-0.30 haplotype had relatively lower serum antibody titers against the vaccine compared to those with Lr-0.13. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive performance between the SLA-defined pigs with two SLA class II haplotypes. Weaning and rearing rates until the body weight of 105 kg was reached in homozygous piglets with Lr-0.30 were significantly lower than those in homozygous piglets with Lr-0.13. The SLA-defined pigs had lower birth and weaning weights, body weights at 60 days of age, and daily weight gains than non-selective breeding Duroc pigs. Furthermore, the SLA-defined pigs had slightly lower back fat thickness compared to the non-selective breeding pigs. The rib eye areas of homozygous or heterozygous pigs with Lr-0.13 were larger than those of homozygous pigs with Lr-0.30 and non-selective breeding pigs. These data suggested that SLA haplotypes had the potential as useful genetic markers for selective breeding in the population of SLA-defined Duroc pigs.
Appropriate dosages of cilostazol have not been studied in veterinary patients, and the degrees of heart rate (HR) increase have not been studied in dogs administered cilostazol. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the degrees of HR increase in healthy dogs administered cilostazol. Thirty healthy beagle dogs (15 males and 15 females; age, 5–8 years) were divided into 3 groups of 10 dogs each and orally administered 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg cilostazol (twice a day at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM for 10 days). Higher HR increases were seen in the 5 mg/kg group than in the 2.5 mg/kg group at all time points except 7:00 AM, 9:00 AM, 1:00 PM, and 4:00 PM (P<0.01). Higher HR increases were also observed in the 10 mg/kg group than in the 2.5 mg/kg group at all time points except 4:00 PM (P<0.01). The 10 mg/kg group showed higher HR increases than the 5 mg/kg group at all time points except 6:00 AM, 7:00 AM, 6:00 PM, and 7:00 PM (P<0.05 for 4:00 PM and 5:00 PM; P<0.01 for the other time points). These results together show that the HR of healthy dogs increased in a dose-dependent manner after cilostazol administration twice a day at doses of 5 to 10 mg/kg. These results provide a useful basis for choosing cilostazol in the treatment of bradyarrhythmia in dogs.
A 10-week-old miniature dachshund presented with acute onset of weakness. Electrocardiography showed sustained ventricular tachycardia, and thoracic and abdominal radiography revealed pleural and peritoneal effusion. Echocardiography revealed severely hypokinetic left and right ventricles. Thoracocentesis and abdominocentesis and subsequent transfer to an oxygen chamber yielded no clinical improvement, and the dog died about 1 hr after admission. Gross examination of a longitudinal section through the entire heart revealed poorly demarcated focal or patchy areas of grayish-white tissue infiltrating extensively into the myocardium. Histologically, these lesions were consistent with infiltrative proliferation of neoplastic lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) of T-cell origin. There have been no previous reports of such young dogs with PCL.
Insulin degludec (IDeg) is a new insulin formulation that facilitates long-term control of glucose level in humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of IDeg on glycemic control in dogs. Its time-action profiles were monitored in healthy dogs using an artificial pancreas apparatus under euglycemic conditions. At 9.0–13.5 hr post-IDeg injection, an indistinct peak of glucose level was detected. Moreover, the action of IDeg was persistent for >20 hr. Both IDeg and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH) lowered blood glucose concentrations in diabetic dogs, but IDeg caused postprandial hyperglycemia and a somewhat lower preprandial glucose level than that caused by NPH. IDeg might be ineffective in concurrently preventing postprandial hyperglycemia and preprandial hypoglycemia in a single-agent administration.
Canine nasal carcinomas are often treated with radiotherapy. Presence of lysis of the cribriform plate by tumor invasion (stage 4 by modified Adams’s staging system) is a well-known prognostic factor. In this study, dogs with stage 4 disease were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of midline shift of the olfactory or frontal lobes of the brain (Stage 4a: without presence of midline shift. Stage 4b: with midline shift). The median survival time of dogs with midline shift was significantly shorter than that of dogs without midline shift (64 vs. 208 days). Our results indicate that the finding of a midline shift might have a prognostic significance in dogs with nasal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy.
