The olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the Corriedale sheep were examined using lectin histochemistry in order to clarify the histochemical and glycohistochemical differences between these two tissues. The olfactory epithelium was stained with 13 lectins out of 21 lectins examined, while the respiratory epithelium was positive to 16 lectins. The free border of both of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia was stained with 12 lectins: Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120), Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). The associated glands of the olfactory mucosa, Bowman’s glands, were stained with 13 lectins. While both the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands were stained with 8 lectins; five of them (WGA, s-WGA, STL, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) and ECL) were mutually positive among the Bowman’s glands, mucous nasal glands and the goblet cells. These findings indicate that the glycohistochemical characteristics of the free borders of both olfactory and respiratory epithelia are similar to each other, suggesting that secretions from the Bowman’s glands and those of the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands are partially exchanged between the surface of two epithelia to contribute the functions of the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory receptor cells, respectively.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possibility of immunoelectron microscopic observation of endocrine cells in paraffin-embedded tissues. The procedure, which involves reprocessing from sliced tissues and immunohistochemical staining by colloidal-gold immunolabeling of paraffin sections from paraffin blocks, was able to reveal the fine characteristics of secretory granules containing glucagon-like peptide-1. Morphometric analyses of the secretory granules showed no significant differences between the reprocessing procedure and a conventional post-embedding procedure, which was performed as a control. The reprocessing procedure has some advantages besides providing information on secretory granules containing the amino acid peptide. For example, the same cell can be observed under both a light microscope and the electron microscope. In addition, the high-electron densities of silver-enhanced gold particles are easily recognized, and the boundary between the profile of the granules and the immunogold labeling is clearly shown at the electron microscopic level. Furthermore, the procedure, which is inexpensive and does not require special devices, can effectively use precious samples that are already paraffin-embedded and unable to be obtained twice, such as the case for endangered animals and rare pathological tissues. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report the advantages of the reprocessing method for sliced paraffin sections of gut endocrine cells.
The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in the eastern part of Poland to a set of 20 antibiotics and three alternative agents: lysostaphin, nisin and polymyxin B. Eighty-six out of 123 examined isolates were susceptible to all 20 tested antibiotics (70%). The highest percentage of resistance was observed in the case of β-lactam antibiotics: amoxicillin (n=22, 17.9%), ampicillin (n=28, 22.8%), penicillin (n=29, 23.6%) and streptomycin (n=13; 10.6%). Twenty-five of the penicillin-resistant strains were found to carry the blaZ gene coding for β-lactamases. Two strains were found to be mecA positive and a few strains were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR), one of them was simultaneously resistant to six antibiotics. All strains, resistant to at least one antibiotic (n=37) and two control strains, were susceptible to lysostaphin with MIC values of 0.008–0.5 µg/ml (susceptibility breakpoint 32 µg/ml). Twenty-one (54%) isolates were susceptible to nisin. The MIC value of this agent for 17 (44%) strains was 51.2 µg/ml and was not much higher than the susceptibility breakpoint value (32 µg/ml). Polymyxin B was able to inhibit the growth of the strains only at a high concentration (32–128 µg/ml). The presented results confirmed the observed worldwide problem of spreading antibiotic resistance among staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis; on the other hand, we have indicated a high level of bactericidal activity of nisin and especially lysostaphin.
Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are cell-wall deficient, epierythrocytic bacteria that cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species. The prevalence of hemoplasma species was examined by screening and species-specific PCR using blood samples collected from 51 sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan. Molecular analyses were performed for the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and RNase P RNA (rnpB) gene sequences. A total of 23/51 (45%) deer DNA samples were positive for hemoplasmas in the screening PCR. Using species-specific PCR, 12 and 17 samples were positive for ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemocervae’ and ‘Candidatus M. erythrocervae’, respectively. Sequencing and phylogenetic trees of those three genes indicate that the ‘Candidatus M. haemocervae’ and ‘Candidatus M. erythrocervae’ detected in Japanese deer are potentially different species from the cervine hemoplasma found in deer from America and Brazil.
