An alkaline agent, namely food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) in solution at 0.17%, was evaluated for its bactericidal efficacies in chiller water with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at a concentration of 200 ppm total residual chlorine. Without organic material presence, NaOCl could inactivate Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli within 5 sec, but in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 0.5%, the bactericidal effects of NaOCl were diminished completely. FdCa(OH)2 solution required 3 min to inactivate bacteria with or without 5% FBS. When NaOCl and FdCa(OH)2 were mixed at the final concentration of 200 ppm and 0.17%, respectively, the mixed solution could inactivate bacteria at acceptable level (103 reduction of bacterial titer) within 30 sec in the presence of 0.5% FBS. The mixed solution also inhibited cross-contamination with S. Infantis or E. coli on chicken meats. It was confirmed and elucidated that FdCa(OH)2 has a synergistic effect together with NaOCl for inactivating microorganisms.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or plasmidic AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli among dogs (n=428) in Turkey. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used to characterize genes encoding β-lactamase and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCRs for virulence genes and phylogenetic groups were also performed. Cefotaxime resistant E. coli isolates were detected in 95 (22.2%) of the swab samples. Sequencing analysis results showed occurrence of various β-lactamase genes: blaCTX-M-15 (62), blaTEM-1b (42), blaCMY-2 (22), blaCTX-M-3 (16), blaCTX-M-1 (15), blaOXA-1 (9) and blaSHV-12 (3) alone or in combination. The most frequently encountered phylogenetic group was group A1 (35.8%), followed by group D2 (22.1%), B1 (15.8%), D1 (9.5%), A0 (7.4%), B22 (5.3%) and B23 (4.2%), respectively. PMQR genes, aac(6’)-Ib-cr, qnrS1 and qnrB10 were detected in 25.3, 10.5 and 1.1% of the isolates, respectively. While all isolates were susceptible to imipenem and amikacin, resistance rates to non-β-lactam antibiotics ranged from 20.0% for tobramycin to 56.8% for tetracycline. The virulence genes were only detected in 34 (36.2%) of the isolates and this isolates carried single or various combination of virulence genes of iucD, papC, papE, f17a-A and eaeA. Four isolates were identified as human virulent pandemic CTX-M-15 producing E. coli clone O25b:ST131/B2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show fecal carriage of ESBL/pAmpC type β-lactamase producing E. coli isolates among dogs in Turkey.
Plecoglossus altivelis (ayu) is one of the most important fish species in the Japanese islands and in internal fish hatcheries. Living in open aquatic environments exposes fish to many pathogens. Therefore, they require rapid and strong immune defenses. We investigated in vivo the direct association between the ayu innate immune response, represented by the relative transcription of genes encoding the cathelicidin and hepcidin antimicrobial peptides, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a conventional pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of LPS (1, 10 and 100 µg/fish) were injected intraperitoneally into young (sexually immature) and adult (fully sexually mature) ayu. The relative expression of the antimicrobial peptide genes was measured 6 hr, 24 hr and 1 week after stimulation with LPS. We found a direct association between the expression of the antimicrobial peptide genes investigated and LPS stimulation. This relationship was time-, dose- and age-dependent. Further research is required to determine the cell-specific transcriptional regulation and posttranscriptional regulation of these antimicrobial peptides.
Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers’ red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.
A three-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat presented for evaluation of weight loss, cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated a thickened pericardium with mild pericardial effusion and a large volume of pleural effusion characterized by exudate. Although the cat was treated with antibiotics, the clinical symptoms did not improve. The cat developed dyspnea and died on day 7. Necropsy revealed a large amount of modified transudates ascites, pleural effusion and markedly dilated pericardium. Histopathological examination revealed severe exudation of fibrin and granulation tissue in a thick layer of the epicardium. The cat was diagnosed with fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection.
Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is a type of bradyarrhythmia that can lead to syncope. Cilostazol has been reported to be an effective treatment for human patients with SSS and other bradyarrhythmias. This report describes the successful long-term treatment with cilostazol in a dog with SSS. A nine-year old intact male Miniature Schnauzer presented with a history of syncopal episodes and unsteady gait. After cilostazol treatment, the total heart rate (HR), mean HR, and frequency of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) increased, while the maximum HR and maximum pause time decreased. Additionally, the number of syncopal episodes decreased. The dog died suddenly, 1,418 days after the start of cilostazol treatment. Cilostazol may be a useful therapeutic agent in canines with SSS.
The Iriomote cat and Tsushima leopard cat are endangered wildcats in Japan and inhabit only Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands, respectively. Domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands were surveyed to clarify the interrelationship between wildcats and domestic animals regarding tick-borne disease transmission. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Babesia gibsoni was detected in dogs of Iriomote-jima, and Hepatozoon felis and hemoplasmas were detected in domestic cats of Tsushima. Because the H. felis detected in this study was closely related to that isolated from wildcats, we suspect that common H. felis is harbored and transmitted among wildcats and domestic cats via ticks in Tsushima.
In Vietnam, especially central Vietnam, patients with fascioliasis are increasingly being reported. Since the fascioliasis is zoonotic, survey on the cattle fascioliasis should be informative for the control of human fascioliasis. In this study, the prevalence of cattle fascioliasis as well as the density of the intermediate host snails, Lymnaea swinhoei and L. viridis, were studied in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province during 2014–2015. A total of 572 cattle feces were examined from 27 communes in 9 districts. Fasciola eggs were detected in cattle from 24 communes with an average prevalence of 23.4% (134/ 572). The highest prevalence was detected in cattle in the coastal plain terrain (31.0%) followed by plain (25.5%), mountain (21.7%), and low hilly (16.2%) terrains. The highest proportion of heavy infection (>200 EPG) was observed in the coastal plain terrain (36.1%), followed by mountains (20.0%), low hills (13.0%), and plains (8.9%). Low number of heavy infection, as well as relatively low prevalence in low hills and plains were associated with the extensive use of anti-fluke treatments. High number of intermediate host snails in low hilly and plain terrains also indicate high risk of fascioliasis. In this study, the density of Lymnaea snails in the coastal plain terrain was found to be very high (17.3 snails/m2) compared to that in previous studies. This is the first report indicating the recent expansion of cattle fascioliasis in the coastal region in Vietnam.
We analyzed the pathogenicity of various serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes using a Balb/c mouse intravenous injection model. The survival rates of mice inoculated with strains NS1/2b (serotype 1/2b), NS3b (serotype 3b) and NS 4b (serotype 4b) were 60, 63.6 and 63.6%, respectively. Although the survival rates were similar, the bacterial growth in the liver of NS3b-infected mice was 144.5-fold higher than that in the liver of NS4b-infected mice. Histopathological analyses suggest that the NS4b strain replicated more in monocytes/macrophages, whereas the NS3b strain replicated more in hepatocytes. These results raise a possibility that the serotype 4b strains replicated more in monocytes/macrophages compared to the other serotype strains. To assess this, we isolated CD11b-positive cells from mouse livers infected with EGDe (serotype 1/2a), NS1/2b, NS3b, NS4b and the serotype 4b strains 51414 and F17 and counted the number of live bacteria in these cells. CD11b-positive cells from the NS4b-, 51414- and F17-infected mice possessed 24.4- to 42.7-fold higher numbers of live bacteria than those from mice infected with EGDe and NS3b strains. These results suggest that serotype 4b strains replicated more in monocytes/macrophages than the other serotypes, and this may be involved in the pathogenicity of serotype 4b strains, particularly in the dissemination of L. monocytogenes through the host body.
Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 106 focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis. Axonal degeneration and inflammatory cells increased with infection progress in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia. Right hindlimb paralysis was observed from 7 DPI, which progressed to quadriparalysis. However, no pathological changes were observed in the ventral horn and root fibers of the spinal cord. Viral antigen was first detected in the right hindlimb muscle at 3 DPI, followed by the right lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, dorsal horn of spinal cord, left red nuclei, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex (M1 area) at 5 DPI. These results suggested that the 1088 virus ascended the lumbosacral spinal cord via mainly afferent fibers at early stage of infection and moved to cerebral cortex (M1 area) using descending spinal tract. Additionally, we concluded that significant pathological changes in mice infected with 1088 strain occur in the sensory tract of the spinal cord; this selective susceptibility results in clinical features of the disease.
Anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (ALTCL) is rarely reported in domestic animals. Accordingly, the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of ALTCL have not been well established in prairie dogs. The present report documents three cases in which prairie dogs were diagnosed with ALTCL arising in the subcutaneous tissue, oral mucosa or the mesenteric lymph nodes. Of the three cases, one was available for necropsy and the others were biopsy cases. Microscopically, moderate to large, pleomorphic neoplastic lymphocytes with ovoid to polygonal, bizarre-shaped nuclei, abundant cytoplasm and eosinophilic granules were seen in all cases. Immunohistochemical staining revealed membranous or cytoplasmic CD3 expression of the neoplastic lymphocytes. The neoplastic cells often had granzyme B-positive cytoplasmic granules. One of the prairie dogs with nodal ALTCL suffered systemic dissemination of the tumor and died suddenly. In the two biopsy cases, one animal died on the day of the biopsy examination and the other died six weeks after chemotherapy. ALTCL in prairie dogs displays a cytotoxic T cell phenotype and presumably carries a poor prognosis regardless of the anatomical type.
A 10-year-old mixed breed dog was presented with a 0.8 cm diameter mass below the left eye region. The mass was surgically removed and processed for histopathological examination. Microscopically, tumor cells proliferated in small lobules, nests and cords, and the tumor parenchyma was separated by desmoplastic stroma. Majority of the tumor cells were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, and the desmoplastic stroma was densely collagenous and mucinous. Immunohistochemical results showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratin 15, cytokeratin 19 and CD 34, while cytokeratin 8 reactivity was limited to the tumor cells proliferating in cords. Few tumor cells were positive for nestin. Based on the histopathological findings, the tumor was diagnosed as desmoplastic tricholemmoma.
An 11-year-old female goat had invasive and metastatic endometrial adenocarcinoma in the uterus. There was a notable proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells in a tubular growth pattern, with a desmoplastic response. The endometrial epithelial tumor cells metastasized to the kidney, liver and lung. In contrast to the primary and metastatic tumor cells, pleomorphic tumor cells with a choriocarcinoma-like growth pattern infiltrated the mesometrium. Cell proliferation activity was high in both types of tumor cells. Both types of tumor cells expressed cytokeratins AE1/AE3, 7 and CAM5.2; choriocarcinomatous cells also had positive immunoreactions to human chorionic gonadotropin, human placental alkaline phosphatase and α-inhibin. The present case was diagnosed as endometrial adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation.
