The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably α-linked fucose and α-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of α-linked fucose and α-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively.
The architecture of the M. caninus in the elongated nose was examined in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The following complicated musculature of the M. caninus was observed in the proximal and distal regions of the nose: (1) Proximal region: In the superficial layer, the longitudinal bundles are confirmed in the dorsal part, and the obliquely-oriented ones in the ventral part. In the middle layer, some bundles run ventro-distally, while other ones represent longitudinally-oriented running. The deep layer consists of complicated architecture of many bundles. Some muscle bundles run medio-laterally, while the others extend proximo-distally in this space. (2) Distal region: In the dorsal part of the M. caninus, the bundles run at deep-superficial direction, while in the ventral part the bundles are longitudinally arranged. The bundles run at lateral direction near the septum of the nasal conduits. The N. facialis and N. infraorbitalis send many branches in the lateral area of the M. caninus in the trunk. This muscle architecture of multi-oriented bundles and well-developed innervation to them suggest that they enable the elongated nose to act as a refined manipulator in the Asian elephant.
Cross-protection between Haemophilus parasuis serovars 2 and 5 was examined in pigs using a bacterin based vaccine, and subsequently the safety and efficacy of a bivalent vaccine were evaluated. Upon intratracheal challenge of a serovar 2 or 5 strain, pigs immunized with a monovalent vaccine were protected against challenge with a homologous serovar strain, but not with a heterologous serovar strain. Immunization with a bivalent vaccine containing both serovars 2 and 5 bacterins conferred protection in pigs against lethal challenge with each of the serovar strains. A total of 86 pigs from two SPF herds were injected with the bivalent vaccine intramuscularly twice at a four-week interval. No adverse reactions following the vaccination were observed. On day 7 after the second vaccination, vaccinated and non-vaccinated control pigs from herd A were transferred to herd B, where Glasser's disease had broken out. Pigs in the control group developed clinical signs of the disease, and 6 of 8 (75%) pigs died until slaughter, in contrast with only 4 of 46 (9%) pigs in the vaccinated group. In herd C, where there was no outbreak of Glasser's disease, complement fixation antibody titer was raised only in the vaccinated group. A challenge experiment on days 20 and 79 after the second vaccination showed that only the vaccinated pigs were protected. From these findings, the safety and efficacy of the bivalent vaccine were confirmed under laboratory and field conditions.
The serum ferritin concentration was significantly higher in female than in male rats, reflecting higher iron stores in females than in males. The mean iron/protein ratio of serum ferritin was 0.018 ± 0.008 (SD) (μg of Fe/μg of protein) in female rats and 0.011 ± 0.011 in male rats, being much lower than that of liver ferritin (0.233 ± 0.014 in females and 0.227 ± 0.020 in males). Iron loading of rats significantly increased serum ferritin concentration, but did not influence the iron content of serum ferritin. These results indicate that rat serum ferritin contains only a small amount of iron independent of body iron stores.
Nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Babesia (B.) gibsoni occurring in Miyazaki, western Japan, were examined using blood samples obtained from seven dogs suffering from natural canine babesiosis. DNA isolated from these blood samples was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were determined and compared with other rDNA sequences of B. gibsoni isolated from Asia, Europe and U.S.A. Although homology values between our isolates and those isolated from Europe and U.S.A. were both 84.0%, respectively, our isolates were identical to the Asian types. In conclusion, B. gibsoni occurring in Miyazaki was revealed to have the genotype Asia 1 or Asia 2 from a comparison of the partial rDNA sequences.
Spleen weight, the number of spleen mononuclear cells, and their phagocytic activity in groups of Babesia rodhaini-infected mice treated with diminazene diaceturate and clindamycin increased significantly in the early stage of treatment, and then decreased in the final stage of treatment to approximately the pre-infection level. The number of F4/80-positive macrophages and their oxidative activity per mean whole-spleen weight also increased significantly during the course of treatment in comparison with the untreated group. The increases in the clindamycin-treated group were more prominent than those in the group treated with diminazene diaceturate, suggesting the effectiveness of clindamycin therapy for murine babesiosis.