We examined the pathogenesis of the attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/JPN/2000 in pigs. The virus used in this study was passaged three times in primary bovine kidney (BK) cells and once in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells after isolation. A plaque assay demonstrated that this virus exhibited the small plaque (SP) phenotype. There was no clinical or histological evidence of vesicular lesions in pigs intraorally inoculated with 106 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/ml of the SP virus (SPV) of FMDV O/JPN/2000. Although fever was detected from 2 or 3 days post inoculation (dpi), there was no other prominent clinical sign up to 6 dpi. Virus shedding from saliva and nasal swab samples was not observed in any pigs inoculated with the SPV of FMDV O/JPN/2000. In the foot, mild lamellar degeneration of prickle cells in the upper layer of the stratum spinosum was histologically observed without development into vesicular or necrotic lesions. Immunohistochemical virus antigen- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive reactions observed in the foot at 1 dpi seemed to disappear after 3 and 6 dpi. Our findings suggest that the SPV of FMDV O/JPN/2000 had low pathogenicity against pigs by intraoral inoculation.
An Okhotsk snailfish (Liparis ochotensis) kept at Nagoya aquarium exhibited sudden death. Microscopically, the fish showed multiple granulomatous foci in the gills, liver and kidney. Multiple yeast-like organisms as well as pseudohyphal elements were observed within granulomatous lesions. Immunohistochemically, the hyphae were negative for both Asperigullus and Mucor spp., and a weak positive for Candida sp. The seminated-PCR product was consistent with Candida parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This is the first record of disseminated mycotic granulomatous lesion due to C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis infection in fish.
The neoplastic mass developed in the left flank of a Border Collie dog. The tumor was resected surgically and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically. Histologically a moderate number of spindle cells were proliferated with staghorn, placentoid, and myxoid growth patterns and a lack of perivascular whirling. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive to vimentin, laminin, S-100 protein, CD34 and CD117 antibodies. They were negative to cytokeratin AE1/3, desmin, α-SMA and calponin antibodies. Endothelial cells of the staghorn channels were positive for vWF antibody. The present case was diagnosed as spindle cell tumor, but it was similar to human classical hemangiopericytoma (HEP) and canine HEP classified by Avallon and others.
Intraocular cholesterol granuloma (CG) associated with synchysis scintillans (SS) was diagnosed in a 5-year-old spayed Shetland sheepdog. During the initial clinical examination, the patient exhibited SS in the anterior chamber. Canine SS is usually found in the vitreous cavity, and SS in the anterior chamber has not been described. Since canine SS has been reported to be a non-progressive condition, and its long-term clinical course has not been adequately documented. The present case report describes the long-term clinical course of a case of canine SS, in which SS occurred in the anterior chamber, leading to intraocular CG formation, and eventually glaucoma.
A total of 449 samples including 385 seafood and 64 water samples in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam collected in 2015 and 2016 were examined. Of 385 seafood samples, 332 (86.2%) samples were contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 25 (6.5%) samples were pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus carrying tdh and/or trh genes. The tdh gene positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were detected in 22 (5.7%) samples and trh gene positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were found in 5 (1.3%) samples. Of 25 pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains, two strains harbored both tdh and trh genes and the other 23 strains carried either tdh or trh gene. Of 64 water samples at aquaculture farms, 50 (78.1%) samples were contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus. No tdh gene positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were detected; meanwhile, trh gene positive V. parahaemolyticus strain was detected in 1 (1.6%) sample. Twenty-six pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated were classified into 6 types of O antigen, in which the serotype O3:K6 was detected in 4 strains. All pathogenic strains were group-specific PCR negative except for 4 O3:K6 strains. The result of antimicrobial susceptibility test indicated that pathogenic strains showed high resistance rates to streptomycin (84.6%), ampicillin (57.7%) and sulfisoxazole (57.7%). These findings can be used for understanding microbiological risk of seafood in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
A rapid risk assessment was conducted using a questionnaire composed of 10 questions asking experts in African swine fever (ASF) to identify and rank the potential risk factors associated with the introduction and spread of ASF in Japan. The experts participating in this risk assessment considered illegal food import, followed by transport routes and foreign workers, to be the most relevant pathway of ASF introduction into Japan. Kanto and Kyushu were identified as the most likely regions for ASF introduction. All experts agreed that China is the most likely source of ASF introduction into Japan. Most Japanese experts were of the view that the risk of ASF spread if introduced into Japan would be low, while foreign experts considered the risk to be moderate or high. Most experts answered that wild boars would play an important role in the persistence of ASF if the disease were to spread in Japan.
