Development of cerebrovascular nitrergic nerves was investigated in the rat, using immunohistochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and quantitative analysis. Cerebral perivascular NOS nerves usually appeared on the walls of both the intracranial part of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the internal ethmoidal arteries (IEA) at birth. NOS nerves via the IEA grew more rapidly than those via the ICA. They extended over all the major arteries located more rostral than the middle part of the basilar arteries during the third postnatal week, while those from the ICA remained limited to the caudal segment of the anterior circulation and to the rostral segment of the posterior circulation throughout development. The appearance of NOS nerves on the vertebrate artery (VA) was not demonstrated before the third postnatal week, being apparently far late in development as compared to that of the same nerve type on the ICA and IEA.
The immunoreactivity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was studied in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of a crotaline snake, Trimeresurus flavoviridis. eNOS immunoreactivity was found in TG neurons of different sizes. The percentage of eNOS-positive TG neurons was significantly higher in the mandibular division than in the infrared-related divisions, the maxillary division and ophthalmic ganglion (p<0.001). These findings suggest that eNOS in the TG of crotaline snakes is involved in constitutive neurotransmission in the TG, and is minimally involved in processing in the infrared-sensory system.
Some visual information is sent to the nucleus geniculatus lateralis ventralis (GLv) via the cells in layer I (I cells) of the tectum in birds and is used for color vision, papillary reflex, and kineoptic functions. To reveal the morphological features of `I cells' projecting to the GLv, they were retrogradely labeled with DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate) in chicks. Two different types of neurons, `spear dendritic I cells' and `forked dendritic I cells' were identified. The former had small spindle-like soma and an apical dendrite extending to the tectal surface, and the latter had somewhat larger triangular or polygonal soma and plural ascending dendrites. Most of the labeled dendritic endings bifurcated horizontally in layer F, and showed the ending patterns similar to the terminals of optic nerve fibers.
Edema disease (ED) of pigs is an enterotoxaemic disease caused by enterotoxaemic Escherichia coli (ETEEC) infection. Antimicrobial therapy for pigs with ED is controversial because it may induce death of sickish piglets. In this study, we investigated the effects in vitro of 7 antimicrobial agents, ampicillin, gentamicin, colistin, bicozamycin, fosfomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and enrofloxacin, on the release and production of shiga toxin (Stx) 2e by ETEEC strains. We found that more Stx 2e accumulated in the bacterial cells than was released into supernatant. Associated with inhibition of cell wall synthesis, the exposure to ampicillin or fosfomycin increased the release of Stx 2e. The production levels of Stx 2e in all antimicrobial-treated cultures were equal to the level in the control or less than in the control. These results suggest that cell wall synthesis inhibitors, such as ampicillin and fosfomycin, may change for the worse in the signs in ETEEC infectious pigs. On the other hand, gentamicin, colistin, bicozamycin and enrofloxacin may be useful for the treatment of pigs with ED.
Polymorphisms of human genes encoding 5-hydroxytriptamine (serotonin) receptors (5-HTRs) are thought to be associated with psychiatric disorders and behavioral traits. In the present study, we searched for corresponding polymorphisms in the dog and compared allelic frequencies for the canine 5-HTR1B, 5-HTR2A, and 5-HTR2C genes among five canine breeds. The canine genes consisted of the following: 5-HTR1B, 1170 bp; 5-HTR2A, 1413 bp; and 5-HTR2C, 1377 bp. All of these genes were highly homologous with the human genes. We found six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5-HTR1B gene (G57A, A157C, G246A, C660G, T955C, and G1146C). Genotyping of the respective SNPs revealed that there were inter-breed variations in the genotypes and allelic frequencies for four out of the six identified SNPs, suggesting that further analyses of the polymorphisms of the 5-HTR1B gene would be useful in order to gain an understanding of the genetic background underlying the diversified behavioral traits among canine species.
