Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a zoonotic pathogen that often causes diarrhea, respiratory diseases or septicemia in animals. Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic E. coli infections. In this study, 1,221 E. coli strains were isolated between March, 2011 and February, 2014. The results of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed a high prevalence of quinolone resistance. The antimicrobial resistance rates of these E. coli isolates to nalidixic acid (NAL) were 72.0% in swine, 81.9% in chickens, 81.0% in turkeys, 64.0% in ducks and 73.2% in geese. Among these isolates, the positive rate for the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinant was 14.8% (181/1,221); the detection rate for qnrS1 was the highest (10.2%), followed by aac(6’)-Ib-cr (4.5%) and qnrB2 (0.3%). The quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) analysis for the PMQR-positive isolates showed that the strains with mutations at codon 83 or 87 in GyrA were resistant to NAL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of occurrence of qnrB2, qnrS1 and aac(6’)-Ib-cr genes and high frequency (56.4%; 102/181) of mutation in gyrA or parC among PMQR-positive E. coli strains derived from diseased animals in Taiwan.
Streptococcus suis is an important pig pathogen with potential for human transmission. The serotype distributions and phenotypic characteristics vary over time and among regions; however, little is known about the characteristics of S. suis isolates in Korea. In this study, 240 S. suis isolates collected from pigs in Korea in 2009–2010 were serotyped by coagglutination tests, subsequently screened for three virulence-associated genes (mrp, epf and sly) and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. As for 80 isolates, the serotypes of which were relevant to human infections, clonal complexes (CCs) were further identified by PCR. Serotype 3 was the most prevalent (15.8%), followed by serotype 2 (15.0%), with geographical variation for each serotype. Overall, 55.4% of the isolates carried mrp, whereas only 3.8% carried epf. CC25 was the most prevalent (41.3%) and was related to serotypes 2 and 9. The isolates showed higher susceptibility to ampicillin (93.4%) and ceftiofur (90.8%) than to the other antimicrobial agents tested. The highest resistance rate was observed to tetracycline (98.0%), followed by erythromycin (88.8%). In addition, the resistance to certain antimicrobials was significantly associated, in part, with virulence-associated genes or serotypes. Therefore, continuous characterization of S. suis is essential for the benefit of veterinary and human medicine.
Over the past decades, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains displaying similar phenotypic and genetic profiles of the attenuated, acriflavine-resistant E. rhusiopathiae Koganei 65-0.15 strain (serovar 1a) have been frequently isolated from pigs affected with chronic erysipelas in Japan. In this study, using the conventional PCR assay that was designed to detect strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites found in the genome of the vaccine strain, we analyzed E. rhusiopathiae isolates from pigs with chronic disease in farms where the Koganei vaccine was used. Out of a total of 155 isolates, 101 isolates (65.2%) were determined to be the vaccine strain by SNP-based PCR. Among the 101 PCR-positive isolates, four isolates were found to be sensitive to acriflavine.
A 9-year-old, spayed female Golden Retriever dog was referred to us for lymphocytosis and lymphadenopathy, secondary to suspected chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The dog had a clinical history of anorexia, vomiting and melena lasting two days. The popliteal lymph node contained small-to-intermediate lymphocytes, which led us to suspect low-grade lymphoma. Thickened lesions in the stomach and small intestine were detected by ultrasonography. Histopathology of the popliteal lymph node and small intestine revealed a simultaneous presence of T-zone lymphoma (TZL) and high-grade gastrointestinal (GI) cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma. Large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) were seen on cytological examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that both lymphomas originated in the T-cells. The dog died 15 days after diagnosis, despite chemotherapy.
Wild animals generally avoid even small and harmless novel objects and/or familiar objects moved to a novel position, which is termed “new-object reaction”. Although new-object reaction appears to be a biologically important characteristic for animals, little progress has been made in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying new-object reaction. One reason might be the lack of effective experimental animals. Two strains of roof rats (Sj and Og strains) were established from wild roof rats caught in Shinjuku, Tokyo and one of the Ogasawara Islands, respectively, by a Japanese pest control company. Based on the rat caregivers’ informal observations, we conducted behavioral and anatomical tests to assess the validity of Sj and Og strains for the analyses of new-object reaction. In Experiment 1, the Sj strain showed reduced food consumption compared with the Og strain when food was provided in a novel way, suggesting that the Sj strain had a stronger avoidance of novel objects compared with the Og strain. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the basolateral complex of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in experimental Sj rats had a larger percentage area compared with that of experimental Og rats, indicating these nuclei might be involved in the difference observed in avoidance of novel objects between the strains. Taken together, the present study suggests that Sj and Og strains are effective experimental animals for assessing new-object reaction.
Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that has been demonstrated to delay ventricular remodeling in humans and experimental animals. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the chronic effects of sildenafil administration on echocardiographic indices and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in dogs with naturally occurring, asymptomatic myxomatous mitral valve degeneration. Thirty client-owned dogs with ACVIM class B1 or B2 were enrolled. Dogs were randomly assigned to treatment (sildenafil 1–3 mg/kg, PO, BID for 180 days) or control groups. A total of 12 dogs completed the 180 days trial in the sildenafil group, whereas 10 dogs remained in control group. When comparing the difference from baseline values obtained over time between groups, the stroke volume (SV) at day 30 was significantly higher in the sildenafil group (P=0.038). The LA/Ao and the MR jet area were significantly lower beginning at day 30 (only MR jet area; P=0.006), day 90 (P=0.006 and P=0.027, respectively) and day 180 (P=0.029 and P=0.032, respectively). The 2D-LA was significantly lower at day 90 when compared with control group (P=0.028). The differences of NTproBNP from baseline were significantly lower when compared with control group at the same timepoint (D90, P=0.017 and D180, P=0.013). In conclusion, this study suggested that long-term treatment with sildenafil prevented aggravation of disease progression as suggested by several echocardiographic indices (i.e. SV, LA/Ao, MR jet area, 2D-LA) and reduced NTproBNP level at the indicated timepoints in dogs with asymptomatic mitral valve degeneration.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of intravenous acetate Ringer’s solution, with or without dextrose, on diarrheic calves with either experimentally induced or spontaneous diarrhea. In the experimental model, diarrhea was induced in nine healthy calves by administering cold milk (below 4°C) twice a day for 2 days. The calves were randomly assigned to the isotonic saline (ISS), acetated Ringer’s (AR) or acetated Ringer’s with 5% dextrose (ARD) groups, with three calves assigned to each group. The calves received 80 ml/kg of their designated solution, at a flow rate of 20 ml/kg/hr. Infusion of ISS, AR and ARD were all found to be safe and effective in increasing plasma volume. Intravenous (IV) infusion of ISS resulted in the acidification secondary to dilution, while AR and ARD infusion inhibited acidification. In addition, prevention of catabolism was observed only with IV infusion of ARD. Sixteen calves with spontaneous diarrhea were enrolled in the clinical study. The calves were randomly assigned to the AR or ARD groups, with eight calves being assigned to each group. The calves received 100 ml/kg of their designated solution, at a flow rate of 25 ml/kg/hr. Intravenous infusion of AR and ARD was found to be effective in increasing plasma volume and inhibiting acidification. Only infusion of ARD prevented catabolism, but it also led to hyperglycemia. Our results suggest that a solution containing dextrose may be beneficial for wasting diarrheic calves.
Isolated rat thoracic aortic strips undergoing noradrenaline-induced contraction were treated with an adult heartworm (HW) crude extract and then examined for isometric changes in tension. HW extract caused relaxation of endothelium-intact strips, but not endothelium-denuded strips. This effect was inhibited by treatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and could be reversed by additional treatment with L-arginine. However, HW extract at a high concentration caused slight relaxation of endothelium-denuded strips, and relaxation persisted after L-NAME treatment in endothelium intact-strips. These data suggested that the relaxation induced by HW extract was mainly endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide-mediated, but in part, also endothelium-independent. In addition, a bioassay using isolated rat thoracic aortas may be a useful tool for investigating vasoactive substances in the HW extract.
Reliable methodology for predicting the age of mature dogs is currently unavailable. In this study, amplicon sequencing of 50 blood samples obtained from diseased dogs was used to measure methylation in seven DNA regions. Significant correlations between methylation level and age were identified in four of the seven regions. These four regions were then tested in samples from 31 healthy toy poodles, and correlations were detected in two regions. The age of another 11 dogs was predicted using data from the diseased dogs and the healthy poodles. The mean difference between the actual and calculated ages was 34.3 and 23.1 months, respectively. Further research is needed to identify additional sites of age-related methylation and allow accurate age prediction in dogs.
Anesthetics utilized for the immobilization of pregnant mammals are prone to crossing the placental barrier and cause adverse effects to the fetuses. In this study, we develop a facile method employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the study of Telazol crossing the placental barrier of pregnant pigs. The method mainly relies on the efficient extraction strategy that includes the mobile phase composed of 10 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution-acetonitrile (1:4, v/v). When the injected dose of Telazol is 10 mg/kg (5 mg/kg of each constituent drug, zolazepem and tiletamine), zolazepam can cross the placental barrier as it is detected in both uterus and umbilical cord with approximately the same content. Conversely, tiletamine is detected in neither uterus nor umbilical cord, indicating the absence of placental transfer of tiletamine. The different absorption rates of the two dosage-equal compounds by pigs are found to be the main cause of their different abilities to cross the placental barrier.
A Japanese black feedlot steer suddenly died after exhibiting astasia and cramping of the extremities. Necropsy of the animal revealed that the right kidney was enlarged and pale with severe nephrolithiasis. The urinary bladder displayed mucosal hemorrhage. Upon bacteriological investigation, Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the liver, spleen, right kidney, lungs and urine. Histopathological examination revealed necrotizing suppurative nephritis with the presence of numerous gram-negative bacilli and fibrinous suppurative cystitis with no bacilli. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the bacteria and cytoplasm of the macrophages stained positively with P. mirabilis antiserum. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous bacteria in the renal tubules. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the histopathological aspects of nephritis caused by P. mirabilis in cattle.