Matricellular proteins, a non-structural extracellular matrix (ECM) component, bind to and modulate various molecules including growth factor, cytokine, protease, other ECM components and cell membrane receptors. While most matricellular proteins are hardly expressed in normal adult tissue, they are re-expressed in heart tissue during cardiac diseases. The present study aimed to clarify the mRNA expression profile of matricellular proteins [secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine: SPARC, hevin, thrombospondin (TSP)-1, -2 and -4, CCN1 and 5, tenascin (Tn) C and N, periostin and osteopontin (OPN)] in hypertrophied right ventricle (RV) of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with MCT or saline. Two or three weeks after MCT treatment, echocardiography was performed, and mRNA expression of matricellular proteins was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. MCT (2 weeks) induced pulmonary hypertension, RV dysfunction and hypertrophy, which were all worsened 3 weeks after MCT treatment. Expression of mRNA for SPARC, hevin, TnC, TSP-1, -2 and -4, CCN1 and 5, periostin and OPN but not TnN was significantly upregulated in RV of MCT (2 weeks)-treated rats. Expression of mRNA for TSP-4, CCN1 and 5 and periostin was continuously increased in RV of MCT (3 weeks)-treated rats. The present study for the first time revealed the mRNA expression profile for matricellular proteins in RV of MCT-treated rats for 2 or 3 weeks, which will be helpful to clarify the relationship for matricellular proteins and pathogenesis of MCT-induced RV hypertrophy.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are occurring at epidemic-like rates, and these epidemics appear to have emerged largely from changes in daily diet. In the present study, we compared effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and fructose-rich diet (FRD) in WBN/Kob-Leprfa (WBKDF) rats that spontaneously develop obesity, dyslipidemia and T2DM. After a 4-week feeding of each diet, WBKDF-HFD and WBKDF-FRD rats exhibited aggravated obesity and dyslipidemia compared with WBKDF rats fed standard diet (STD). In contrast, hyperglycemia developed in WBKDF-STD rats was significantly inhibited in WBKDF-FRD rats, but not in WBKDF-HFD rats. The present study demonstrated that the 4-week feeding of HFD and FRD caused diet-induced obesity with a distinct phenotype in the glucose metabolism in WBKDF rats.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of a nuclear receptor family, has been shown to be implicated in various reproductive processes. Here, we evaluated possible roles of PPARγ in ovulation and luteal development in a gonadotropins-primed immature rat model. Immunoreactive PPARγ was expressed in granulosa cells of eCG-stimulated mature follicles, and its expression level decreased following ovulatory hCG stimulus. Intra-bursal treatment with rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) simultaneously with subcutaneously administered hCG blocked the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in preovulatory follicles. Consistently, tissue levels of their respective products, prostaglandin (PG) E2 and progesterone (P4), were reduced, leading to significantly decreased ovulation rate. GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist, was almost ineffective to alter those values. Local treatment with rosiglitazone 24 hr after hCG administration caused reductions in the size, StAR expression and P4 secretion of corpus luteum 48 hr later. Obtained data are possible functional evidence with rats for granulosa cell PPARγ as a negative regulator of PG and P4 synthesis during follicle rupture and transformation to luteal tissue. LH/hCG-induced decreases in PPARγ expression and its activity would be an early component in the proper induction of following ovulatory cascade and luteal development.
Although astaxanthin (AST) is known to be a strong antioxidant, its effects on reproductive function in domestic animals have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AST on luteal cells, which produce progesterone (P4), an important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. Luteal cells were prepared by collagenase dispersion of the corpus luteum (CL). The addition of racemic AST at a low concentration (<10 nM) to cultured bovine luteal cells increased P4 in the culture medium (P<0.05). This effect was attributed to an increase in the ability of luteal cells to produce P4 (P4/cell·DNA); however, the level of lipid peroxide (TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) per cell did not decrease with the addition of AST, whose values were similar to that with the addition of luteinizing hormone. When optical isomers of AST (SS and RR types) were added to the culture medium, respectively, SS-AST was more effective in increasing P4 production than RR-AST. When 1 mg/kg·body weight of SS-AST derived from green algae was fed to cows for 2 weeks, its concentration in blood plasma was 10.9 nM on average, which was sufficient to expect an in vitro effect on the production of P4 in cows. These results suggested the potential of SS-AST supplements for cows to elevate luteal function.
Hualian No. 4 wild bitter gourd (WBG) is a specific vegetable cultivated by the Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extension Station in Taiwan. WBG is commonly consumed as a vegetable and used as a popular folk medicine. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of WBG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue and the biochemical profile. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of WBG extract on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Three groups of male ICR mice (n=8 per group) were orally administered 0, 1 or 2.5 g/kg/day of WBG for 4 weeks. They were respectively designated the vehicle, WBG-1X and WBG-2.5X groups. WBG significantly decreased body weight (BW) and epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight. Concerning physical performance, WBG supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance swimming time. Concerning anti-fatigue activity, WBG decreased levels of serum lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen, and economized glucose metabolism after acute exercise challenge. Glycogen in the liver and gastrocnemius muscle dose-dependently increased with WBG treatment. Concerning the biochemical profile, WBG treatment significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urea acid (UA), and increased total protein (TP). Therefore, 4-week supplementation with WBG may decrease white adipose weight, enhance energy economy, increase glycogen storage to enhance exercise performance and reduce fatigue.