To identify the incidence of Babesia gibsoni (B. gibsoni) in Aomori Prefecture, northeastern Japan, dogs with acute B. gibsoni infection were investigated at the Animal Teaching Hospital, Kitasato University, between April 2002 and March 2003. Eighteen dogs with acute B. gibsoni infection were recognized; they were all male dogs of the fighting dog breed Tosa. Their platelet counts were below normal and their packed cell volumes (PCVs) were at various levels. We collected blood samples from 141 Tosa dogs from Aomori Prefecture and used polymerase chain reaction assay to investigate the incidence of subclinical B. gibsoni infection. We also looked into the serological abnormalities associated with thrombocytopenia or anemia in subclinical infection. Forty-one of 87 dogs (47.1%) with histories of dog fighting, and one dog of 54 without a history of dog fighting were positive for B. gibsoni; that is, 42 of 141 dogs (29.8%) showed a positive result. The mean platelet counts of dogs with subclinical infection were significantly lower and levels of anti-platelet IgG were significantly higher than levels for dogs without infection. Anti-erythrocyte membrane IgG levels were significantly higher in dogs with subclinical infections, although mean PCVs were not significantly different. Tosa dogs from Aomori Prefecture, Japan, were highly infected with B. gibsoni subclinically and this pathogen might be successfully transmitted during dog fighting. Dogs with subclinical infections were at risk of chronic thrombocytopenia, which may be due to autoimmune mechanisms.
To clarify the cellular immune system in dairy cows with inflammatory diseases after calving, the leukocyte subsets were examined in Holstein dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows reared in one herd, were used in this study. Nine cows (Group 1) experienced onset of mastitis or puerperal fever within 2 weeks after calving, and the other eleven cows remained healthy (Group 2) after calving. The numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells tended to be lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 from the day of calving through week 1. These results suggested that the cows with inflammatory diseases might have experienced a decline in T cells by the day of calving, before the onset of disease.
Radiographically, the hepatic sizes of portosystemic shunt (PSS) cases were evaluated. In this study the hepatic area was compared in PSS and non-PSS dogs by utilizing the right lateral radiography. The top three breeds of PSS dogs of Maltese, Shih Tzu and Yorkshire Terrier, were included and these dogs had a significantly smaller hepatic area ratio of 46.37 ± 0.63%, 61.76 ± 0.78% and 41.59 ± 0.23% respectively (p<0.05) and the average overall hepatic area in the 3 dog breeds was 47.75 ± 0.40%.
The dog of this case was a 10-year-old Shih Tzu with refractory vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia. Endoscopy revealed an unclear at gastric angle, a stenosis at pyloric antrum and congestion in duodenal mucosa. Since abnormal shadows of irregular echo-levels were disclosed by pancreas ultrasonography, serum gastrin level was determined with a suspect of gastrinoma. And an increase of serum gastrin was demonstrated. In addition, postmortem histological examination revealed that the pancreatic cells were positive for gastrin. Based on these findings, the dog was diagnosed as pancreatic gastrinoma.
Brackish water crabs infected with Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae have been reported in various regions in Japan. However, infected crabs have not been identified in Tokyo. We therefore collected the crab, Chiromantes dehaani, between August 2002 and July 2003 from 12 locations along the Arakawa River that flows through Tokyo. Of the 922 captured crabs, 177 (19%) from 6 locations were infected with Paragonimus metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae at these 6 locations ranged from 5 to 89%. The number of metacercariae per infected crab ranged from 1 to 190, with an average of 13.1. The morphological features of the metacercariae and of adult worms recovered from test rats infected with metacercariae showed that the metacercariae in the infected crabs were P. ohirai Miyazaki, 1939. The ITS2 sequence data support this conclusion. This paper is the first description of P. ohirai infection of crabs in Tokyo.