Although chondroinductive growth factors are considered necessary for chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), independent and spontaneous chondrogenesis has been previously demonstrated in adult horses, bovine calves and adult human BMSC. Surprisingly, adult canine BMSC under similar culture conditions previously failed to demonstrate chondrogenesis. The present study evaluated independent chondrogenic potential of BMSC sourced from three young dogs in the absence of known chondroinductive factors. BMSC were culture expanded in 10% DMEM up to third passage (P3). At each passage, the phenotype of BMSC was evaluated by RT-PCR gel electrophoresis and qPCR. BMSC exhibited a chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of dexamethasone and TGF-β1 as verified by the expression of Sox-9, type II collagen and aggrecan. Sox-9 was significantly downregulated (P<0.05) from P1−P3 compared to P0 while type II and X collagen, and aggrecan were significantly downregulated at P3 compared to P0. There was a significant (P<0.01) negative correlation between passaging and Sox-9, type II collagen and aggrecan gene expression. These results indicate that independent chondrogenic potential and phenotype retention of BMSC decreases in a passage-dependent pattern. Therefore, caution should be exercised for future experiments evaluating the chondrogenic potential of BMSC after extensive expansion cultures in 10% DMEM.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is widely accepted as the standard treatment for benign gall bladder diseases in humans because it has proven to be less invasive and safer than are traditional methods. However, the efficacy of LC in dogs remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the short-term outcome of LC for benign gall bladder diseases in dogs. We enrolled 76 consecutive dogs that underwent LC for benign gall bladder diseases at our hospital between April 2008 and October 2016. Dogs with jaundice, gall bladder ruptures, abdominal effusion, or extrahepatic biliary obstruction were not excluded from the indication. Factors including age, body weight, sex, clinical sign, disease, operative time, conversion to open surgery, perioperative complications, and postoperative hospital stay were investigated. The median age of the dogs was 11 years, and the median body weight was 5.4 kg. Fifty percent of the dogs exhibited no symptoms at the initial visit. Preoperative elevation of total bilirubin levels was observed in 16 dogs (21%). LC was successfully completed in 71 dogs (93%); the median operative time was 124 min. Although gall bladder ruptures were observed in 2 (2.6%) dogs, the operations were completed successfully. Three dogs (4.1%) had to be converted to open cholecystectomy and 2 (2.6%) underwent reoperation. Two dogs (2.6%) died intraoperatively and 2 (2.6%) died postoperatively. LC was a feasible, safe, and appropriate procedure considering the current operative indications for benign gall bladder diseases in dogs.
A 7-year-old Miniature Schnauzer presented with exercise intolerance and easy fatigability. Echocardiography revealed the presence of supravalvular pulmonary stenosis. The peak velocity through the stenosis was 6.4 m/sec, and the interventricular septum was flattened. Cutting balloon angioplasty was designed for the treatment of coronary artery stenosis, which was resistant to conventional balloon angioplasty. Accordingly, the dog underwent cutting balloon angioplasty and conventional balloon dilation. One month after treatment, it showed neither exercise intolerance nor easy fatigability. The ventricular septum flattening disappeared. Five months later, the dog showed an increase in activity. Two years later, the peak velocity through the stenosis decreased to 4.4 m/sec. Neither clinical symptoms nor restenosis was observed. Thus, supravalvular pulmonary stenosis was successfully treated using this combination method. The present case showed that combined cutting balloon and conventional balloon angioplasty is a useful and minimally invasive treatment for supravalvular pulmonary stenosis.
We tried measurement of visual acuity in laboratory beagle using pattern stimulus visual evoked potential (P-VEP). We recorded P-VEP in 6 beagles which were corrected refractive power. The stimulus pattern size was 1.22 mm. The testing distance were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m. The visual angles and spatial frequency were calculated from stimulus pattern size and distance. In all subjects, P-VEP was clearly recorded in all testing distance, and this result means that the eye could recognized grid pattern on the stimulus monitor. When stimulus monitor was set up 2.0 m, spatial frequency was 14.29 cpd. From our results, it was founded that the visual acuity in laboratory beagle which was corrected refractive power was 14.29 cpd and more.
