Campylobacteriosis is currently the most frequent zoonosis in humans and the main source of infection is contaminated poultry meat. As chickens are a natural host for Campylobacter species, one strategy to prevent infection in humans is to eliminate these bacteria on poultry farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic potential of 46 Lactobacillus isolates from chickens faeces or cloacae. All lactobacilli were able to produce active compounds on solid media with antagonistic properties against C. jejuni and C. coli, with L. salivarius and L. reuteri exhibiting particularly strong antagonism. The cell-free culture supernatants had a much weaker inhibitory effect on the growth of Campylobacter, and the neutralization of organic acids caused them to completely lose their inhibitory properties. The ability to produce H2O2 was exhibited by 93% of isolates; most of isolates had a hydrophobic surface, showed excellent survival at pH 2.0 or 1.5, and displayed tolerance to bile; 50% isolates displayed the ability to biofilm formation. Determination of MICs of various antibiotics showed that as much as 80.4% of Lactobacillus isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Seven ultimately selected isolates that met all the basic criteria for probiotics may have potential application in reducing Camylobacter spp. in chickens and thus prevent infections in both birds and humans.
Chicken heterophils generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules to defend against invading pathogens. The present study examined effects of quercetin on chicken heterophils. Heterophils were stimulated with PBS, 50 µM quercetin (QH), PMA or Escherichia coli (EC) and the resulting intracellular ROS molecules were determined. Flow cytometry results showed that cells stimulated with QH, PMA and EC had a higher ROS production. Increases in intracellular ROS molecules were identified in all treatment groups by fluorescence microscopy. Determination of the ability of quercetin to manipulate mRNA expression of ROS subunits was assessed using real-time RT-PCR. Quercetin and other stimulants up-regulated the majority of genes involved in ROS production: CYBB (NOX2), NCF1 (p47phox), NCF2 (p67phox), NOX1 and RAC2. The antioxidant property of QH was explored by measuring mRNA expression of CAT and SOD1. The data indicate increased levels of CAT with all treatments; however, only QH attenuated the expression of the SOD1 gene. To further investigate the effects of ROS-driven inflammation or cell death, IL6, CASP8 and MCL1 genes were preferentially tested. The inflammatory gene (IL6) was profoundly down-regulated in the QH- and PMA-treated groups while EC induced a strikingly high IL6 expression level. Investigation of the known apoptotic (CASP8) and anti-apoptotic (MCL1) genes found down-regulation of CASP8 in the QH- and PMA-treated groups which were contradicted to the MCL1 gene. In conclusion, quercetin can enhance ROS production by regulating the expression of genes involved in ROS production as well as in subsequent processes.
Alacepril is a relatively novel angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; however, the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of alacepril in terms of cough suppression in dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety, tolerance, and cough suppression efficacy of alacepril in dogs with MVD. This was a multi-center, prospective study. Forty-two dogs with echocardiographic or radiographic evidence of cardiac enlargement in addition to cough were enrolled. Dogs were treated with alacepril (1.0–3.0 mg/kg/day) for at least 4 weeks. One dog (2.4%) developed complications, including appetite loss, lethargy, and vomiting. Thirty-six dogs were re-evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Cough resolved or improved in 20 dogs (55.6%) after treatment. Based on the efficacy of alacepril, the dogs were divided into an effective group (n=20) and an ineffective group (n=16). After treatment, the left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter corrected for body weight was significantly increased from baseline in the ineffective group but was significantly decreased in the effective group. Univariate binomial logistic regression analyses showed that high atrial natriuretic peptide level, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, and E wave velocity at baseline were significantly correlated with alacepril inefficacy. Alacepril as treatment for MVD is well tolerated in most dogs, and different conditions of cardiac loading may influence the effect of the drug. Alacepril is expected to improve the quality of life of dogs with early stage MVD.
A 2-year-female arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) developed anorexia, dehydration, and emaciation during the quarantine period for importation from Norway, and died 17 days later. At necropsy, a fistula was observed on the left gluteal region, and the left eye, left brain, and kidneys were discolored. Histologically, severe diffuse suppurative meningoencephalitis and renal abscesses were detected. Numerous Gram-positive cocci were detected in these lesions. Multidrug-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius were isolated from the lesions. These results suggest that S. pseudintermedius can cause severe multifocal suppurative meningoencephalitis and nephritis in foxes. This is the first report of multidrug-susceptible S. pseudintermedius meningoencephalitis and nephritis in a fox.
In cases of food poisoning, it is important for food sanitation inspectors to determine the causative pathogen as early as possible and take necessary measures to minimize outbreaks. Interviews are usually conducted to obtain epidemiological information to aid in the rapid determination of the cause. However, the current method of determining the causative pathogen has the disadvantage of being reliant upon the experience and knowledge of food sanitation inspectors. Here, we analyzed 529 infectious food poisoning incidents reported in five municipalities in the Kinki region to develop a tool for evaluation using a multinomial logistic regression model, which can predict the causative pathogen based on the patients’ epidemiological information. This tool predicts the most probable cause of the incident by generating a list of pathogens with the highest probability. As a result of leave-one-out cross validation, the agreement ratio with the actual pathogen was 86.4%, and this ratio increased to 97.5% when the agreement was judged by including the true pathogen within the top three pathogens with the highest probability. In cases where the difference of probability between the first and second candidate pathogen was ≥50%, the agreement ratio increased to 94.2%. Using this tool, it is possible to accurately estimate the causative pathogen at an early stage based on patient information, and this will further help narrow the target of investigations to identify causative agent, thereby leading to a prompt identification, which can prevent the spread of food poisoning.