The removal effects of the faucet mounted type water purifier for home use were examined against Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. The water purifier is composed of a layer of granular activated carbon and the hollow fiber membrane filter. The cartridges were unused, 25%, 50% and 75% flow down by Arizona-dust of U. S. A. Two respective cartridges were used of the examination. The faucet and the water purifier were connected by anti-pressure tube, and 3.0 × 107 oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were injected into anti-pressure tube while water was running. Twenty liter of collected purified water was examined under the fluorescent microscope. Any oocysts in the purified water collected from all cartridges were not found. Therefore, we considered this purifier as an effective one in removing Cryptosporidium oocysts from drinking water.
The glucose uptake activity in Babesia rodhaini and B. microti - infected red blood cell (IRBC) was investigated in mice using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DOG) and L-glucose (L-Glc), a non-metabolizable analogue of D-glucose and non-incorporative glucose to non-infected RBC (NRBC), respectively. The uptake activities of both DOG and L-Glc were higher in IRBCs than those in NRBC. The concentration dependent uptake of 2DOG and L-Glc in both IRBC revealed a linear curve, indicating non-transporter mediated uptake. In addition, B. microti IRBC showed higher 2DOG uptake than B. rodhaini IRBC, whereas no difference was observed in L-Glc uptake. These results indicated that some new glucose uptake system, at least two systems, developed in both IRBC. The new systems were sodium independent, non-competitive to L-Glc, and sensitive to temperature. One of two systems had no kinetical difference between B. rodhaini and B. microti IRBC, however another one might have higher uptake activity in B. microti IRBC compared to that in B. rodhaini IRBC.
In the present study, a novel antigenic protein expressed in the piroplasm stage of Theileria orientalis was characterized. A 4,707 bp genomic fragment amplified by PCR contained two open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequence of the first ORF showed significantly high similarlity to the ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolases/proteases while the second ORF (To ORF2) showed homology to several surface antigens of plasmodia. To ORF2 was expressed to determine whether the protein product is expressed by the parasite. In western blot analysis, bovine antiserum from a T. orientalis-infected calf recognized the recombinant protein containing a C-terminal part of the ORF expressed by baculovirus system. Western blot analysis with the anti-To ORF2 mouse serum recognized a 48 kDa protein in T. orientalis piroplasm lysates. Indirect immunofluorescence antibody test by confocal scanning laser microscopic analysis showed that antisera against the recombinant protein recognized T. orientalis piroplasm in the infected erythrocyte. The results from this study indicate that To ORF2 protein is expressed at the piroplasm stage and is immunogenic. This novel antigenic To ORF2 protein could be exploited for vaccine development against bovine piroplasmosis.
Cryptosporidium muris type oocysts were detected from 21 of 516 beef cattle in a farm. Then we surveyed Cryptosporidium oocysts in 348 beef and dairy cattle, 500 pigs, 101 dogs, 38 wild animals and 11 zoo-kept animals in and around the farm. Oocysts were detected from only 2 of 25 Japanese field mice, Apodemus speciosus in the same farm. Gene analysis suggested that the oocysts were different from the C. muris type bovine isolate.
A molecular survey of hemoplasma (Mycoplasma haemofelis and `Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum') in Yamaguchi Prefecture and surrounding areas was performed by using molecular methods. PCR-RFLP with HindIII revealed that 2 cats were infected with M. haemofelis, and 16 with `C. Mycoplasma haemominutum' among 102 randomly selected cats. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of M. haemofelis and `C. Mycoplasma haemominutum' determined in this study showed percent similarities of 98.3-99.8% and 96.4-100%, respectively, with those from other countries. Hemoplasma infections were more frequently detected in free-roaming cats than inside cats. Also, the status of FeLV infection was another significant risk factor for hemoplasma infection.
A primary cardiac fibrosarcoma in the right atrium of a 6-year-old Chihuahua dog is described. At necropsy, there was a firm, whitish and spherical mass in the right atrium. Histopathologically, the mass had moderate cellularity composed of spindle-shaped cells with scattered multinucleated giant cells. The tumor cells were arranged in interwoven bundles and sheets in the collagenous stroma. No metastases were observed. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells mainly consisted of fibroblasts. Multinucleated giant cells did not have any certain organelles that would indicate a higher order of differentiation. Primary cardiac sarcomas in dogs are extremely rare.
