The mastication muscles were examined in the lesser (Tragulus javanicus) and greater mouse deer (Tragulus napu) to clarify the form of the mastication muscles in these primitive artiodactyls. The M. masseter was well-developed in both species, however the attachment area of its origin was not confirmed in the rostral facial part. The masseter bundles were not observed on the lateral side of the maxilla bone, and their origin was restricted to the zygomatic arch area. This suggests that the M. masseter may not act as a motor raising the mandible rostro-dorsally, but pull the insertion vertically unlike the highly derived grazer of Bovidae. The Crista temporalis was weak and the M. temporalis was thin in the mouse deer, and this indicates that the M. temporalis may not be important in the mastication in the primitive artiodactyls. These findings suggest that the browser such as mouse deer has been adapted for the feeding on soft leaves, and functional-morphologically different in mastication strategy from the grazer such as developed Bovidae species. The architecture of the mastication muscles was not different between the two species. However, in the muscle weight ratios per body weight, the M. temporalis and the M. digastricus were significantly smaller in greater mouse deer than in lesser mouse deer.
A possibility of apoptotic cell death in erythropoietic regulation was examined by means of detailed light microscopical histoplanimetry, electron microscopy, the in situ nick-end labeling method, and an immunohistological method in the rat bone marrow. Serum erythropoietin concentrations were shown at normal levels. The erythroid series on a mature process presented several morphological features of apoptosis, i.e. the shrinkage of both nuclei and cytoplasm and the chromatin condensation. In the light microscopical histoplanimetry, however, morphological signs of final apoptotic cell death were never found in any erythroid cell within the erythroblastic islands. This finding was also supported by detailed ultrastructural observation: No erythroid cell bodies were trapped and degraded by the central macrophages of the erythroblastic islands, while the denucleated nuclei with small amount of cytoplasm of late erythroblasts were often trapped and degraded in the macrophages. Nuclear DNA fragmentation was not detected in any erythroblasts, but was detected in the lysosomes of the central macrophages. These findings suggest that erythropoiesis is regulated by other regulatory mechanisms than apoptotic cell death. An additional ultrastructural finding shows that the reticulocytes anchored to the central macrophages are transported into the peripheral blood circulation.
To study the effect of estrogenic chemicals on fish, the gonadosomatic index (GSI = [testis weight/body weight] × 100) and testis histology of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from 2 contaminated sites (Ishizu and Wada rivers, Osaka) and a control site were examined between June 1998 and March 2001. The concentration of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17β-estradiol in the Ishizu river was 3-4 times higher than in the Wada river. In the pre-breeding and breeding seasons, there were no significant differences in body weight among carp from the 3 sites, the body weight of Ishizu river carp being significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of Wada river fish only in the post-breeding season. The GSI and testis weight in fish from the Ishizu river were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in control fish during all phases of gonadal cycle and lower than in Wada river fish in the pre-breeding and post-breeding season. No histological abnormalities were found in the testes of the males examined. Histological observation of the testes revealed a delay in the onset of spermatogenesis in fish from the Ishizu river compared with those from the other sites. These results clearly imply that the estrogenic chemicals in the Ishizu river adversely affect the testis development of the fish.
Although inflammatory activation of cytokines have been analyzed in various tissues, there have only been a few and as-yet-inconclusive studies on cytokines in equine tendons. In this study, the localizations of 4 cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ) in tendinocytes of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) were analyzed by the use of an immunohistochemical method. In inflamed tendons positive staining for all 4 cytokines antibodies were detected in endotedinieum cells and vascular epithelial cells. In contrast, negative or trace immunoreactions were obtained in many tendinocytes in the normal tendon. The variation in cellular immune responses depending on the kind of cytokine may reflect the physiological/pathological condition of the SDFT.