This study was conducted on red foxes to determine the appropriate voltage in electroejaculation for semen collection from stud males, and to confirm whether frozen semen with bovine semen extender can be used for artificial insemination. The proper load voltage for electroejaculation was 3–4 V based on semen collection rates and concentrations of spermatozoa. Frozen semen was prepared according to the known procedure for cows. In frozen-thawed semen, a relatively high conception rate (81.3%) was obtained in vixens, in which the optimum insemination time was detected by vaginal electrical resistance. These findings demonstrate that the restricted condition for semen collection by electroejaculation with cryopreservation of semen using bovine semen extender can be applied to artificial insemination of red foxes.
A new cell line (GS-1) was developed from the spleen tissue of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides applied for viral infection studies of fish ranavirus and megalocytivirus. The cells proficiently multiplied in Leibovitz’s L-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at temperatures between 20°C and 32°C. Morphologically, the cell line comprised fibroblast-like cells, and this was confirmed by immunostaining with vimentin, fibronectin, and desmin antibodies. The optimal temperature for grouper iridovirus (GIV) and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) proliferation in GS-1 cells was 25°C, and the highest titer of GIV was 108.4 TCID50/ml, and the highest titer of ISKNV was 105.2 TCID50/ml. Electron micrographs showed that the mean diameter of GIV virions was 180−220 nm, which was larger than ISKNV virions (160−200 nm). Negatively stained GIV particles possessed an envelope structure that was assembled by the three-layered structure with an inner electron-dense core surrounded by a lighter coat (mean diameter, 27 ± 3 nm). The highest GIV-induced mortality of groupers occurred at 25°C, whereas the highest ISKNV-induced mortality occurred at 30°C. In summary, GS-1 cell line is a valuable tool for isolating and investigating fish ranavirus and megalocytivirus in the same host system.
We previously demonstrated that transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) could induce apoptosis through caspase signaling. However, apoptosis was not completely prevented by caspases inhibitors, suggesting that there may be a caspase-independent pathway involved in TGEV-induced cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the regulation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) on TGEV-induced apoptotic pathway. Results indicated that AIF translocated from the mitochondria to nucleus during TGEV infection, and the AIF inhibitor, N-phenylmaleimide (NP), significantly attenuated the apoptosis. In addition, the translocation of AIF was inhibited by Veliparib (ABT-888), an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). And the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC), redistributed AIF in the mitochondria and nucleus in TGEV-infected cells. Moreover, the protein levels in nucleus and the mRNA levels of AIF were inhibited in the presence of the p53 inhibitor, piﬁthrin-α (PFT-α) or in TGEV-infected p53−/−cells. Furthermore, TGEV-induced apoptosis was blocked by combination of three or more inhibitors, such as pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, NP, ABT-888, PDTC, PFT-α, to treat PK-15 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the p53- and ROS-mediated AIF pathway and caspase-dependent pathway were involved in TGEV-induced apoptosis.
The purpose of this study was to detect porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) subclinically infected pigs shipped from non-case farms to slaughterhouses. Systematic sampling was conducted at two slaughterhouses. A total of 1,556 blood samples were collected from 80 case and non-case farms from pigs over 6 months old. Blood samples were centrifuged to obtain sera. Serial serum dilutions were subjected to serological examination for PEDV presence using Neutralization test (NT). The cut-off titer was set at titer of 1:2 dilution and farms with at least one positive sample in duplicate were classified as PED-positive farms. Several non-case farms (9.4%, 6/64) and 100% (16/16) of the case farms were indeed positive for PEDV. The proportion of seropositive animals from case farms was 63.7%, significantly different from that of non-case farms (4.3%, P<0.05). In both case and non-case farms, the proportion of seropositive animals in farrow-to-finish farms was significantly higher than in wean-to-finish farms (P<0.05). Seropositive animals in non-case farms were detected by NT in a sero-survey by sampling at slaughterhouses. Therefore, subclinically infected pigs should be considered prior to shipment.