Reovirus infection is common in mammals. However, seroepidemiological data of reovirus neutralizing antibodies are limited in dogs. In this study, sera of 65 healthy dogs from six prefectures across Japan were tested for neutralizing antibodies against reovirus serotype 1 strain Lang (T1L), serotype 2 strain Amy (T2A) and serotype 3 strain Dearing (T3D) using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Seropositivity against reovirus T1L, T2A and T3D was 53.85%, 33.85% and 46.15%, respectively. Distribution of reovirus seropositive samples displayed no distinguishable geographical pattern. However, reovirus seropositivity increased with age and in dogs housed outdoor. Co-infection of multiple reovirus serotypes in dogs was also detected. These data will provide valuable insights towards the usage of reovirus in oncolytic virotherapy in canine cancers.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal signs in dogs. In humans, T helper cells have important roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. In contrast, no specific involvement of a distinct T cell subset has been described in canine IBD. The present study evaluated the gene and protein expression of cytokines of T cell subsets in duodenal mucosa from dogs with IBD. Relative quantification of interleukin (IL)-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA transcription was performed using duodenal mucosa from 27 IBD dogs and 8 controls. Duodenal mucosal IL-17A, IFN-γ and IL-10 protein levels were determined by ELISA in 15 IBD dogs and 8 controls. There was no significant difference in each cytokines mRNA transcription level between groups. There was no significant difference in IL-17A, IFN-γ and IL-10 protein expression levels between groups. Thus, there is no clear evidence for the involvement of distinct Th cytokine in the pathogenesis of canine IBD.
In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax.
A 10-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever presented with progressive left hind lameness. Ultrasonography revealed large, subcutaneous, ovoid cysts around the stifle joint. Radiographic and computed tomographic images revealed periosteal reaction of the distal femur. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a large cyst that was hypointense in T1-weighted images, hyperintense in T2-weighted images and had a thin lining that was enhanced by intravenous gadonium injection. The cyst communicated with the joint cavity and other small cysts around the joint. Histopathology of an excisional biopsy specimen led to diagnosis of ganglion cyst. This report provides MR images of a ganglion cyst in a canine stifle.
Tumors involving the oral cavity of the horse are uncommon. No cases of equine adenocarcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue have been reported in the literature. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one-third of the tongue in a 29-year-old gelding with severe dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed an epiglottis involvement, and histology was consistent with adenocarcinoma arising from minor salivary glands, which was associated with a severe fungal colonization of affected tissues. The goals of this report are to present an uncommon case of dorsum of the tongue-associated neoplasia and to highlight the association with atypical fungal colonization, to review the literature and to discuss possible clinical approach and prognosis.
Testicular torsion is a urological emergency that leads to serious testicular damage and male infertility. We performed this study to identify specific proteins that are differentially expressed in response to testicular torsion and detorsion-induced ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Adult male rats were divided into two groups: a sham-operated group and a testicular I-R group. Testicular torsion was induced by rotating the left testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 1 hr, and then, detorsion was performed for 24 hr. After this testicular tissues were collected, protein analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses. Testicular I-R injury resulted in serious histopathologic damage to the germinal cells in the seminiferous tubules and increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in testicular tissue. Specific protein spots with a greater than 2.5-fold change in intensity between the sham-operated and testicular I-R groups were identified by mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, levels of peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase isozyme L5 and zinc finger AN1-type domain 3 were decreased in the testicular I-R group compared to the sham-operated group. Moreover, Western blot analysis clearly showed the decrease of these proteins in the testicular I-R group. These proteins have spermatogenesis and anti-oxidative functions. These findings suggest that testicular I-R results in cell death due to altered expression of several proteins with spermatogenesis and anti-oxidation functions.
