Development of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-immunoreactive (-IR) nerves supplying the basilar and vertebral arteries (BA and VA) was investigated in White Wistar rats, using double immunohistochemistry. NOS-IR and VIP-IR nerves via the anterior circulation (AC), which mostly expressed NO+/VIP+, extended to the BA during the second postnatal week, and usually reached as far as the rostral two third of the BA on PND 20. NOS-IR nerves were completely lack in the cBA and the VA on PND10, and often absent from these arterial regions even at PND 20. Nevertheless, a small number of VIP+/NOS- nerves were localized in the walls from the caudal BA (cBA) to the VA on PND 5. On PND 20, they frequently met with the descending NOS-IR and VIP-IR nerves via the AC around the lower portion of the middle BA. Fiber bundles containing NOS+/VIP+ axons were first visualized on the caudal VA at PND 30 and observed frequently at PND 80, with a distinct increase in number of NOS-IR and VIP-IR nerves supplying the cBA and the VA. Thus, NOS-IR nerves coming from the VA develop through its own characteristic sequence that lags markedly behind the time of appearance for VIP-IR nerves from the same vascular route and for NOS-IR and VIP-IR nerves via the AC.
In the present study, we firstly demonstrated immunohistochemical expressions of secretory carbonic anhydrase (CA-VI) isozyme in bovine forestomach, large intestine and major salivary glands. CA-VI was detected in basal layer epithelial cells of esophageal and forestomach stratified epithelium, in mucous cells of upper glandular region of large intestine, in serous acinar cells of the parotid gland, in serous demilune cells and some ductal liner cells of mandibular, monostomatic sublingual and esophageal glands. These immunohistolocalizations suggested that bovine CA-VI plays various roles in pH regulation, maintenance of ion and fluid balance, and cell proliferation.
Two hundred thirty one Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitic milk were discriminated into 60 patterns and 16 lineages by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The tested isolates were also investigated using coagulase and capsule serotyping and PCR for possession of genes that encode staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea to sei), enterotoxin-like toxins (selj to selr), and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst). One hundred seventy three of the isolates (74.9%) possessed one or more toxin genes, while no egg-yolk factor was detected in most of them. The most common combinations of toxin genes possessed by the tested isolates were sec, seg, sei, sell, and tst, or seg and sei, or sec, seg, sei, sell, seln, and tst. Two hundred and ten of the isolates (91.0%) serotyped coagulase VI, and 207 of the isolates (89.6%) expressed serotype 5 or 8 capsules. These results suggested that isolates belonging to two major lineages have spread all over Hokkaido as bovine mastitic isolates. Additionally, no remarkable difference was recognized in the identification ratio of the isolates that belonged to the two major lineages between mastitis of subclinical origin and mastitis of clinical origin.
To determine the prevalence of the virulence plasmid in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from pigs in Japan, a total of 106 porcine isolates were subjected to PCR amplification for the detection of the virulence plasmid. Out of the isolates of S. Typhimurium, 38 (35.8%) harbored the virulence plasmid. The presence of the virulence plasmid was widely observed in the isolates from systemically infected pigs (92.0%, 23/25), compared with diarrheic (18.8%, 12/64) and apparently healthy pigs (17.6%, 3/17) (P<0.01).
Claudins are the major constituents of tight junction (TJ) strands and participate in the cell-cell adhesion and permeability barrier in epithelial cell layers. To investigate the suitability of metanephroi for analysis of the function of the TJ protein claudins in renal tubular formation, mouse metanephroi from embryos at day 12 of gestation were cultured and expression of claudins was compared with that in embryonic kidneys. During in vitro culture for 8 days, the metanephroi showed expression patterns very similar to those observed in embryonic kidneys in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the claudins examined, including claudins 1-4, 8, 10, 11, and 16, and the TJ proteins occludin and ZO-1. Immunofluorescence microscopy for claudins 1-4, 8, 10, and 16 showed localization of these claudins at the TJ with occludin and ZO-1 in some restricted tubular segments. These findings indicate that the metanephroi show developmental changes in the expression of the TJ protein claudins, representing those in embryonic kidneys, and thus suggest that the mouse metanephros is suitable to examine the functions of specific claudins in the kidney.
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are important for terminating glutamatergic neurotransmission and protect central nervous system (CNS) neurons from glutamatergic excitotoxicity. We selected these genes as targets that may relate to canine behavioral traits. After screening four EAAT genes (glutamate transporter-1; GLT-1, excitatory amino acid transporter 4; EAAT4, excitatory amino acid carrier; EAAC1, glutamate/aspartate transporter; GLAST) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified two silent SNPs (C129T and T471C) in the GLT-1 gene. We genotyped 193 dogs of 5 breeds and found significant variation among breeds in these two SNPs in GLT-1. The C129T polymorphism was not observed in Malteses and Miniature Schnauzers. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the GLT-1 gene may be useful markers for examining how the genetic background relates to the behavioral traits of dogs.