To determine oral dosage and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics in horses of orally administered flecainide, an antiarrhythmic drug, the correlations between its plasma concentration and PR, QRS and QT intervals in equine electrocardiograms (ECG) were investigated. Six healthy horses were administered a randomly ordered dose of 4 or 6 mg/kg of flecainide acetate. The ECG was monitored (heart rate (HR), PR, QRS, and QT intervals) and blood was taken at timed intervals to measure the plasma flecainide concentrations pre- and post-administration. The maximum plasma concentration reached 1014 ± 285 (SD) ng/ml in 45 ± 13 min and 1301 ± 400 ng/m l in 60 ± 37 min for doses of 4 and 6 mg/kg flecainide, respectively. From the pharmacokinetic analysis, clearance rates were 14.6 ± 6.4 and 11.7 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min and terminal elimination half-lives were 228 ± 53 and 304 ± 87 min. The QRS and QT intervals increased significantly for both doses following administration, though HR and PR intervals did not change. Plasma flecainide concentrations were significantly correlated with QRS (r=0.935, P<0.001) and QT intervals (r=0.753, P<0.001). In conclusion, plasma concentrations of flecainide for treating equine atrial fibrillation were obtained by oral administration of 4 and 6 mg/kg, and the drug was rapidly eliminated from plasma in horses.
Two 2-month-old kittens presented with a loud cardiac murmur. One cat showed severe signs of heart failure such as respiratory effort and exercise intolerance. Echocardiography revealed left ventricular concentric hypertrophy and severe left ventricular outflow obstruction. They died at 5 and 12 months of age, respectively. Necropsy and histopathology confirmed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
The neurotoxicity of aniline and its age-dependent responses were investigated in male rats. Groups of 6 rats, 4-week-old, were treated once with aniline (500, 750 or 1,000 mg/kg) or olive oil by gavage. Additional groups of 6 rats, 7- or 10-week-old, were treated once with 800 mg/kg of aniline or olive oil. Paralytic gait or hindlimb paralysis was observed between post-treatment days 8 and 15 in two out of six rats receiving 1,000 mg/kg of aniline at 4 weeks of age. On post-treatment day 15, spongy change in the white matter of the spinal cord was observed in all rats receiving 750 or 1,000 mg/kg of aniline at 4 weeks of age. The lateral and ventral columns of the thoracic spinal cord were the most severely affected. Spongy change in the facial nerve and spinal trigeminal tracts of pons and medulla oblongata, and mild degeneration of the peripheral nerves was found in 3 out of 6 rats receiving 1,000 mg/kg of aniline. At the ultrastructural level, the spongy change was due to distention of the myelin sheath and splitting of the intraperiod line. Axons were well preserved in the affected nerve fibers. No abnormalities were seen in the neuronal cell bodies. Although transient cyanosis was observed in all rats receiving 800 mg/kg of aniline at 7- or 10-week-old, as well as in rats receiving 750 or 1,000 mg/kg of aniline at 4-week-old, no treatment-related neurobehavioral or morphologic abnormalities were found in the former. These findings demonstrate the neurotoxicity of orally administered aniline for rats, depending upon the age of the animal at the time of administration.
The Ito cell (fat-storing cell) lies in perisinusoidal space of liver and has a variety of functions. We investigated the immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of Ito cells in normal and cholestatic livers of broiler chickens. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Ito cells expressed HHF35 muscle actin, vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin A and cytokeratins in normal livers. These cells were diffusely scattered throughout the lobules. Livers treated with extrahepatic bile duct ligation (BDL) showed cholestasis, fibrosis, proliferation of biliary ductules and Ito cells. The Ito cells were frequently found in fibrotic areas and were larger in size with more extensive immunoreactivity than those of normal livers. Ultrastructural study demonstrated that Ito cells were closely associated with the production of collagen fibers in BDL livers. These findings suggest that Ito cells actively react against hepatocytic injuries and play a major role in the hepatic fibrogenesis of cholestatic livers of chickens.