To evaluate the clinical effects of bovine lactoferrin on staphylococcal mastitis in Holstein cows during the early non-lactating period, 41 mammary quarters were selected randomly from 36 cows on 3 dairy farms. Twelve quarters were infused intramammarily with bovine lactoferrin. Twenty-nine quarters were infused with antibiotic as a control. In the bovine lactoferrin-infused group, 91.7% of mastitic quarters were cured at 7 days after calving, compared with 48.3% in the control group. Furthermore, the changes in mammary secretion induced by the infusion of bovine lactoferrin were investigated. Mean numbers of staphylococci in mammary gland secretions were significantly decreased in both 5 bovine lactoferrin-infused quarters and 5 antibiotic-infused control quarters (p<0.05). Unlike in the control quarters, the mean total cell concentration in the mammary gland secretions increased in bovine lactoferrin-infused quarters. Similar results were obtained in 6 healthy quarters which were infused with bovine lactoferrin. In these quarters, the cell population contained mainly phagocytes such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes and cells positive for CD11b which is known as a complement receptor. The mean concentration of C3 in mammary gland secretions was significantly increased in 5 mastitic quarters infused with bovine lactoferrin (p<0.05), but showed no significant change in 5 mastitic control quarters. These results suggested that bovine lactoferrin treatment for staphylococcal mastitis in the early non-lactating period might increase the rate of cure through the induction of innate immunity in the host.
An isolate of Malassezia from a cat with otitis externa was examined mycologically as well as molecularly. The isolate was similar to M. sympodialis in morphological and biochemical characteristics. In molecular analysis, however, it differed from the 7 species of Malassezia previously reported. Therefore, this clinical isolate from a cat might be a new species of Malassezia.
A total of 438 sera from Korean native beef cattle in 9 provinces were tested for Neospora caninum antibodies using an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Eighteen (4.1%) cattle were positive by IFAT. The titers ranged from 1:200 (10 animals), 1:400 (5 animals), 1:800 (2 animals) to 1:1,600 (1 animal). Although the seroprevalence was slightly higher in Chungnam (8.9%), this was not significantly different from those noted in Kyunggi, Kangwon, Kyungbuk, Kyungnam, and Cheju provinces. Sera obtained from beef cattle in the provinces of Chungbuk, Jeonbuk and Jeonnam were all negative. Neospora positive sera were also tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT). Antibody to T. gondii was detected in only 1 (5.6%) of 18 N. caninum positive sera. These results indicate that N. caninum and T. gondii infection are present at a low level in the Korean native beef cattle.
In horses with chronic laminitis, an abnormal horny structure called lamellar wedge, is generated between the hoof wall and the laminar epidermis. To be able to manage horses with chronic laminitis correctly, more information about the pathological state of this abnormal horn is required. The aim of this study was to collect and analyze objective morphological data about the abnormal horn in order to understand its morphology and development. In the study, the abnormal horn was grossly visible on the sagittal hoof section from approximately 20 days after the onset of disease. In the histological observations, the structural characteristics of this abnormal horn were similar to the white line tissue, suggesting it is an ectopic white line. Mean value of the cross-sectional area of the abnormal horn against the distal phalanx section area (A/D) was 0.29 cm2 SD ± 0.14 and it finally showed an eight-fold increase over the mean value of normal white line section area against the distal phalanx section area. In conclusion, a large amount of the ectopic white line is thought to be finally able to inhibit normal hoof wall growth, so that it should be resected at the optimum time when would be after one month from the onset of the disease.
Intracerebral inoculation of field-isolates as well as established strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) in suckling mice results in viral replication in neurons and glial cells and induces encephalitis. By intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation, no histological lesion was observed in the central nervous system (CNS) in suckling mice with the EHV-1 HH1 strain (HH1), whereas a neuroadapted variant (NHH1) produced by serial passage of HH1 in the mouse brain caused severe encephalomyelitis after i.p. inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine the route of neuroinvasion after i.p. inoculation of NHH1 and to clarify the effects of the brain passage on viral neuroinvasion. NHH1, but not HH1, targeted splenic and pulmonary macrophages and omental fat cells on days 1 and 2 post-inoculation (p.i.). From days 1 to 3 p.i., cell-associated viremia was occurred in NHH1-infected mice, but not in HH1-infected mice. On day 4 p.i., viral antigen was detected in a few endothelial cells, perivascular glial cells and neurons in the CNS in NHH1-infected mice. The number of viral antigen-positive cells increased markedly after day 5 p.i. In contrast, no viral antigen-positive cell was detected in the CNS in HH1-infected mice, except for a few nerve cells in the thoracic cord on day 4 p.i. These results suggest that NHH1 neuroinvasion is hematogenous and is correlated with enhanced extraneural virus growth.
