The Isthmus of Kra in Southern Thailand consists of a lowland of about 70 km in length. It has been suggested that the Isthmus may sink beneath the sea surface according to the change of level of the sea, and may function as a zoogeographical barrier in land mammals in this region. So, the geographical variation was osteometrically examined in skull of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) from the both sides of Isthmus of Kra. The osteometrical examination demonstrated that the skull is larger in southern population than in northern one. In the charts of the principal component analysis, however, the morphological separation between two populations can not be obviously seen in female. While, the results of the discriminant analysis indicated the morphological separation between the two populations. These findings suggest that the zoogeographical barrier of Istmus of Kra may have influence on the osteometrical variation in the common tree shrew, when the Isthmus was covered with sea.
The ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) mice consist of heterozygous and homozygous groups and are considered to be a good model for human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. To reveal changes in cell-surface carbohydrate construction, 24 lectins were applied to kidney sections of 10-, 30- and 50-week-old male heterozygous and homozygous ICGN mice and age-matched male ICR mice. Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), which specifically binds to α-D-galactopyranosyl groups, showed positive staining in the glomeruli of ICGN mice, but not in those of ICR mice. Positive BSL-I staining was observed only in distal tubules of homozygous ICGN mice. Lectin blotting for BSL-I demonstrated characteristic glycoproteins (45, 58 and 64 kD) in ICGN but not in ICR mice, and the levels of these molecules augmented in homozygous ICGN mice with the progression of renal failure. Moreover, succinylated wheat germ agglutinin, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Aleuria aurantia lectin and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I showed positive staining only in the glomeruli of homozygous ICGN mice, but not in those of heterozygous ICGN or ICR mice. The staining intensities of Ricinus communis agglutinin-I, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E and -L, Lens culinaris agglutinin and Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECL) in the glomeruli of homozygous ICGN mice were stronger than those of heterozygous ICGN and ICR mice. In conclusion, lectin histochemistry provided useful information for the diagnosis and prognosis of nephrotic lesions. Characteristic BSL-I binding glycoproteins may be pathogenic factors which cause renal disease in ICGN mice and are good tools to investigate the molecular mechanism of renal disorders in ICGN mice.
Silky fowl, a breed of chicken, is hyperpigmented in its various internal tissues. The pigment was extracted from various tissues of two strains of Silky fowl to determine its molecular structure and internal distribution. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy showed two spectrum patterns of the pigment in Silky fowl; one is from ovary and testis, the other is from periosteum and feather. The difference between the two spectra is possibly due to the sulfur contents of melanin. Especially, the spectra of the pigments from feather and periosteum shared the characteristics of synthesized melanin spectrum in common, which indicates that the melanocytes dispersed in these tissues were functionally the same. According to our quantitative analysis, the tissues examined were classified significantly in the order of the pigment content (p<0.05): periosteum > gonads (ovary or testis) = trachea ≥ heart, liver, gizzard, cecum, muscles (Pectoralis and Supracoracoideus) and skin. In addition, the specific regions of embryonic neural crest derived cells, such as cardiac artery and various parts of cephalic tissues, were found to be locally hyperpigmented. These data suggest that hyperpigmentation (fibromelanosis) in Silky fowl chicken occurs in a tissue- and organ-specific manner, which is strongly related to neural crest cell development. It is hypothesized that neural crest cells of the bird, containing melanocyte progenitors, acquire unusual ability to differentiate into melanocytes excessively, and to extend the distribution of their descendant along the destinations of neural crest derivatives.
The complex carbohydrates in the camel duodenal glands were examined histochemically at light and electron microscopic levels. The duodenal glands of the camel were distributed in the submucosa 2 m caudal from the pylorus. These were branched tubuloalveolar glands. The terminal portion of each lobule was formed by only one type of mucous cell. The duodenal gland cells contained acidic and neutral carbohydrates. The mucous cells mainly contained sulfate and carboxyl carbohydrate with sialic acid, and they also contained a few neutral carbohydrates with different saccharide residues such as mannose, glucose, galactose, N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl galactosamine. The results showed that the secretary granules of the duodenal glands in the camel contain mainly acidic carbohydrates. These findings seem to be the morphological characteristics of the duodenal glands in the camel.
Interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in the liver and spleen was examined after subjection to oscillation stress in the rat. Thirty-minute subjection to oscillation stress increased IL-1β mRNA expression in the both organs. Prior treatment of rats with gadolinium chloride, which eliminates macrophages, prevented the stress-induced IL-1β expression. Either adrenalectomy or treatment of guanethidine, a blocker of norepinephrine release in the sympathetic nerve endings, partially attenuated the stress-induced response, but the combined treatment completely blocked it. Injection of β-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol) also suppressed the stress-induced response. These results suggest that oscillation stress induces IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver and spleen, probably in Kupffer cells and splenic macrophages, and that stress-induced IL-1β expression is elicited by catecholamines released from sympathetic nerve terminals and the adrenal gland.
Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) levels in fractured racehorses were measured by radioimmunoassay. Racehorses with fracture of large bone such as the radius, third metacarpus, third carpus, digital bone or tibia, showed normal PTH level and elevated CT level in the serum. Serum PTH level was slightly higher in racehorses with sesamoid bone fracture compared to that of healthy racehorses, but not statistically significant. Moreover, serum CT level of racehorses with sesamoid bone fracture was significantly higher than that of healthy racehorses. Racehorses with sesamoid bone fracture and large bone fracture might be in different conditions of calcium regulation.
We examined the relationship between natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the produced active-oxygen and cytotoxic factor (CF) release in co-culturing canine NK cells with tumor cells (CL-1 target cells). In co-culturing, the adding of n-propyl gallate (active-oxide scavenger) removed the produced active-oxygen, which inhibited NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and the CF release. Moreover, adding of this agent inhibited the tyrosine phosphorylation of NK intracellular protein which observed in co-culturing. Therefore, the active-oxygen produced from canine NK cells are thought to relate the signal transduction in NK-mediated cytotoxicity.
Eleven late-pregnant Jersey cows were assigned to two groups; a group (PO-RBVD group) consisting of five cows treated with an oral administration of 10 million I.U. of an encapsulated form of vitamin D3 (“rumen-bypass” VD3; RBVD3) and another group (IMVD group) consisting of the other six treated with an intramuscular injection of 10 million I.U. of vitamin D3 (VD3). The cows received the RBVD3 or VD3 administration at 7 days before the expected parturition. The changes in the plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, ionized Ca (Ca++) and inorganic phosphorus (iP) were evaluated. Of the vitamin D metabolites, the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in PO-RBVD group increased significantly after the RBVD3 administration and remained in high levels that were significantly higher than those in IMVD group. This suggested that RBVD3 was absorbed rapidly and excellently from the post-ruminal digestive tract without the degradation by ruminal microorganisms. The plasma Ca++ and iP concentrations in PO-RBVD group tended to be higher after the administration and around parturition than those in IMVD group. From these observations, it was suggested the oral RBVD3 administration had more potent ability to prevent parturient paresis compared with the VD3 injection used widely in Japan.
Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.
A new inbred strain, MSKR, originated from Japanese wild mice was established in April, 1998. The MSKR mice were 60% of the C57BL/6N inbred mice in the 60-day body weight. Tail length/head-body length and hind-foot length/head-body length of the MSKR mice were significantly smaller than those of the C57BL/6N mice (0.896 vs 1.061, 0.189 vs 0.204), but ear length/head-body length of the MSKR mice was significantly larger than that of the C57BL/6N mice (0.143 vs 0.137). The age of the first parturition and size of the first litter were 63.20 ± 2.71 days and 6.20 ± 0.37, respectively, at the 20th and 22nd inbreeding generations. Genetic characterization of the MSKR strain was performed using 34 microsatellite markers, 29 biochemical markers, 9 immunogenetic markers, 3 coat color markers, and mitochondrial DNA RFLP-haplotypes. The result indicated that this newly established inbred strain has some different gene constitution from already known molossinus and common laboratory strains.
Spontaneous activities in 10 beagle dogs housed in an individual cage were recorded continuously for 2 hr by an accelerometer fixed to dogs and by a video camera. The responses of the accelerometer were compared to movements identified from the video tapes. We found that gross differentiation of quantitative spontanenous activities might be possible by using only the accelerometer if the threshold of the accelerometer and the amount of acceleration volume were set adequately: the responses of the accelerometer at the threshold of 0.10 G with the acceleration number of 251 or more revealed only movements of the whole-body, and those at the threshold of 0.02 G all movements including changes of the part(s) of the body.