An 8 year-old cow showing severe dyspnea and nasal mucosal necrosis immediately after parturition was subjected to pathological examination. The principal lesions were fibrinonecrotic rhinitis, necrotic bronchopneumonia and renal infarction. Fusobacterium necrophorum biotype A and Arcanobacterium pyogenes antigens were detected in the nasal and pulmonary lesions. These results suggest that the lesions were caused by a concurrent infection of the detected bacteria and that the pulmonary lesions were caused by the aspiration of infectious materials from the nasal ones. Mucosal coagulative necroses observed as the initial lesions in rhinitis were frequently associated with multiple thrombosis. The findings might suggest that thrombosis played an important role in the development of the nasal lesions.
Two Japanese Black bull calves from a dam showed muscular weakness and became recumbent after birth. At necropsy, skeletal muscles, including face, neck, body and proximal and distal forelimb and hindlimb were extremely pale in color and edematous. Histopathological examination of skeletal muscles revealed degenerative changes as follows: replacement of muscle with fat, variation in muscle fiber diameter, internal nuclei, central core-like structures, and vacuolar and hyaline degeneration of muscle fibers. Ultrastructurally, the lesions were characterized by focal myofibrillar disorganization with streaming or irregularity of Z bands. The present cases seem to be classified as congenital myopathy based on pathological alterations and age of onset.
The gene expression of β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) and stimulatory G-protein Gsα in ventricle after chronic treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) in rat was investigated. The rats were treated with DOX in a dose of 2.5 mg/kg once a week for 5 weeks, the cumulative dose being 12.5 mg/kg. Two weeks after the last injection, the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol was noticeably decreased in left atrial muscle preparations isolated from DOX-treated rats. Northern blot hybridization showed that the mRNA transcripts of β1AR and Gsα, important signal transduction elements for regulating heart rate and contractility, were significantly decreased in the ventricle of DOX-treated rats. Thus, chronic treatment with DOX decreases the gene expression levels of myocardial β1AR and Gsα.
It is known that water deprivation or injection of hypertonic saline induces anorexia. The present study examined the possible involvement of vasopressin in the suppression of food intake during high plasma osmolality. Intraperitoneal injection of vasopressin (20 μg/kg) into male rats significantly suppressed food intake for 1 hr. This anorectic effect of vasopressin was reversed by simultaneous injection of a peptide antagonist for V1 receptor (40 μg/kg), but not for V2 receptor (40 μg/kg). Intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline (20% NaCl, 2 ml/kg) similarly suppressed food intake for 2 hr, which was associated with a transient increase in plasma vasopressin concentrations. This hypertonic saline-induced suppression of food intake was blocked by a V1 receptor antagonist. Vasopressin (40 ng/2 μl) directly administered into the third ventricle of the brain also suppressed food intake for 1 hr. These results suggest that vasopressin participates in the suppression of food intake during high plasma osmolality, the action of which is mediated by V1 receptors in the brain.
Our previous report demonstrated that small wild rodents in Japan harbored two types of novel Babesia microti-like parasites (Kobe and Hobetsu types), but not the type widely distributed throughout the temperate zones of North American and Eurasian Continents (U.S. type). In this study, we surveyed small wild mammals collected at various places in the northern part of Japan, seeking for U.S.-type B. microti. A total of 197 small mammals comprising 10 species, Apodemus speciosus, A. argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, C. rutilus, Eothenomys andersoni, Microtus montebelli, Tamias sibiricus, Sorex unguiculatus, S. caecutiens, and Urotrichus talpoides, were examined. Babesia parasites were detected in A. speciosus, C. rufocanus, C. rutilus, M. montebelli, S. unguiculatus, and S. caecutiens by microscopy of blood smears and by PCR targeting babesial nuclear small-subunit rRNA (rDNA) and β-tubulin genes. Inoculation of their bloods into experimental animals gave rise to 23 parasite isolates, which included 16 from A. speciosus, 4 from C. rufocanus, and 1 each from C. rutilus, M. montebelli and S. unguiculatus. Sequencing analyses of their rDNA and β-tubulin genes revealed that, of the 23 isolates, 20 and 3 were of Hobetsu and U.S. types, respectively. The U.S.-type B. microti strains isolated in Japan, however, were distinguishable from the isolates in the United States when their β-tubulin gene sequences and antigen profiles in Western blots were compared. We conclude that U.S.-type B. microti exists in Japan although it has been genetically and antigenically diversified from that distributed in the United States. The results also suggest that not only rodents, but also some insectivores may serve as reservoirs for the agent of human babesiosis.