This study investigates bromine (Br) concentration and its relationship with iodine concentration in serum samples of 86 horses. The mean serum Br concentration in horses pastured on green grass near the seashore was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that in horses pastured in a sand paddock. A significantly negative correlation (r=−0.479, P<0.01) between the serum Br and iodine concentrations was evident in the horses that pastured on green grass. The concentrations of several elements such as sodium and potassium were virtually constant in the serum. In addition, there were elements present below the detection limit of the analytical instruments used. In contrast, it was suggested that geological differences have a marked influence on serum Br concentrations in animals. Thus, we hypothesized that serum Br concentration in horses is a possible indicator reflecting geological differences.
Two dogs with low plasma testosterone (T) levels and poor semen quality were administered one tablet of 12.5 mg clomiphene citrate orally per day at 2-day intervals for 4 weeks. Plasma T levels, total sperm count, and sperm motility in both dogs temporarily increased between 3 and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. These results indicate that poor semen quality in dogs with low plasma T level can be improved by oral administration of clomiphene citrate.
Association of felis catus papillomaviruses (FcaPVs) with feline squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been reported worldwide, while there is limited information about FcaPVs in Asia. In this study, 21 feline SCC biopsy samples from cats in Japan were analyzed by PCR with PV consensus primers and type-specific primers for FcaPV type 2 (FcaPV-2), FcaPV-3 and FcaPV-4 designed in this study. Sequence analysis revealed that one sample was FcaPV-3, and two were FcaPV-4. In both FcaPV-4 positive samples, 334th tryptophan in L1 ORF was deleted compared with the reference sequence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry showed that p16 protein was positive in both FcaPV-4 detected samples. This study would contribute to the molecular epidemiological and pathological understanding of FcaPV in Japan.
Influenza (flu) D virus, a possible causative agent of bovine respiratory disease, is genetically classified into three clusters: D/OK-, D/660-, and D/Japan-lineages. To evaluate antigenic heterogeneity among these clusters, we compared antibody titers to each lineage virus using bovine sera collected over time following virus infection. Antibody titers to D/Japan-lineage virus rose rapidly in the acute phase of infection, and were 4 times higher than those to the other clustered viruses. In the later phase of infection, titers to D/Japan-lineage virus were equivalent to those to D/OK-lineage virus, and still higher than those to D/660-lineage virus. These results suggest the existence of common and lineage-specific antigenic epitopes in the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion protein of flu D viruses.
This study compared agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) protocols for diagnosing equine infectious anemia. Two commercial testing kits were used: one following the Japanese Act on Domestic Animal Infectious Diseases Control and one following the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) manual. From 651 samples tested, both protocols gave identical results for 647 samples (23 samples tested positive; 624 tested negative). Non-specific reactions were observed in 21 samples testing negative by the Japanese protocol, but none were observed with the OIE protocol. The kappa coefficient value was 0.962, indicating almost perfect agreement between the two protocols. This study found no difference in diagnostic agreement between the two protocols, but the OIE protocol produced non-specific reactions less frequently than the Japanese protocol.
An adult female of Williams’ mud turtle, Pelusios williamsi long-term captive, that was allegedly caught wild in Kenya was found to have developed papilloma-like skin lesions. Excised tumors were examined histologically after routine processing with hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained slides, examined for the presence of viral particles by electron microscopy employing negative staining, and examined for the presence of viral DNA by PCR. Microscopic features in pre-treatment biopsies were fully diagnostic and consistent with multifocal squamous cell papilloma. Viral-type inclusion bodies were not identified. Turtle was found to be infected by reptilian herpesvirus. Association with herpesvirus and vast multiplicity of tumors thwarted surgical solution. An autogenous vaccine was prepared using 5 g of excised fresh tissue, aseptically ground, treated with diluted formalin, centrifuged to obtain a supernatant, and subsequently exposed to UV light. Autogenous vaccine induced substantial areas of necrosis of the papillomatous lesions noted by the loss of cytological architecture, nuclear loss, and by edema. The outer edges of the healing biopsies appeared to be regenerating. Therefore, our vaccine application could be considered as effective. It is difficult to treat and eliminate herpesvirus infection because of its cryptic presence and sudden onset of disease. Successful application of autogenous vaccine could be a potentially promising strategy, which deserves further testing.
This study reports two clinical cases of avian haemosporidian infection caused by a Haemoproteus sp., involving a snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) and a goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), at a zoo. The snowy owl died after presenting with anorexia, depression and lethargy. A blood smear with Wright’s staining confirmed Haemoproteus infection. Necropsy of the snowy owl revealed hypertrophy of the internal organs, including the liver, gallbladder, kidney and adrenal glands. The goshawk showed anorexia, depression and a lowered head position, and was diagnosed with a Haemoproteus infection based on a blood smear. The goshawk was completely cured by treatment with a combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride. Both cases showed decreased erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit values on complete blood count.