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been recently identified as a multifunctional cytokine, because of its close link with immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory responses. This study investigated the association of IL-10 genetic polymorphisms with the immune traits of New Zealand white rabbits (N-W), Fujian yellow rabbits (F-Y) and their reciprocal crosses (N-Y and Y-N, respectively). SNPs on five exons of the IL-10 gene were genotyped in 204 healthy rabbits via PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. Two SNPs (A1435G and G1519A, both were synonymous mutations) and six genotypes (AA, BB, CC, AB, AC and BC) were found on exon 3 and one SNP (T base insertion between loci 2532 and 2533, which caused a frameshift mutation), and three genotypes (OO, TT and TO) were present on exon 4. Allele A was the most frequent allele on exon 3 (from 0.548 to 0.771), whereas O was the most frequent on exon 4 (from 0.808 to 0.968). These four populations were all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium on both exon3 and exon4. Association analysis between polymorphisms and immune parameters showed that SNPs on exon 3 were significantly associated with immune traits, while SNP on exon 4 may not significantly affect immune traits, but the mechanism is yet to be further studied.
Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation has been reported as treatments that promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans and animals. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been also reported as treatments that promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans and animals. Therefore, administration of PEG combined with BMSC transplantation may improve outcomes compared with BMSC transplantation only in SCI model mice. SCI mice were divided into a control-group, BMSC-group, PEG-group and BMSC+PEG-group. BMSC transplantation and PEG administration were performed immediately after surgery. Compared to the control-group, PEG- and BMSC+PEG-groups showed significant locomotor functional recovery 4 weeks after therapy. We observed no significant differences among the groups. In the BMSC- and BMSC+PEG-groups, immunohistochemistry showed that many neuronal cells aggressively migrated toward the glial scar from the region rostral of the lesion site. In the control- and PEG-groups, the boundary of the injured regions was covered with astrocytes, and a few neuronal cells were migrated toward the glial scar. We conclude that combined BMSC transplantation with PEG treatment showed no synergistic effects on locomotor functional recovery or beneficial cellular events. Further studies may improve the effect of the treatment, including modification of the timing of BMSC transplantation.
We have suggested that intestinal microflora reduces the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the mouse cecal mucosa. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were used to examine the species of intestinal microflora influencing SOD activity in the cecal mucosa. The total SOD activity in the cecal mucosa of each germ-free (GF), gnotobiotic mouse with Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was significantly higher than that in the cecal mucosa of gnotobiotic mice with chloroform-treated feces (CHF), conventionalized (CVz) mice and conventional (CV) mice (P<0.05). In addition, CuZnSOD mRNA expression showed similar tendencies. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in the cecal mucosa is influenced by CHF inoculation.
The emergence of drug resistance and adverse side effects of current bovine babesiosis treatment suggest that the search of new drug targets and development of safer and effective compounds are required. This study focuses on dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway as a potential drug target for bovine babesiosis. Recombinant Babesia bovis DHODH protein (rBboDHODH) was produced in Escherichia coli and used for characterization and measurement of enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the effects of DHODH inhibitors were evaluated in vitro. The recombinant B. bovis DHODH histidine fusion protein (rBboDHODH) had 42.4-kDa molecular weight and exhibited a specific activity of 475.7 ± 245 Unit/mg, a Km = 276.2 µM for L-dihydroorotate and a Km= 94.41 µM for decylubiquinone. A 44-kDa band of native BboDHODH was detected by Western blot analysis and found in parasites mitochondria using a confocal microscope. Among DHODH inhibitors, atovaquone (ATV) and leflunomide (LFN) significantly inhibited the activity of rBboDHODH as well as the growth of B. bovis in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ATV and LFN was 2.38 ± 0.53 nM and 52.41 ± 11.47 µM, respectively. These results suggest that BboDHODH might be a novel target for development of new drug for treatment of B. bovis infection.
An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5–10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region.