A 3.5-year-old female Chihuahua was presented with complaint of neck pain, intermittent cough and dysphagia. Physical examination and diagnostic imaging of neck region revealed a solid and highly vascularized mass involving the retropharyngeal region. Histologically, the mass showed an atypical zellballen pattern which comprised of high density of type I chief cells with high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio and separated by delicate fibrovascular stroma. Immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers was diffusely positive in cytoplasm of tumor cells. Disseminated tumor emboli in external jugular vein were detected 6 months after initial surgery. An electron microscopic study revealed numerous electron-dense intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. Based on these findings, carotid body carcinoma was diagnosed.
Canine prostate cancer (cPCa) is an untreatable malignant neoplasm resulting in local tissue invasion and distant metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression of miRs that are altered in cPCa tissue. The expression levels of 277 mature miRs in prostatic tissue (n=5, respectively) were compared between the non-tumor and tumor groups using real-time PCR. Five miRs (miR-18a, 95, 221, 222 and 330) were up-regulated, but 14 miRs (miR-127, 148a, 205, 299, 329b, 335, 376a, 376c, 379, 380, 381, 411, 487b and 495) were down-regulated specifically in cPCa (P<0.05). These miRs have potential use as early diagnosis markers for cPCa and in miR-based therapy.
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used worldwide, particularly in Africa, for several decades. Although many are banned, several African countries still use OCPs especially for the prevention and control of malaria. OCPs are characterized by their bio-accumulation in the environment, especially in the food chain, where they find their way into the human body. Despite no clear epidemiological studies confirming hazardous effects of these chemicals on human health, many studies have reported positive associations between the use of OCPs and neurological and reproductive disorders, and cancer risk. There is a clear gap in published reports on OCPs in Africa and their potential health hazards. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the incidence of OCP contamination in various foods in Africa, to demonstrate the potential transmission of these chemicals to people and to discuss their possible health hazards.
Seabirds are marine top predators and accumulate high levels of metals and metalloids in their tissues. Contamination by metals in the highly productive offshore region has become a matter of public concern. It is home to 80% of the seabird population in the U.S.A., 95% of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), and major populations of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and whales. Here, the concentrations of eight heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) and a metalloid (As) in the liver and kidneys of the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) collected in the Bering Sea were measured. As proxies of trophic level and habitat, nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of breast muscles were also measured. Hepatic Hg concentration was high in northern fulmar, whereas Cd level was high in tufted puffin and northern fulmar. The Hg concentration and δ15N value were positively correlated across individual birds, suggesting that Hg uptake was linked to the trophic status of consumed prey. Furthermore, Hg concentration in our study was higher than those of the same species of seabirds collected in 1990.
The efficacy of a commercial attenuated live type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine was tested under experimental infection with a highly virulent Vietnamese virus isolated from a diseased pig affected with highly pathogenic PRRS (HP-PRRS) using specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Twenty-five 4-week-old SPF pigs were divided into three groups as follows: pigs vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine (Group 1, n=10), unvaccinated pigs (Group 2, n=10) and unvaccinated and non-infectious control pigs (Group 3, n=5). Four weeks later, Groups 1 and 2 were challenged with a 1 ml inoculum containing 1 × 105.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/ml of a Vietnamese HP-PRRS virus isolated in 2010 via the intranasal route. Animals were monitored during the subsequent two-week period post-challenge and necropsied for virological and pathological assays. Results showed a significant reduction in viral replication and shedding in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated pigs. The non-vaccinated pigs showed severe pyrogenic and respiratory illness with marked systematic lesions including interstitial pneumonia and thymic atrophy. In contrast, vaccinated pigs recovered quickly from fever with only mild pathological manifestations. Therefore, although viral shedding was still noted, immunization with the live PRRS vaccine did indeed reduce viral replication and disease severity, suggesting its utility in minimizing outbreaks of HP-PRRS.
Acidic electrolyzed water (EW) (pH 2.6−5.8) and alkaline EW (pH 11.2−12.1) were examined as potential disinfectants against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Using acidic EW with pH 2.6 and alkaline EW with pH >11.7, the viral titer decreased in vitro by > 4.0 log values, 2 min after the virus was mixed with EW at a 1:10 dilution. The strong virucidal effect of acidic EW (pH 2.6), but not that of alkaline EW (>11.7), seemed to depend on the chlorine level in the solution. Genetic analysis revealed that viral RNA was substantially reduced, especially by alkaline EW.
We isolated an arbovirus from bovine blood in Indonesia. The arbovirus was obtained from the plasma of a cow showing no clinical symptoms in West Java in February 2014, and was identified as Akabane virus (AKAV) by AKAV-specific RT-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial S segment indicated the AKAV isolate, WJ-1SA/P/2014, was most closely related with two isolates from Israel and Turkey reported in 2001 and 2015, respectively, and that WJ-1SA/P/2014 isolate belongs to AKAV genogroup Ib. This is the first isolation of AKAV from Indonesia.