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an infectious agent that can cause canine distemper (CD), a lethal disease. Immunization is an effective method to control the infection; however, some cases of failed immunization are observed in animal hospitals every year. Therefore, in this study, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of the H gene of isolated CDVs. We first constructed a modified MDCK cell line, which constitutively expressed signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), a specific receptor for CDV. The modified cell line was more suitable for propagation of CDV than the original MDCK cell line. Next, 9 CDVs were successfully isolated from 20 dogs with suspected CD-associated diseases. Of these CDV isolates, three were from vaccinated dogs. The analysis indicated that the H gene sequences of these 9 viruses were highly similar. The present study further supported the finding that the majority of CDV in China belonged to the genotype Asia-1, which was different from vaccine strains (America-1 and America-2). Although the clinical application of the vaccine suggested that it is effective against CDV infection, it remains an open question whether a novel vaccine based on the genotype of the Asia-1 strain would be more suitable for protection of dogs against Asia-1 CDVs infection.
Severe papillomatosis occasionally causes astasia leading to euthanizing cattle. There are currently a limited number of reports on virologic approach in severe bovine papillomatosis. Here we report a full genome characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) from the case of severe papillomatosis. A calf developed numerous papillomas on the skin and some nodules in the upper gastrointestinal tract at seven months old. The skin lesion was diagnosed as the epithelial papilloma with BPV antigen expression, while the gastrointestinal lesions were diagnosed as the fibropapilloma without BPV antigen. Full genome analysis revealed that BPV-1s detected in all the lesions were exactly the same. Compared with the reference BPV-1 sequence, there was a single nucleotide insertion in the upstream regulatory region.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and -5) are antigenically and genetically related and can establish latent infection. We aimed to analyze the applicability of the milk sample to detect latently BoHV-infected cattle. BoHV-1 non-vaccinated clinically healthy cows from five dairy cattle herds (herd 1, n=24; herd 2, n=39; herd 3, n=39; herd 4, n=36; herd 5, n=70) were studied. We confirmed the presence of BoHV-1, and for the first time, BoHV-5 in the milk of naturally infected dairy cattle.
A serologic survey of Brucella infection was performed in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica, n=71), Baikal seals (P. sibirica, n=7), ringed seals (P. hispida hispida, n=6), and beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas, n=4) inhabiting Russian waters, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Brucella abortus and B. canis as antigens. The sera of 4 Caspian seals (4%) tested positive for B. abortus. The same sera samples demonstrated weaker yet detectable affinity for B. canis antigens. Several discrete bands against B. abortus and B. canis antigens were detected on Western blot analysis of the ELISA-positive seal sera; the bands against B. canis were weaker than those against B. abortus. The sera of 3 beluga whales (75%) were positive for B. abortus antigens but showed no binding to B. canis antigens in the ELISA. The positive whale sera showed a strong band appearance only against B. abortus antigens in the Western blot analysis. Many detected bands were discrete, while some of them had a smeared appearance. The present results indicate that Brucella infection occurred in Caspian seals and beluga whales inhabiting Russian waters, and that the Brucella strains infecting the seals and the whales were antigenetically distinct.
The number and distribution of Eurasian otters have declined during twentieth century due to human activity and water pollution. The global conservation status of Eurasian otter is presently ‘Near Threatened (NT)’ and strictly protected by being listed on the international legislation and conventions. A number of studies using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) have been conducted in order to effectively apply conservation and reintroduction programs, especially in Europe. However, aside from Europe, there have been few studies concerning genetic diversity and phylogeny of Eurasian otters. Therefore, in this study, we sequenced partial mtDNA CR sequences (232 bp) from five South Korean Eurasian otters and analyzed 27 otters originating from parts of northeast Asia (South Korea, China, Japan and Russia (Sakhalin)), and Europe. Out of 232 bp partial mtDNA CR sequences, 13 polymorphic sites (5.6%) were identified and 4 novel mtDNA CR haplotypes (Lut16–19) were discovered from 12 Eurasian otters originating from northeast Asian region. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Eurasian otter between Europe and northeast Asia continents were conducted. Of these, different past demographic histories in Pleistocene period might have largely impacted the genetic structure of each population differently. In addition, low degree of gene flow, isolation by distance (IBD) pattern from geographically wide distanced dataset and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) also represented distinct genetic characteristics of Eurasian otter between Europe and northeast Asia.