Pregnant rats were treated with 30 mg/kg of methotrexate (MTX) on gestation day 13, and fetal brains were examined histopathologically from 6 to 48 hr after the treatment. In the telencephalon of the control group, there were few pyknotic neuroepithelial cells throughout the experimental period. Six hr after MTX treatment, several pyknotic neuroepithelial cells scattered throughout the telencephalic wall. At 12–36 hr, pyknotic neuroepithelial cells increased significantly and were diffusely distributed throughout the telencephalic wall. Neuroepithelial cells were eliminated and showed sparse cell density at 36 hr in the telencephalon. Almost all fetuses died at 48 hr. Most of the pyknotic neuroepithelial cells were positively stained by the TUNEL method and positive for cleaved caspase-3. While mitotic and phospho-histone H3-positive neuroepithelial cells were located along the ventricular layer of telencephalon in the control group, they were rarely observed in the same region at 6–36 hr in the MTX-treated group. MTX induced few pyknotic changes to neuroepithelial cells in the metencephalon, compared to other parts of brain. The distribution of apoptotic neuroepithelial cells and the time-course changes of the indices of apoptotic and mitotic neuroepithelial cells were different from those of other DNA-damaging chemicals reported previously. The difference may reflect the disparity in mechanisms of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell proliferation in neuroepithelial cells induced by MTX. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating histopathological findings of fetal brain damage induced by MTX.
Exposure to nanoparticles during pregnancy is a public concern, because nanoparticles may pass from the mother to the fetus across the placenta. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible translocation pathway of gold nanoparticles across the maternal–fetal barrier as well as the toxicity of intravenously administered gold nanoparticles to the placenta and fetus. Pregnant ICR mice were intravenously injected with 0.01% of 20- and 50-nm gold nanoparticle solutions on the 16th and 17th days of gestation. There was no sign of toxic damage to the placentas as well as maternal and fetal organs of the mice treated with 20- and 50-nm gold nanoparticles. ICP-MS analysis demonstrated significant amounts of gold deposited in the maternal livers and placentas, but no detectable level of gold in the fetal organs. However, electron microscopy demonstrated an increase of endocytic vesicles in the cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblasts and fetal endothelial cells in the maternal–fetal barrier of mice treated with gold nanoparticles. Clathrin immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting showed increased immunoreactivity of clathrin protein in the placental tissues of mice treated with 20- and 50-nm gold nanoparticles; clathrin immunopositivity was observed in syncytiotrophoblasts and fetal endothelial cells. In contrast, caveolin-1 immunopositivity was observed exclusively in the fetal endothelium. These findings suggested that intravenous administration of gold nanoparticles may upregulate clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis at the maternal–fetal barrier in mouse placenta.
To the best of our knowledge, we present here the first report of a case involving granulomatous pododermatitis caused by Fusarium proliferatum in a 10-year-old female cat. A cutaneous mass developed on the foot-pad of the right hind leg. Nodular granulomatous dermatitis with numerous macrophages and multinucleated giant cells containing cytoplasmic fungal structures were revealed on histological examination. Periodic acid-Schiff reaction and Fungi-Fluor staining clearly revealed irregular, septate fungal hyphae englobed by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis targeting three domains of the extracted fungal DNA revealed 100% amplicon homology with F. proliferatum.
Clarithromycin (CLM) has been known to increase the cyclosporine (CsA) trough level in human and feline organ transplant patients. However, the interaction of CLM with CsA has not been reported in dogs. In this study, the effects of multiple dosing of CLM on the pharmacokinetics of CsA in three healthy beagles were investigated. The treatments included CsA 10 mg/kg alone and CsA 10 mg/kg + multiple-dose of CLM 10 mg/kg. Co-administration of CLM with CsA resulted in significant increases of oral bioavailability of CsA. The results of our study suggest that administration of multiple therapeutic doses of CLM may decrease the required CsA dosage in CsA-based immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplanted dogs.
