To compare the nutrient digestibility of soybean meal (SM) and pigeon pea seed meal (PM) as well as morphological intestinal alterations in piglets fed them, three pigs per group were randomly selected at the end of the feeding experiment for ten days. Growth performance was higher in the SM group than in the PM group (p<0.05). The digestibility of crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber was 80.6%, 23.6% and 52.4% in the SM group, while in the PM group, values of 49.8%, 23.6% and 43.2% were observed, respectively. Digestible energy was 3.26 kcal g-1 in SM and 3.17 kcal g-1 in PM. It was concluded that the digestibility of PM was lower than that of SM; almost half of the protein in PM was digested. Dietary treatments had no effect on length of each small intestinal segment and weight of visceral organs (small intestine, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, stomach and lung) except the decreased kidney weight in the PM group (p<0.05). The epithelial cells on the jejunal villi showed a dome-like shape in the SM group, but they were a flat shape in the PM group. The present digestion trial and histological intestinal data suggest that the intestinal digestive and absorptive functions are much more atrophied in the PM group than in the SM group, and demonstrate that histological intestinal alterations might be well related with the intestinal functions.
Adrenal medullary cells are derived from the neural crest. To study the formation process of the adrenal medulla in the embryonic period, we visualized chromaffin cells of rat embryos at 13 to 17 days of gestation using anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antiserum, and created three-dimensional images from serial tissue sections. Between 13 and 15 days of gestation, TH-positive cells (chromaffin cells) migrated from a group of TH-positive cells present dorsal to the adrenal primordium via the medial cranial end of the adrenal primordium into the adrenal primordium. At or after 16 days of gestation, the adrenal capsule was formed except on the ventral aspect of the cranial end of the adrenal gland, from which TH-positive cells penetrated into the adrenal gland. The reconstructed images showed that TH-positive cells were present contiguously from the sympathetic chain ganglia through a group of TH-positive cells ventral to the adrenal gland into the adrenal cortex, and that the group of TH-positive cells ventral to the adrenal gland communicated with the preaortic ganglion present ventral and caudal to the adrenal gland. These results suggest that neural crest cells use the same pathway to migrate to the sympathetic chain ganglia dorsal to the adrenal gland, to the adrenal gland, and to the preaortic ganglion.
Periodic growth incremental lines are found universally in dental hard tissues. This periodicity theoretically allows for estimation of age, even in days, which would be useful in studies of wild animals. In the present study, enamel and dentin increments of the sika deer (Cervus nippon) were observed in ground sections with a polarized light microscope, and their periodicity was examined by the use of a chronological labeling method with fluorochromes. Enamel increments occurred at a mean interval of 10.6 (SD=1.5) μm, and mean spacing of dentin increments was 17.3 (SD=1.8) μm. Fluorochromic marking revealed that incremental lines form each day in enamel and almost every second day in dentin. The fluorescence-labeled lines suggest that enamel formation of the first molar is complete by the age of 5 months. Due to its longer interval of incremental lines and longer term of formation, we conclude that dentin is more suitable than enamel for day-age estimation in sika deer. Experimental confirmation of incremental growth periodicity in various species can improve the reliability of use of tooth increments for age estimation and life history reconstruction.
p63 is a member of the p53 gene family and have structural similarities with p53. p63 encodes for multiple isotypes either with N-terminal transactivation domain (TAp63) or without it (ΔNp63). In the mammalian testis, it has been shown that p53 plays important roles in the regulation of germ cell apoptosis and meiosis. However, little is known for the physiological function of p63 in the mammalian spermatogenesis. To investigate the potential roles of p63 in the developing mouse testis, we examined the expression pattern of p63 in the mouse testis from birth to adulthood. In addition to the TAp63 mRNA which was continuously expressed in the developing testis, transcripts encoding ΔNp63 was detected at specific stages of testicular development by RT-PCR, from postnatal day 1 to day 7 and from 3 weeks to 4 weeks after birth. Western blot analysis of whole testis lysates with anti-p63 antibody revealed an approximately 68 kD band throughout development and a less abundant protein at 60 kD in the earlier period of postnatal development. Immunopositive reactions for p63 were observed as early as 10 days after birth and p63 protein was localized to the nuclei of spermatocytes and round spermatids. These findings strongly suggest that p63 might be involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of spermatogenic cells in the developing mouse testis.