In the present study mechanism of inhibitory effects of capsaicin on the contractility of rabbit coronary artery were studied by measurement of isometric tension and intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Capsaicin (1 μM to 30 μM) relaxed the coronary artery pre-contracted with prostaglandin (PG) F2α (1 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner. The PGF2α-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration was also inhibited. The effects of capsaicin were readily reversed by washing capsaicin from the bath. Capsaicin-induced relaxation was not attenuated by pretreatment with capsazepine (1 μM), a blocker of vanilloid receptor or ruthenium red (1 μM), a blocker of non-selective cation channel. Previous exposure to a high concentration of capsaicin (100 μM) or repeated application of capsaicin did not eliminate the relaxation response to subsequent application of capsaicin. Increasing the external K+ concentration to 80 mM significantly attenuated the capsaicin-induced relaxation with simultaneous change in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Pretreatment with iberiotoxin (100 nM), a blocker of Ca2+-activated K+ channel, only partially inhibited the capsaicin-induced relaxation. However, application of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mM), a blocker of delayed rectifier K+ current significantly inhibited the capsaicin-induced relaxation with concomitant attenuation of the effect on intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results indicate that capsaicin may have a direct relaxing effect on the smooth muscle contractility, and relaxation may be due to activation of the 4-AP-sensitive, delayed rectifier K+ channels in the rabbit coronary artery.
The recommended therapeutic doses of three kinds of tetracyclines, oxytetracycline (OTC, withdrawal period, 10 days), chlortetracycline (CTC, withdrawal period, 5 days) and tetracycline (TC, withdrawal period, 5 days), were each administered to a group of 15 pigs. Blood was sampled before drug administration and during the withdrawal period. The concentration of tetracyclines in plasma, determined by semi-quantitative ELISA, was compared with that of internal standard (10 ppb as oxytetracycline). The absorbance ratio of internal standard to sample (B/Bs) was employed as an index to determine the tissue residues in pigs. All 45 plasma samples from nontreated pigs showed negative in the residue of any of three tetracycline antibiotics. OTC was detected in plasma of pigs treated until the 8th day, CTC until the 4th day, and TC was detected until the 3rd day of its withdrawal period. The present study showed that the semi-quantitative ELISA easily be adopted in predicting tissue residues for tetracycline antibiotics in live pigs.
Chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC) is expected to be a novel agent for chemonucleolysis. The effect of C-ABC was investigated by magnetic resonance (MR) and radiograph. C-ABC was administered into the lumbar intervertebral disks on the clinically normal beagles (n=5), in a dose of 50 μl (12.5 units as C-ABC). MR scans were performed pre-dose, and 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after administration of C-ABC, and the signal intensity (SI) of the nucleus pulposus was measured. Radiographs were taken pre-dose, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14 and 28 days post-dose, to evaluate narrowing of the disk space in terms of height index (HI). In addition, the quantity of the chondroitin sulfate (CS) and the hyaluronic acid (HA) in the nucleus pulposus were measured by high performance liquid chromatography on day 28 after dosing. SI and HI continuously decreased, following the injection to 37.1% and 78.9% of the pre-dose values, respectively. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) were observed between the C-ABC group and the control group in the respects on day 1 post-dose. CS and HA contents of the nucleus pulposus were noted to be significantly decreased on day 28 (p<0.01) in the treated group. This agent proved to degenerate proteoglycans in the nucleus pulposus, thus progressively reducing the interdiskal pressure from day 1 post-dose onwards. It is concluded that C-ABC is expected to afford its efficacy from early in the course of chemonucleolysis.
To clarify time-related changes in equine cardiovascular system during maintenance anesthesia (180 min, 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration) with sevoflurane (Sev-group) compared to isoflurane (Iso-group) as the basis for clinical use of Sev, horses were examined for the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance(SVR) and pre-ejection period (PEP)/ejection time (ET) that is an index of the cardiac contractility. The HR was almost 30 beats/min in both groups without significant temporal change. MAP was significantly elevated with time but there was no significant difference between the groups. In the Sev-group, CI remained unchanged but the significant increase of CI with time was observed in the Iso-group. In the Sev-group SVR was significantly higher than that of the Iso-group and increased with time. No significant difference of PEP/ET was seen between the groups, but PEP/ET lowered with time in the Iso-group in association with prolonged ET. The results indicated that the time-dependent elevation of MAP in the Sev-group reflected increased SVR without increase of CI and that it reflected increased CI resulting from increased stroke volume in the Iso-group in association with lowered PEP/ET, that is, increased cardiac contractility.