The goals of this retrospective clinical case series study were to describe the management of anesthesia, and to report perioperative complications in cats undergoing subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) placement due to ureteral obstruction. Medical records of client-owned cats with ureteral obstruction and anesthetized for SUB placement between 2012 and 2015 in a veterinary teaching hospital were reviewed. Twenty-seven cases were identified. Duration of anesthesia and surgery (mean ± standard deviation) were 215 ± 42 min and 148 ± 36 min, respectively. Hypothermia was the most common intraoperative complication. Hypotension, hypocapnia, hypertension and bradycardia were also frequently observed. Out of 22 cats who experienced intraoperative hypotension, 17 received inotropes and vasopressors. There was a significant decrease in creatinine (P=0.008) and total solids (P=0.007) after SUB placement when compared with baseline values. Postoperative complications included pain, anorexia, nausea, hypertension, and urinary tract-related problems. No death occurred in the postoperative period. Successful management of anesthesia for SUB placement involves rigorous anesthetic monitoring and immediate treatment of complications. Perioperative complications appear to be common. This study could not identify risk factors associated with this procedure.
A 7-year-old cat was referred with pelvic limb ataxia. Radiography and CT revealed bone resorption of the L1 vertebral arch, and myelography identified a compressive extradural lesion. The mass was surgically removed and histopathologically diagnosed as giant cell osteosarcoma. Three years later, the recurrent tumor resection and vertebral fixation were performed. Six months later, vertebrectomy was performed to radically excise the recurrent mass and a titanium spinal cage was placed. The cat is alive approximately 5 years after the first surgery. This case report describes vertebrectomy and vertebral body replacement as a radical treatment for feline vertebral osteosarcoma.
A 14-year-old dog weighing 4 kg presented with hypotension only in the right forelimb. Thoracic radiography revealed a round soft tissue opacity near the aortic arch and below the second thoracic vertebra on a lateral view. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography clearly revealed stenosis and aneurysmal dilation of an aberrant right subclavian artery. Stenosis and aneurysm of an aberrant subclavian artery should be included as a differential diagnosis in dogs showing a round soft tissue opacity near the aortic arch and below the thoracic vertebra on the lateral thoracic radiograph.
A healthy 71-day-old female Japanese Black calf was evaluated for fracture of the left humerus. The left humeral fracture was treated by closed repair and unilateral external skeletal fixation (ESF) with an epoxy putty fixator. The calf was active, and eight days after surgery slipped and fell, resulting in breakage of the ESF. The calf underwent repair by transfixation pinning and casting (TPC), which is an alternative to the ESF method. The TPC was removed 37 days after the first surgery, and the calf could bear weight on the left forelimb while walking. This case suggests that recovery after closed repair with TPC for a humeral fracture in an active calf can be successfully managed on the farm.
A 4-year-old intact female, mixed breed dog was presented with a complaint of dyspnea. Clinical examination revealed symptoms related to disease of the upper airways. Radiographic findings were consistent with tracheal collapse associated with anomalies involving the seventh cervical vertebra and the first ribs bilaterally. Radiographs were highly suggestive of cervical ribs; computed tomography and ultrasound examination allowed complete characterization and better localization of the anomalies with relationship to the adjacent muscle and vasculature. Cervical ribs are malformations widely described in human medicine, but only sporadically in dogs. Herein, we discuss etiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of cervical ribs and possible correlations between the cervical ribs and other anatomical anomalies noted in this dog.