The cellular kinetics of villous columnar epithelial cells and M cells in the rabbit small intestine were determined by the use of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) as a tracer. To identify M cells, vimentin antibody was used. The BrdU-labeled nuclei of columnar epithelial cells reached the base of intestinal villi in all portions at 1 day after BrdU administration. Thereafter, BrdU-labeled cells migrated toward the villous tip, but they did not move at a uniform speed. The epithelial cells which existed in intestinal villi on circular folds moved faster than those on mucosa other than circular folds. At 7 days after BrdU administration, the leading edge of BrdU-labeled epithelial cells already disappeared from the villous tip in all portions of the small intestine. In the ileal Peyer's patch, the BrdU-labeled nuclei of microvillous epithelial cells and vimentin-positive M cells appeared near the intestinal crypt orifice at 1 day after BrdU administration, and then migrated toward the luminal surface of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). As they moved toward the upper portion of FAE, the number of BrdU-labeled M cells on the side of the dome decreased simultaneously. The leading edge of BrdU-labeled epithelial cells disappeared from the top of the FAE within 7 days. These results suggest that M cells may differentiate from the undifferentiated cells in intestinal crypts within 1 day and disappear from the top of the FAE after the change of their form from M cells into microvillous epithelial cells.
The distribution and diameter of the pores of epithelial basement membrane in the intestinal villi and the lymph nodules of ileal Peyer's patches were investigated in the rat small intestine by scanning electron microscopy after the removal of the overlying epithelial cells with OsO4 maceration. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the pores were mainly distributed at the upper three fourths of the villi, but were scarce around the top of the villi. The diameter of some of the pores in the upper three fourths of the villi was larger than that of those in the lower portion. The protrusion of lymphocytes and the cytoplasmic processes of macrophages were also seen at the orifices of the pores. In ileal Peyer's patches, in contrast, pores were densely distributed in the lower one third of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) where M cells were mainly seen. Furthermore, these pores were larger than those found in the upper two thirds. Lymphocytes or cytoplasmic processes of macrophages were frequently seen in the lower one third of FAE. These results suggest that the pores at the basement membrane correspond to the passage of the immunocompetent cells which are in contact with M cells or villous columnar epithelial cells and that the abundance of pores is a sign of aggressive interaction between the particular epithelial cells and the immunocompetent cells at the upper three fourths of intestinal villi and the lower one third of FAE in the rat small intestine.
In the present study, we evaluated the advantages of microwave-irradiated fixation for postmortem autolysis of the kidney. Mouse kidneys, sampled at 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 hr after death, were fixed with 10% neutral formalin by microwave irradiation (MWI; 20 sec/500 W) and by conventional immersion. They were then examined with light and electron microscopy, morphometrics and immunohistochemicals. Light microscopic and morphometric observations showed that structural preservation effect of MWI was limited to the proximal convoluted tubules at 25 hr. Contrary, mild ultrastructural damage by MWI was found in the glomeruli at 0 and 15 hr. Immunohistochemistry for renin and α-smooth muscle actin showed no apparent differences between MWI and the immersion.
Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium that causes proliferative enteropathy in domestic and experimental animals. Antiserum against synthetic peptides of the Lawsonia surface antigen (LsaA) well recognized L. intracellularis in infected ileum by immunohistochemistry. The synthetic peptides in LsaA showed strong reaction with serum from rabbits infected with L. intracellularis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that ELISA used synthetic peptides in LsaA and anti-LsaA serum might be useful to diagnose for proliferative enteropathy.
Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen in foals; however, its incidence in African indigenous animals is poorly understood. Fecal samples (92 from nine indigenous species) and 43 soil samples were collected from two Zambian National Parks. The presence of R. equi was investigated and 533 isolates were tested for the presence of 15- to 17-kDa antigens (VapA) and a 20-kDa antigen (VapB) by immunoblotting and PCR. R. equi was isolated (102-104 colony forming units/g) from 75% of fecal and 74% of soil samples. Neither antigen was detected; however, about 20% of the isolates contained cryptic plasmids of various sizes. There was no evidence of virulent R. equi, but the avirulent form was widespread in the animals and the soil.