Embolization coil for the occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was inserted in a beagle dog diagnosed as PDA with systolic murmur. Residual shunt was observed three months postoperatively and then supplemental coil was inserted. In the past only one coil was required for the closure of PDA in our cases with good post-operative results. In this case, however, the largest coil presently available (8 mm in diameter with 5 loops) was inadequate to make sufficient closure within 3 months postoperatively and supplemental coil insertion was necessary to produce a successful occlusion.
Birth weight and gestation length of calves following the transfer of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos with or without co-culture of cumulus cells, were compared to those produced in vivo (IVD). Spermatozoa from one Japanese Black bull were used for both IVP and IVD. IVP embryos were produced using two types of culture method: 1) co-culturing with cumulus cells in TCM 199 supplemented with calf serum (IVP-Co), and 2) non-co-culturing without cumulus cells in CR1aa supplemented with BSA / calf serum (IVP-NON-Co). Both IVP and IVD embryos were transferred non-surgically to Holstein recipients on day 7 ± 1 of the estrous cycle. Birth weight and gestation length of half-sib single calves were analyzed. No differences were observed in birth weight and gestation length between IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves (31.0 kg and 31.8 kg, and 291.9 days and 291.0 days, respectively). However, the birth weight of the IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves was significantly higher than that of the IVD calves (P<0.01). Gestation length of the IVP-Co and IVP-NON-Co calves was also significantly longer than that of the IVD calves (P<0.01).
Although the combination of artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer (ET) is effective for preventing large offspring syndrome in clone cattle production, it may cause freemartinism. In this study, 51 reconstructed embryos were transferred to artificially inseminated recipients. Of those 9 twin pregnancies, three delivered male and female offsprings. The females had tufts of long coarse hair and short blind pouch at the vaginal end. At necropsy, hypoplastic testicles and epididymis, which connected to the uterus through the spermatic cord, were found and seminal vesicles were also noted. All females had mixed sex chromosome configuration (60, XX and 60, XY). These results suggest that the combined ET program can cause freemartinism, which reduces the efficiency of clone cattle production.
Testicular Transferrin (Tf) and peripheral plasma estradiol-17β (E2) concentrations were measured in 3 dogs with azoospermia (AZ dogs), 3 dogs with Sertoli cell tumors (SC dogs), and 5 normal male Beagles. The mean Tf concentrations in the testes of the AZ dogs and the affected testes of the SC dogs, and the plasma E2 concentrations in both these groups of dogs were significantly higher than the values in normal dogs (P<0.05, 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Therefore, excessive E2 secretion by hyperfunctioning Sertoli cells is thought to have caused the azoospermia in the 3 dogs.
The intracellular dynamics of norsalsolinol, a neurotoxin candidate causing parkinsonism-like symptoms, in PC12 cells was studied. We found that dopamine and norsalsolinol are co-localized to secretory granule layer by sucrose density gradient in norsalsolinol-treated PC12 cells. The norsalsolinol was actively taken up into isolated secretory vesicle fraction from PC12 cells with a Km value of 41.5 ± 6.8 μM. The uptake of 10 μM of norsalsolinol was sensitive to reserpine (1 μM), an inhibitor of vesicular dopamine transporter, and dopamine, an endogenous substrate, but insensitive to GBR-12909, an inhibitor of dopamine transporter on plasma membrane. In norsalsolinol-treated PC12 cells, exposure to high K+ or ATP resulted in simultaneous release of norsalsolinol and dopamine. Time course of a release of dopamine and that of norsalsolinol evoked by 50 mM KCl or 100 μM ATP corresponded to each other. These releases were dependent on the concentrations of secretagogues. These data suggest that norsalsolinol is taken up with dopamine into secretory vesicle via vesicular catecholamine transporter.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was developed for directly typing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from lung specimens without virus isolation. Twenty nine lung specimens collected from postweaning pigs were isolated for PRRSV. When the PCR products from the 29 lung specimens were digested by the restriction enzymes MluI, HincII, SacII and HaeIII, the RFLP patterns from the 29 lung specimens matched with those from the corresponding PRRSV isolates from each pig. The results suggest that the PCR-based RFLP analysis method may be useful to distinguish PRRSV isolates directly from lung specimens without virus isolation.
Epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. Rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from January to June of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and G. lamblia (48.2%). Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and CPV-2b was the predominant antigenic type. Although canine rotavirus, canine adenovirus, and canine distemper virus were also detected in a small number of diarrheal cases, no evidence for calicivirus infection was obtained.