In order to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in domestic animals in 6 provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, 1,098 fecal or intestinal content samples from pigs, chickens, and ducks were examined in the period from July to October, 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 78 (7.1%) of the total samples, which included 23 (5.2%) of 439 pigs, 24 (7.9%) of 302 chickens, and 31 (8.7%) of 357 ducks. From those samples, 80 Salmonella strains were isolated and 25 serovars were identified. The predominant serovars were S. Javiana, S. Derby, and S. Weltevreden. S. Javiana and S. Weltevreden were detected together in pigs, chickens, and ducks. These results indicate that the serovars of Salmonella are widely distributed in domestic animals in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Computed tomographic (CT) examination of 20 canine hip joints was carried out in two positions, normal-standing and weight-bearing. In normal (dorsal acetabular rim angle: DARA < 15°) or slightly abnormal (DARA, 15° to 20°) hip joints, the values of parameters to laxity were evaluated as more severe in the weight-bearing position. Comparisons of results using various indicators, including the center distance (CD) index, dorsolateral subluxation score, and lateral center edge angle, revealed that the CD index may be a useful marker of functional laxity in the canine hip joint under CT scanning. Further, CT scanning in the weight-bearing position was more sensitive than in the normal-standing position for the detection of laxity in hips with normal or only slightly abnormal DARA.
The objective of the experiment was to study oocyte recovery by transvaginal, ultrasound-guided, follicle aspiration, from Thai swamp buffalo using different vacuum pressures. Six adult buffalo heifers, aged 2.5-3.0 yrs were treated with a total dose of 280 mg FSH, given twice a day in a divided doses over a three day period (60/60 mg, 50/50 mg, 30/30 mg) at d7 after progesterone implant. Three vacuum pressures were used; 100 (n=12), 80 (n=12) and 60 mmHg (n=12) and all of the pressures were performed in each animal. The animals were treated repeatedly and collection took place using 2 sets of each pressure every 2 months, giving a total of 36 collections from each animal. The oocyte recovery rates from each pressure were 81.2% (69/85) 79.1% (53/67) and 90.3% (93/103) for 100, 80 and 60 mmHg respectively. The number of oocytes collected per donor were 5.33 ± 3.27, 4.42 ± 2.71 and 7.75 ± 4.31 respectively. The quality of the oocytes did not improved with the lower vacuum pressure. In conclusion, the application of FSH pretreatment improves the yield of oocytes from Thai, swamp buffalo heifers after gonadotropin treatment when using the vacuum pressures between 60-100 mmHg.
A disease characterized by arthritis of carpal joints and occasionally by pneumonia was seen among goats on a farm in Nagano prefecture of Japan in the summer of 2002. Serological investigation was done on 30 goats, that is one group on the farm by agar gel immunodiffusion tests using maedi-visna virus as the antigen, and 19 goats were positive. The caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genome was detected in peripheral blood leukocytes from several antibody-positive goats. Two goats among them were necropsied and used for pathological tests and virus isolation. The isolated virus was serially propagated in fetal lamb lung cell cultures. Goats inoculated with the culture fluid became antibody positive. These results suggested that a CAEV-infected goat had been introduced accidentally to the farm and that subclinical infection occurred among the flock.