Vaccination with a recombinant antigen fused to a targeting molecule is a potential strategy for inducing efficient immune responses. For the therapeutic purpose of allergic diseases in dogs, a DNA construct which expresses recombinant fusion protein with two functional domains, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4) and Fcε receptor Iα, was developed to bridge antigen-presenting cells and IgE-allergen complex. The recombinant fusion protein expressed by the DNA construct was demonstrated to retain the ability to bind monocytes in PBMC and dog IgE, respectively. Additionally, the recombinant protein induced enhancement of allergen-induced lymphoproliferation in experimentally sensitized dogs under conditions of suboptimal allergen stimulation. These results indicated that the DNA construct could enhance allergen-induced immune responses in vivo, implying its usefulness for perspective application in immunotherapy in dogs.
An 18 month-old, intact female American Shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of stunted growth and postprandial depression. Fasting serum ammonia and serum bile acid concentrations were above reference ranges at 396 μg/dl and 6.5 μmol/ l and their postprandial concentrations were 785 μg/dl and 9.5 μmol/l, respectively. The initial tentative diagnosis of a portosystemic shunt was excluded by mesenteric portography and histopathology of the liver. The cat was then suspected of a urea cycle enzyme deficiency and its urine was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A presumptive diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was made on the basis of the detection of orotic acid and uracil.
CD30 ligand (CD30L) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) are members of the TNF-superfamily that have many important biological activities in cell proliferation and apoptotic death. In this study, both genes in the chicken were cloned and their expression was analyzed. Complementary DNA fragments were obtained from a suppressive subtractive hybridization library with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. Chicken CD30L consists of 1,152 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame (ORF) of 720 bp having 36.4% identity with human CD30L, whereas chicken TRAIL is 1,134 bp long with an ORF of 912 bp having 54.4% identity with human TRAIL. Chicken CD30L was expressed at high levels in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and in the chicken monocytic leukemia cell line, IN24. Stimulation with LPS in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and the IN24 cell line did not affect CD30L expression. The gene expression of chicken TRAIL was essentially to the same level in all tissues examined. The time course of expression was not significantly altered by LPS-stimulation in the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius, but reached a maximal level 8 hr after stimulation in the IN24 cell line. The high level expression of both genes in lymphoid organs and IN24 cell line indicates that chicken CD30L and TRAIL may also play an important role in apoptotic signal transduction and the regulation of cell proliferation in the immune system.
Most animal cells that are exposed to interferon (IFN) experience an increase in the activity of 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), which is an important effector of IFN's antiviral action. OAS activity has been widely used in clinical chemistry as an indicator of IFN activity. In this study, we found that OAS activity in canine serum is 46.0 ± 40.4 nmol/dl/hr, which is 10- to 100-fold higher than in other animals such as the cat (1.9 ± 2.1), rabbit (4.0 ± 1.1), and guinea pig (0.3 ± 0.6). The canine OAS protein was detected by Western blotting using a 68M-10 monoclonal anti-murine OAS antibody, and was found to be composed of at least three distinct molecular species of p40 class OAS. Among these, the 40 and 42 kDa components were determined to be the major species in serum and fibroblast cell lines, respectively.
Mammalian interferon (IFN)-α consists of a 23-amino acid signal peptide and a 166-amino acid mature protein. Feline (Fe) IFN-α has an extra unique molecule consisting of a 171-amino acid mature protein with a 5-amino acid insertion. We cloned eight new subtypes of cDNA encoding FeIFN- α from a feline epithelial cell line. Among all the FeIFN-α subtypes, including six that have previously been reported, the variations were found to be far less than those of IFN-αs of other animals.