To investigate the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of rat chronic progressive nephrosis (CPN), the kidney of male F344/DuCrj rats, 19, 59, and 111 weeks of age, was examined histologically. In situ analysis for DNA fragmentation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed simultaneously by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CPN was seen in all the kidneys of 59-week-old (n=6) and 111-week-old rats (n=16), correlating significantly (p<0.01) with age. There were apoptotic bodies (ABs) in the single-layered epithelia of dilated tubules (SLD) and the multi-layered epithelia (ML) of the cortical tubules. There were no ABs in any of the kidneys of the 19-week-old (n=5) or 59-week-old rats (n=6). Proliferative activity might have been enhanced in the single-layered and flattened epithelia, SLD, and ML of the cortical tubules in the kidneys of the 59-week-old rats (n=6) compared with that in 111-week-old rats (n=8). The correlations between the TUNEL-positive ratio and number of PCNA-positive cells, and age and the CPN grade were significant (p<0.01) exclusively in the ML. Thus, the results suggest that apoptosis occurs in the proliferative ML of rat CPN, and the pathological significance might be the removal of abnormal or excess cells.
The kinetics of T-cells (CD3 positive (+), CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and B-cells (IgG+, IgM+ and IgA+ cells) in chicken trachea were studied immunohistochemically and histopathologically following an intratracheal inoculation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Viral antigen was detected in the cytoplasm of tracheal epithelium from 16 hr to 6 days post-inoculation (p.i.) with a peak on 4 days p.i. A few IgG+, IgM+ and IgA+ cells were detected in the submucosa from 8 hr p.i. Thereafter IgG+ and IgM+ cells were gradually increased in number, and dramatically increased from 3 days p.i., peaked on 4 days p.i., and gradually decreased after 5 days p.i. IgA+ cells were detected in a small number than IgG+ and IgM+ cells during the all experimental period. These B cells mainly existed in the lamina propria, and some cells were recognized in the interepithelial space. After 14 days p.i., small number of IgG+ and IgM+ cells were detected in the germinal center of lymph follicles in the lamina propria. From 24 to 60 hr p.i., a few number of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were detected at the perivascular area in the lamina propria. After 3 or 4 days p.i., each positive T-cells increased rapidly in number, and reached on the peak at 5 days p.i. CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells tend to distribute diffusely, perivascular area, and surrounding area of CD4+ cells, respectively. CD4+ cells were dramatically decreased from 7 days p.i., and CD3+ and CD8+ cells were decreased from 14 days p.i. No T-cells were detected in the lymph follicles in the lamina propria.
An epizootiological survey of necropsied cases (1993-1997) at University of the Philippines was performed. A total of 368 cases included 238 avian and 111 porcine cases. Amongst avian cases, the major cause of death was infectious diseases in 212 (89%) cases including 97 (41%) bacterial, 36 (15%) viral, and 21(9%) parasitic diseases. The majority of the avian bacterial diseases presented as septicemia (73 cases) and the viral diseases as Newcastle disease (17 cases). In porcine cases, the major cause of death was also infectious diseases, in 100 (90%) cases including 52 bacterial and 29 viral diseases. Porcine bacterial diseases were classified into 36 septicemia, 4 hemophillosis and 4 colibacillosis. Amongst the porcine viral diseases, most cases were diagnosed as Hog cholera (22 cases).
An acute myeloblastic leukemia was found in a 3.5-year-old Holstein cow. The neoplasm was characterized by massive tumor growths, and there were multiple tumor nodules in the dermis or subcutis and a large tumor mass in the mediastinum. This tumor showed negative reactivity for CD3, CD79a, major histocompatibility complex class II and myeloid/histiocyte antigen. Ultrastructural features such as dispersed cytoplasmic granules and poorly developed organelles were compatible with those of early promyelocytes.