To clarify the relationship between cellular immune status and nutritive condition, feeding program, blood profiles, and leukocyte populations were analyzed in two dairy herds experiencing frequent mastitis. Fourteen of the 35 lactating cows in herd A, and 18 of the 50 lactating cows in herd B scored positive on the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and 3 of the 73 lactating cows were CMT positive in herd C, which was the control. All herds were evaluated during five different milking stages, and blood was collected from five cows at each stage. With regard to feed content, the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were found to be lower in herds A and B than in herd C. Levels of serum total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen were lower in herds A and B than those in herd C. Neutrophil counts in herds A and B were increased compared to the neutrophil counts in herd C. On the other hand, the numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD14-MHC class+ cells were lower in herd A and B than in herd C. A decrease in peripheral lymphocytes and undernourishment were observed in the herds with frequent occurring mastitis.
In this study, we investigated whether ozonated autohemoadministration (OAHA) influences leukocyte populations in cows with clinical inflammatory disease. Eleven cows with inflammatory disease (Inflammatory Group) and three healthy cows (Control Group) were used for this study. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the Inflammatory Group increased significantly compared to that in the Control Group 3 to 4 days after OAHA treatment. In the Inflammatory Group, the number of CD14+ cells decreased gradually after OAHA, but CD14+ levels remained stable in the Control Group. The number of MHC class-II+ cells decreased gradually in the Inflammatory Group, but increased gradually in the Control Group, and the difference between the groups was significant on day 14 after OAHA. These findings suggest a possible difference in the activation of immune response after OAHA in infected cows compared to healthy cows.
To determine the duration of water movement from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into venous blood by the infusion of 7.2% hypertonic saline solution (HSS), the sodium gradient between venous blood and CSF were examined. Venous sodium concentrations remained higher than that in CSF for duration of 60 min following HSS infusion. By 90 min, the CSF sodium concentration reached the equilibrium with venous sodium concentration. Those data suggests that the duration of time during which water moved from CSF into capillaries in brain by the gradient of sodium concentration was less than 90 min.
Fecal samples obtained from 600 household cats (244 males and 356 females) kept in 3 prefectures of Tohoku district in Japan were examined for Giardia intestinalis antigen, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. G. intestinalis antigen was detected in 40% of the fecal specimens. The factors such as the age, life style or environmental condition of cats could be significantly related to the positive rate of G. intestinalis antigen. In contrast, the investigative district, appearance of feces, sex, breed or origin produced no significant difference in the positive rate. The present results suggest that G. intestinalis infection is widely spread in household cats of Tohoku district.
We conducted zymography for detecting the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reverse zymography for the activity of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in canine spontaneous and rat 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor tissues. The activities of MMPs of canine mammary tumors were quite higher than those of the rat chemically induced tumors. The activities of MMPs were significantly higher in malignant tissues than in benign ones of canine tumors, whereas the activity of only MMP-2 was higher in both benign and malignant rat tumors compared to normal tissues. There were no differences of MMPs activities between benign and malignant rat tumors. The results of reverse zymography indicated that the activities of TIMP-1, -2 and -3 were strikingly higher in rat tumors than in canine tumors. The activities were higher in malignant tissues than in benign ones of dogs, and higher in tumor tissues than in normal mammary tissues of rats. The results of film in situ zymography for tissue localization of gelatinolytic activity showed that the digested area was more extended in malignant tumors than in benign ones of dogs. However, the area was similarly extended in both benign and malignant rat tumors. These results may indicate that the canine spontaneous malignant mammary tumors possess more aggressive nature than the rat chemically induced counterpart, resulting from the high level of MMPs and low level of TIMPs activities of the tumor tissues.
Infectivity of porcine circovirus (PCV) 1 and PCV2 was examined in primary porcine hepatocyte culture by comparing that of PCV in primary kidney cell culture. The virus titer of PCV2-infected hepatocyte cultures was higher than that of the PCV1-infected hepatocyte cultures and the PCV-infected kidney cell cultures. The number of virus-positive cells was most abundant in PCV2-infected hepatocyte cultures as determined by immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization. The results of our data suggest that PCV2 preferably infects cultured hepatocytes as observed in the liver of pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.