A holstein calf with congenital chondrodysplastic dwarfism was histopathologically examined. The head of the calf was relatively flat giving a dog-like appearance with its short nose and sloping forehead. Limb bones were dumbbell-like with short diaphysis and hypertrophied metaphyses. Bone marrow was pale, whitish and fatty. In the metaphyseal plates most of chondrocytes were pyknotic with swollen and ghost-like cytoplasm, and were irregularly arranged. Column of calcified cartilage were poorly formed losing comb-like structure. Bone marrow was ischemic with poor hematopoiesis and was moderately replaced by adipose tissue. In articular cartilage, most of chondrocytes were degenerated with ghost-like cytoplasm. Many cartilage canals and occasional bone marrow-like structure were formed. The characteristics lesions of the calf were chondrodysplasia and dyshematopoiesis.
To investigate a long-term shedding of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from sheep, a fifteen-month study for STEC isolation from a sheep, which had yielded STEC before, was attempted. The sheep continued to shed STEC and 39 STEC were isolated. The number of STEC in the feces was estimated at 1.7 × 103 per gram. In addition, although Stx1-negative O157 and stx2-encoding bacteriophage were experimentally infected to the sheep, Stx-positive O157 or Stx2- producing bacterial cells were not detected. The genetical and biochemical characterization of those 39 STEC strains showed that all STEC strains produced Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and were divided into three classes (I to III). From phylogenetic analysis of their amino acid sequences, class-I STEC was classified as group 1 comprising mainly human STEC, and classes II/III were as group 2 comprising sheep STEC. Our results suggest that STEC easily colonized in sheep and that the sheep continued to shed STEC, showing that sheep might be an important reservoir for human STEC infection.
Changes in hip joint congruity was evaluated in dogs with hip dysplasia before and after triple pelvic osteotomy by computed tomography examination in the standing position. Lateral center edge angle significantly increased, and center distance (CD) significantly decreased after surgery compared to the values before surgery, respectively. There was an inverse proportion between the postoperative period and the change in the ratio of CD. These results suggested that joint laxity was improved with time after surgery, providing evidence of the clinical usefulness of this surgery.
The expression of sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x)) in 93 canine and 15 feline mammary gland tumors (MGT) obtained by surgical resection at Veterinary Medical Center, the University of Tokyo was examined by immunohistochemistry. Their clinicopathological features and prognosis were also reviewed. Approximately 60% of MGT tissues showed sLe(x) positive expressions, while all normal mammary gland tissues were negative. However, its expression was not correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis significantly. This study suggests that sLe(x) may be a tumor-associated antigen in canine and feline MGTs.
Sperm ejaculated by 8 beagle dogs and the cumuli oophori collected from 3 estrous beagle bitches were co-incubated, and penetration of the sperm into cumuli was observed to investigate the influence of cumuli on homologous sperm.The percentages of hyperactivated sperm and acrosome-reacted sperm were calculated after incubation with homogenized cumuli. The hyaluronic acid content of the incubated cumuli was measured, and hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of the sperm were evaluated in medium containing hyaluronic acid. The mean percentage of hyperactivated sperm (33.0%) and number (3.0) of sperm that had penetrated a cumulus among sperm incubated for 7 hr were significantly higher than the values for sperm incubated for 0.5 hr (P<0.01). Almost all sperm that had penetrated the cumuli had intact acrosome, as though they were hyperactivated. The percentages of motile sperm (77.3%) and hyperactivated sperm (23.6%) after 2 hr incubation in the medium containing homogenized cumuli were significantly higher than in control medium (P<0.01), but there was no difference between cumulus and control media in the percentages of acrosome-reacted sperm. The hyaluronic acid content of a cumulus increased after 24 hr incubation. After 2 and 4 hr of incubation the percentages of hyperactivated sperm in the medium containing hyaluronic acid were significantly higher than in the control medium (P<0.01). These results suggest that canine hyperactivated sperm with intact acrosome can penetrate homologous cumuli and that the sperm are able to pass through the cumulus because the hyperactivated movement is maintained by hyaluronic acid secreted by the cumulus cells.