Previous studies have proposed that sodium supplement to nonionic contrast media (CM) can decrease the risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF). This study was designed to compare the occurence of VF induced by ioxilan (containing 9 mmol/LNa+) with other nonionic CMs. After wedging a catheter in the right coronary artery, test solutions including ioxilan, ioversol, iomeprol, and iopromide were infused for 30 sec at the rate of 0.4 ml/sec or until VF occurred. Then, incidence of VF, contact time (i.e. the time required to produce VF), and QTc were measured. Also, the CMs other than ioxilan were investigated at sodium levels adjusted to 9 and 20 mmol/L Na+. The incidence of VF with ioxilan (0% ) was the lowest of all. In the other CMs, the incidence decreased in accordance with increase of sodium. Iomeprol and iopromide showed significant reduction of VF incidence at the sodium level of 20 mmol/L. The higher sodium supplements also prolonged the contact times. The increase of QTc was the greatest in ioxilan. Ioxilan has the least arrythmogenic property among the current low-osmolality nonionic CMs. This property might be attributable to an optimal sodium concentration of 9 mmol/L in the CM.
We studied cardiovascular effects of isoflurane in chickens during controlled ventilation. Following the determination of the minimal anesthetic concentration from the response to clamping of a digit, dose-related effect of isoflurane on heart rate and arterial pressure were studied. The minimal anesthetic concentration of isoflurane was 1.25 ± 0.13% (mean ± SD, n=9). There was a dose-dependent decrease in arterial pressure. The heart rate did not change significantly over a range of 1 to 2 times the minimal anesthetic concentration.
Retinoids, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA), induced morphological changes and apoptosis-like cell death characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear disintegration in three canine osteosarcoma cells, OOS, HOS and POS, at a concentration of 10-5 M. Both retinoid receptors, RARs and RXRs, were identified in these cells. 9-cis-RA bound to both the RXRs and the RARs, whereas ATRA bound to only the RARs in these cells. Those results indicate that the induction of apoptosis in canine osteosarcoma cells may be mediated by the specific control of RARs and RXRs.
Progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2) concentrations were measured in serum samples obtained from 23 captive and 23 free-ranging adult female Japanese black bears. We then determined the relationship between changes in these sex steroid hormones and pregnancy. In all captive bears, which included animals of both known and unknown reproductive status, serum P4 concentrations were low from April to July, then tended to become higher after August. The levels then became much higher still in November and December, but returned to low levels in March. Serum P4 concentrations in eight captive pregnant bears, which had parturitions the following spring, increased gradually from August (0.5-2.4 ng/ml) to October (0.9-3.6 ng/ml), and achieved significantly higher maximum levels in December (7.2-18.0 ng/ml). Thereafter, serum P4 concentrations tended to decrease (3.5-6.4 ng/ml in January and 0.3-0.7 ng/ml in March). In all captive bears, serum E2 concentrations varied from April to October but showed low levels in November and December, and became high in January. Serum E2 concentrations in the eight pregnant bears were high in May (95.6-191.4 pg/ml) and varied from August to October (35.6-143.3 pg/ml). Subsequently, serum E2 concentrations in December dropped to significantly lower minimum levels (5.3-11.9 pg/ml) and increased again in January (67.6-153.1 pg/ml). Among the free-ranging bears, the data on serum P4 concentrations in eight bears led to expectations of pregnancy, whereas serum E2 concentrations showed no distinct evidence related to pregnancy. These results, particularly in captive pregnant bears, indicate that a marked increase of P4 in December might be accompanied by reactivation of the corpus luteum preceding implantation. Furthermore, changes in E2 concentrations suggested the possibility that a decline in December and an increase in January are associated with implantation and parturition, respectively.
The effect of addition of linoleic acid-albumin (LAA) to culture medium before freezing on the survival rate of bovine 16-cell embryos after freezing-thawing was investigated. Embryos were incubated in CR1aa containing LAA (0.25 mg/ml) for 4 days after insemination. A conventional slow cooling method was used, in which embryos were cooled at a rate of 0.3°C/min to -30°C in medium supplemented with 1.5 M ethylene glycol and 0.2 M trehalose. The developmental rate to the blastocyst stage of thawed embryos that had been cultured with LAA-containing medium before freezing was higher than that of these cultured without LAA (P<0.05). However, with fresh, non-frozen, embryos that were incubated under the same culture conditions (with and without LAA), no such difference was found.