Scattered SRM residues from BSE-infected cattle are possible to contaminate sewage during the slaughtering process in slaughterhouses. A proportion of the sludge discharged from wastewater treatment facilities at slaughterhouses has historically been processed into fertilizer. We therefore investigated the associated risk of BSE infection to cattle via sludge-derived fertilizer. Each stage of the process associated with BSE exposure was qualitatively evaluated and quantitative evaluations were subsequently performed using infectious dose as a unit of concern. Results of these qualitative evaluations indicated that installation of filter(s) at the drains to the wastewater treatment facilities has been undertaken by many slaughterhouses and has decreased the likelihood of SRM contamination of sewage. The level of sludge-derived fertilizer ingested by cattle was considered to be very low since the fertilizer is mixed with the ground soil, and the amount of soil ingested by cattle is likely to be small. Results from the quantitative analysis indicated the total infectious dose ingested by cattle in Japan from an infected cow has been estimated to be 5.5 × 10-3 ID50. Preventing scattering of SRM during the slaughtering process, installing filters to the drains with the removal of residues from the drain water and preventing the application of sludge-derived fertilizer to pasturelands would be effective to reduce the risk. Although the limited extent of available information, this study should provide useful indication for the development of an inclusive risk assessment for slaughterhouse sludge in the future.
The effects of hyaluronic acid, which comprises the cumulus intercellular matrix, on Ca2+ influx, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and cyclic AMP synthesis in canine sperm during capacitation was investigated. Ejaculated sperm were collected from 10 Beagle dogs and the sperm were incubated for 4 hr in Eagle's MEM containing 10 μg/ml of hyaluronic acid. The percentages of actively motile sperm, hyperactivated sperm (HA-sperm), acrosome-reacted sperm (AR-sperm), and sperm labeled with fluoresceinated Ca2+ indicator (Ca2+-labeled sperm) were evaluated to assess Ca2+ influx into the sperm. LDH activity and cAMP concentration were measured in homogenized sperm. The mean percentages of motile sperm, HA-sperm, and Ca2+-labeled sperm in the MEM containing hyaluronic acid were higher than in the control medium (P<0.05, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively), but there was no difference between the percentages of AR-sperm. Mean LDH activity and mean cAMP concentration were also significantly higher than the control values (P<0.05). The percentages of HA-sperm correlated with those of Ca2+-labeled sperm (r2=0.810). The results indicate that hyaluronic acid increases Ca2+ influx, LDH activity, and cAMP synthesis in canine ejaculated sperm during capacitation in vitro.
The prevalence and quantity of latent pseudorabies virus (PrV) in nervous tissues of pigs exposed to field strain in Korea was investigated by nested and real-time PCR. Nervous tissues including trigeminal ganglion (TG), olfactory bulb (OB), and brain stem (BS) were collected from 94 seropositive pigs. PrV latent infection in nervous tissues was initially investigated by nested PCR targeting three glycoprotein genes (gB, gE, and gG). Based on the obtained result, latent infection was detected in 95.7% of screened animals. Furthermore, it was revealed that the examined tissues harbored different copy numbers of latent PrV genome ranging from <102.0 to 107.1 copies per microgram of genomic DNA in real-time PCR analysis. These results show that under normal conditions, levels of latent PrV in the nervous tissues of pigs can vary across a wide range. Therefore, the data presented here provides information regarding control of the endemic state of PrV in Korea.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that asymptomatic infection of Borna disease virus (BDV) is found in various species of animals in Japan. Recent reports have also revealed that neurological diseases caused by this virus could exist in horses, cattle, a dog, and cats in this country. In this study, we investigated seroprevalence of BDV antibodies in Japanese black cows reared in Kyushu, the southernmost main island of Japan, using ELISA and Western-immunoblotting. Of 101 serum samples, 11 (10.9%) and 21(20.7%) sera were identified as having antibodies to the BDV N and P antigens, respectively. Among the positive sera, three cows (2.9%) were seropositive for both of the antigens. Furthermore, interestingly, only female cows showed antibodies to P, whereas N antibodies were detected in male and female cows with a comparative ratio. Together with previous studies, our results indicate that BDV might be widely spread in cattle raised in Japan. Furthermore, this is the first report to show that beef cattle, Japanese black cattle, have antibodies against a possible zoonotic pathogen, BDV.
An outbreak of contagious mastitis occurred among cattle on a farm, and bovine herpesviruses were isolated from the affected mammary tissues, scabs and abscess discharge of the cattle. A bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4)-specific fragment was amplified from the isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction endonuclease analyses demonstrated that the isolates were related to Movar-like European type BoHV-4. To determine the ratio of BoHV-4 subclinical infection in the cattle, a genomic survey was performed by PCR for cattle that were moved to the animal hygiene service station in Ibaraki prefecture. The BoHV-4 genome was occasionally detected in peripheral blood leukocytes, lymph nodes and nervous tissues. The rate of BoHV-4 subclinical infection was relatively high in the cattle.