The relationship among nutritional status, systemic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and ovarian function early postpartum were investigated. A total of 27 Holstein-Friesian cows, 10 that cycled normally within 20 days postpartum, 5 diagnosed with follicular cysts, 8 with persistent corpus luteum (CL) after the first ovulation postpartum and 4 with inactive ovaries were used for the study. Blood samples were collected 1-3 times per week, for 60 days pre- and postpartum, for IGF-I, progesterone, estradiol, free fatty acids (FFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) determination. Inactive ovary and cystic cows had a higher body condition score before calving and lost more condition than normal or persistent CL cows. Immediately postpartum, IGF-I levels were higher and rose sharply in cows that cycled normally than in cystic, inactive ovary or persistent CL cows. At calving and early postpartum, FFA was higher in inactive ovary and cystic than in normal and persistent CL cows. There was a significant strong positive relationship between IGF-I and BUN, and strong negative relationships between IGF-I and FFA and AST in all groups. There was a positive relationship between serum IGF-I and estradiol in normal cystic and inactive ovary cows. This study found that overconditioned cows during the dry period or at calving, lost more body condition postpartum. These cows also had a deeper and longer period of negative energy balance (NEB), poor liver function and low circulating IGF-I concentrations early postpartum. Such cows were likely to have poor reproductive function as seen in development of cystic ovaries, persistent CL and inactive ovary. Changes in serum IGF-I early postpartum may help predict both nutritional and reproductive status in dairy cattle.
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of culture systems and culture media on developmental competence and freezability of bovine embryos obtained by in vitro culture of in vitro matured and fertilized (IVM-IVF) oocytes. No significant difference was observed in the proportions of oocytes developed to blastocysts, the speed at which the oocytes reached the blastocyst stage and the number of cells, when the IVM-IVF oocytes were cultured in CR1aa with or without cumulus cells. Nevertheless, more of the IVM-IVF oocytes cultured either with or without cumulus cells in CR1aa were seen to reach the blastocyst stage much sooner than those cultured with cumulus cells in TCM199 (P<0.05). The proportion of embryos developed to the blastocyst stage by day 7 in CR1aa culture was significantly higher than embryos cultured in TCM199. Viability after frozen-thawed blastocysts were obtained in vitro, was seen in a significantly higher percentage of embryos cultured in TCM199 and developed to the hatched blastocysts than in those cultured in CR1aa (P<0.05). These results indicate that CR1aa was superior to TCM199 for the potential developmental of IVM-IVF oocytes to blastocysts during in vitro culture regardless of co-culture with or without cumulus cells. But the freezability of blastocysts developed in CR1aa was inferior to those developed in TCM199.
Three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were evaluated for their ability to detect bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2): single-step PCR with 3 reaction stages (denaturation, annealing and extension), 2 reaction stages (denaturation and annealing/extension; shuttle PCR), and semi-nested PCR with 3 reaction stages. All the PCR protocols showed the same sensitivity (detection limit of 0.4 TCID50). A non-specific band sometimes appeared in mock cell DNA at annealing temperatures below 64°C. The shuttle PCR was found to be superior to the other protocols under consideration because of the speed of its application. Furthermore, no non-specific band was detected in DNAs of eight other DNA viruses. Thus, the shuttle PCR seems to be an excellent diagnostic tool for BoHV-2 infections.