We investigated the presence of Salmonella in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), an invasive alien species on Chichi Island, Japan. Samples were also collected from feral goats and public toilets on the island to examine infectious routes. Salmonellae were isolated from 27.1% of 199 samples; 32.6% of 141 cloacal samples from anoles, 62.5% of 8 intestinal samples from anole carcasses, 16.7% of 12 fecal samples from goats and 2.6% of 38 toilet bowl swabs. The serotype of most isolates was Salmonella Oranienburg (94.4% of 54). Although we did not confirm the infection pathways, our results indicated that green anoles are a risk factor as a source of Salmonella for public health. It is important to consider endemic pathogens that may be amplified by alien species within their introduced areas.
The aim of this study was to report the effectiveness of MRI scanning during brain meningioma resection surgery in the canine and feline. The subjects were 23 cases from 2006 to 2008 in canines and feline diagnosed with meningioma. All were between 8 and 16 years of ages. There were 12 males and 11 females. An appropriate craniotomy was performed for each case according to the initial MRI taken to diagnose meningioma prior to the surgery. Once the dura mater was exposed, an MRI biopsy needle was placed in the tumor as a guide. The first MRI sequence during the surgery was performed with this needle to confirm the location of the tumor. This MRI image was also processed and displayed by multi planar reconstruction to reveal the tumor extent in three dimensions. A Sonopet was applied to the middle of the tumor to destroy the inner part and release pressure from the entire tumor. Creating some space between the brain tissue and tumor, we treated blood vessels and carefully resected them. This procedure was repeated until complete removal of the tumor was confirmed by MRI. Sixteen of the 23 cases survived for more than 2 years postoperatively. The other seven died due to other disorders within 2 years. Our method with MRI navigation during the surgery improved our surgical performance and contributed to a prolonged survival time for the patients. In order to perform multiple MRI procedures smoothly during the surgery, it is necessary to have skillful assistants.
The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days.
Bovine interferon (bIFN) τ plays a crucial role in maternal-fetal recognition and was expressed using a Bombyx mori (Bm) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (silkworm baculovirus) gene expression system. The biological effects of Bm-recombinant bIFNτ (rbIFNτ) on prostaglandin (PG) F2α synthesis were investigated in cultured bovine endometrial epithelial cells with oxytocin (OT, 100 nM) and on the in vitro development of bovine embryos. Bm-rbIFNτ and OT were shown to suppress PGF2α production in a dose-dependent manner. When in vitro produced morula stage embryos were cultured for 72 hr in modified CR1aa medium supplemented with or without rbIFNτ, Bm-rbIFNτ (10 ng/ml) significantly promoted development to the expanded blastocyst stage. In conclusion, Bm-rbIFNτ was suggested to have the same bioactivity as native IFNτ.
Relatively little is known about the distribution of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) among wild birds in Japan. Surveillance of APMV in migratory waterfowl was conducted in the San-in region of western Japan during winters of 2006 to 2012. A total of 16 avian paramyxoviruses consisting of 3 lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), 12 APMV-4 and 1 APMV-8 were isolated from 1,967 wild-bird fecal samples. The results show that NDV and APMV-4 are relatively widely distributed among wild waterfowl that migrate to Japan from northern regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there was no genetic relationship between the isolates from wild birds and domestic poultry in Japan. However, surveillance of APMVs in wild waterfowl needs to be conducted due to the pathogenic potential of these isolates in domestic poultry.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used for diagnosis of infectious diseases of domestic animals. Rapid detection of respiratory pathogens of cattle is useful for making therapeutic decisions. Therefore, we developed a new genetic-based method called droplet-real-time PCR, which can detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) within 10 min. Our droplet-real-time PCR markedly reduced the reaction time of reverse transcription-PCR while maintaining the same sensitivity as conventional real-time PCR, and it can be used as a rapid assay for detection of BRSV. Furthermore, our method is potentially applicable for rapid diagnosis of almost all infectious diseases, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.