The T-wave of the patellar tendon reflex (PTR) was recorded in 24 neurologically normal dogs. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded as the T-wave from the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) in response to percussion of the patellar tendon. The distance of the reflex arc (DRA) was measured along the straight line between the spinous process of L5 and the greater trochanter (GT), and between GT and the patellar ligament (PL). There was a significant correlation (P<0.001) of the latency with the DRA on each side, but no difference in the slopes of the relationships between right and left VL was shown. The regression line between the DRA and the latency of all data was Y = 0.0216X + 1.693, where Y = latency in ms, X = DRA in mm. The mixed sensory-motor conduction velocity was estimated as 84.6 ± 5.5 m/s. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the DRA and the amplitude of the T-waves. The mean (mean-CV) and standard deviation (SD-CV) of all CV (coefficient of variation) in each dog were 9.14 ± 3.65% in latency and 3.54 ± 1.14% in amplitude, indicating that the use of a simple hand-held reflex hammer is sufficient to record the reproducible T-wave of the PTR even in unanesthetized dogs. This method was applied to a case with minimal paraparesis, and the latency of the T-wave of the PTR in the right hind limb with slight proprioceptive deficit was outside of the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval between latency and the DRA. In conclusion, this method may be used in neurological diagnosis to quantify more precisely the PTR in dogs.
The canine Mcl-1 gene was cloned and sequenced. Canine Mcl-1 clone was 2694 base pairs in length and encoded 350 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was 87.7%, 77.1% and 75.7% homologous to predicted human, mouse and rat Mcl-1, respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed that canine Mcl-1 mRNA was expressed in PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), bone marrow cells, MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) and GL-1 (canine B cell leukemia) whereas undetectable in CL-1 (canine T cell lymphoma) cell line.
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class switch recombination, somatic hypermutation, and gene conversion of immunoglobulin gene. In the present study, canine AID cDNA was cloned from the lymph node of a healthy dog by RT-PCR with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The canine AID cDNA was 1,377 bp in length, and contained the entire open reading frame encoding 198 amino acids which had 94.9%, 94.4%, and 89.9% homology with human, mouse, and chicken homologues, respectively. Canine AID mRNA was expressed in thymus, lung, spleen, kidney, small intestine, lymph node, and tonsil of a healthy dog, similar to humans.
Bone mineral density (BMD), distribution of its density and bone histomorphometric parameters were evaluated in lumbar vertebra of normally growing miniature pigs. The fourth lumbar vertebra (L4) of the Göttingen miniature pig were used in this cross-sectional study in vitro. The BMD of the miniature pig was similar to that of humans in tendency of gender differences and some growth patterns during puberty. In these regards this animal appears useful as a model for human bone study. However, the trabecular and cortical BMDs of lumbar spine were extremely high value (399.43 ± 26.36 mg/cm3 in female trabeculae; 973.06 ± 69.55 mg/cm3 in female cortical bone; 419.04 ± 34.84 mg/cm3 in male trabeculae; 1038.81 ± 125.72 mg/cm3 in male cortical bone in pigs 30 months or more). Furthermore, histomorphometric analysis yielded values that were remarkably different from those found in humans. From these results, it was revealed that miniature pig had a higher bone mass and denser trabecular network than human, indicating that its bone is probably stronger. Therefore, care should be taken in choosing the miniature pig as a bone study model.
Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans, requires transferrin (TF) for growth. Therefore, T. brucei has a TF receptor that allows it to obtain iron from TF. Lactoferrin (LF), a member of the TF family protein, is an iron-binding protein that is found in most biological fluids of mammals. LF has been shown to interact with some bacteria species by specific receptor-ligand binding. We examined the ability of T. brucei to bind bovine LF (bLF) by using a fluorescence test, streptavidin-biotin (SAB) microplate analysis, and far Western blotting using a biotin-streptavidin system. We found that bLF bound to components of T. brucei, and that bLF hydrolysate disrupted the sites responsible for binding to parasite proteins. Furthermore, bLF, human LF, bovine TF, and ovotransferrin bound same proteins of T. brucei, which exhibited molecular masses of 40 and 43 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 40 kDa bLF binding protein was identified as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).
Details of morphology and distribution of hepatic macrophages in cetaceans were investigated using the immunohistochemistry with an antibody (SRA-E5) generated against human macrophage scavenger receptor antigen. Liver samples were obtained from five species of cetaceans (Baird's beaked whales, short-finned pilot whales, Risso's dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, and pantropical spotted dolphins). Except for two species of whales, the number of SRA-E5-positive Kupffer cells was greatest in the perivenous zone (zone 3), followed by the mid-zonal (zone 2) and periportal (zone 1) zones; this distribution pattern was different from that in cattle examined here and previously reported rodents with the highest number in zone 1. The frequency of Kupffer cell in each of zones was significantly different among species, and interestingly, the total mean of the Kupffer cell number in three zones increased as the body-length of species was small. In cetaceans, Kupffer cells in zone 1 appeared larger and more stellate in shape, whereas those in zone 3 were smaller and rounder. All cetaceans but Baird's beaked whales had the black pigment-containing Kupffer cells, with the greatest number in zone 3, and macrophages with the similar pigments were also seen in the hepatic intermediate septa, indicating an active phagocytosis. Most of the black pigments were considered to be lipofuscin and such pigments were not seen in the bovine livers. These results indicate that cetacean hepatic macrophages show differences in the distribution and phagocytosis among hepatic lobular zones, or between cetacean species and terrestrial animals.
A 12-year-old male Shiba dog showed anemia and the swelling of systemic lymph nodes. X-ray and post mortal examinations revealed a anterior mediastinal mass. Histologlcally, the tumor mass consisted of four different elements; cord-like proliferation of cuboidal epithelial cells, tubular or cystic structures lined with ciliated epithelial cells, proliferation of large round-shaped epithelial cells with PAS-slightly positive granular cytoplasm, and diffuse proliferation of neoplastic lymphocytes. Epithelial cells in cord-like or cystic structures were strongly positive for cytokeratin. Granular or foamy cells were negative for all markers examined and had myelin-like bodies in the cytoplasm by electron microscopy. The neoplastic lymphocytes in the tumor mass were considered being derived from concurrent multicentric lymphoma. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as thymoma with a part of granular cell proliferation and concurrent lymphoma cells.
Automated ribotyping classified 70 Erysipelothrix species strains, previously classified into 14 RAPD patterns and into 63 PFGE patterns, into 27 ribogroups. Twenty-three strains of the 70 analyzed and classified into 13 ribogroups were previously classified into six ribotypes by the traditional ribotyping method. Moreover, automated ribotyping differentiated seven strains that were not differentiated by PFGE. Therefore, automated ribotyping was more sensitive than RAPD and traditional ribotyping, and it might be a useful method for a rapid screening in epidemiological study of strains of this genus, and more accurate results can be obtained when this method is used together with PFGE.
Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1), one of novel cancer cell-surface antigens, is strongly expressed in invasive cancers. RCAS1 inhibits the in vitro growth of lymphocytes such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, and induces apoptotic cell death. We investigated the expression of RCAS1 in canine mammary tumor cell lines and tumor cells by immunohistochemistry, and also in situ deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. All canine mammary tumor cell lines expressed RCAS1 at both the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein level. Immunohistochemically, RCAS1 was negative in 100% of normal mammary glands, but was expressed in 100% of malignant tumors examined. In most malignant mammary tumors, RCAS1 was localized in the cytoplasm with no polarity of expression. In benign mammary tumors, it was detected on the luminal surface of the tumor cell. RCAS1 expression or localization was significantly correlated with malignancy. In situ DNA fragmentation of CD3-positive TILs was observed in RCAS1-expressing tumors. RCAS1-expressing tumors, indicating a possible induction of apoptotic cell death in TILs through RCAS1 expression. These observations suggest that RCAS1 probably plays an important role in tumor progression and escape from immune surveillance in canine mammary tumors.
The 3' end region nucleotide sequence, including ORF7, of nine Japanese and two U.S.A. isolates of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were determined and compared. Nine Japanese TGEV strains have been isolated over the past 40 years (1956-1997). From the comparison of determined nucleotide sequences, we could divide the TGEV Japanese isolates into two groups and distinguish them from TGEV U.S.A. isolates.