We aimed to determine gene expression patterns in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers before and after ovulation via deep sequencing of the transcriptome (RNA-seq) to identify new genes and clarify important pathways. Heifers were slaughtered on the estrus day (pre-ovulation; n=5) or 3 days after ovulation (post-ovulation; n=5) for AP collection. We randomly selected 4 pre-ovulation and 4 post-ovulation APs, and the ribosomal RNA-depleted poly (A)+RNA were prepared to assemble next-generation sequencing libraries. The bovine APs expressed 12,769 annotated genes at pre- or post-ovulation. The sum of the reads per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads (RPKM) values of all transcriptomes were 599,676 ± 38,913 and 668,209 ± 23,690, and 32.2 ± 2.6% and 44.0 ± 4.4% of these corresponded to the AP hormones in the APs of pre- and post-ovulation heifers, respectively. The bovine AP showed differential expression of 396 genes (P<0.05) in the pre- and post-ovulation APs. The 396 genes included two G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes (GPR61 and GPR153) and those encoding 13 binding proteins. The AP also expressed 259 receptor and other 364 binding proteins. Moreover, ingenuity pathway analysis for the 396 genes revealed (P=2.4 × 10−3) a canonical pathway linking GPCR to cytoskeleton reorganization, actin polymerization, microtubule growth, and gene expression. Thus, the present study clarified the novel genes found to be differentially expressed before and after ovulation and clarified an important pathway in the AP.
Equine inﬂuenza (EI) is a respiratory disease caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV, H3N8) infection. Rapid diagnosis is essential to limit the disease spread. We previously reported that some rapid antigen detection (RAD) tests are ﬁt for diagnosing EI although their sensitivity is not optimal. Here, we evaluated the performance of the newly developed RAD test using silver amplification immunochromatography (Quick Chaser Auto Flu A, B: QCA) to diagnose EI. The detection limits of QCA for EIVs were five-fold lower than the conventional RAD tests. The duration of virus antigen detection in the infected horses was longer than the conventional RAD tests. We conclude that QCA could be a valuable diagnostic method for EI.
The objective of this study was to determine the number of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) that occupied the Sincheon River in Daegu, South Korea. Twenty-seven spraints collected from February to May 2016 at four sites (Jangam Bridge approximately 6.1 km from the Gachang Dam, Docheong Bridge approximately 13.5 km, Chimsan Bridge approximately 15.1 km and Nogoek Bridge approximately 18 km) along the Sincheon River (approximately 27.06 km) were analyzed using 12 microsatellite markers. The analyses resulted in the identification of 16 (59.3%) individual Eurasian otters in the Sincheon River based on the 27 spraints. Of the 16 individual Eurasian otters, seven were male, and nine were female. Groups were centered at the Jangam Bridge (3 males and 2 females), Chimsan Bridge (2 males and 3 females) and Docheong Bridge (2 males and 4 females). Thus, the 16 Eurasian otters formed three genetically related groups in each sampling area. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to seven, with a mean value of 5.08 alleles.
Flying foxes, the genus Pteropus, are considered viral reservoirs. Their colonial nature and long flight capability enhance their ability to spread viruses quickly. To understand how the viral transmission occurs between flying foxes and other animals, we investigated daytime behavior of the large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus) in the Leuweung Sancang conservation area, Indonesia, by using instantaneous scan sampling and all-occurrence focal sampling. The data were obtained from 0700 to 1700 hr, during May 11–25, 2016. Almost half of the flying foxes (46.9 ± 10.6% of all recorded bats) were awake and showed various levels of activity during daytime. The potential behaviors driving disease transmission, such as self-grooming, mating/courtship and aggression, peaked in the early morning. Males were more active and spent more time on sexual activities than females. There was no significant difference in time spent for negative social behaviors between sexes. Positive social behaviors, especially maternal cares, were performed only by females. Sexual activities and negative/positive social behaviors enable fluid exchange between bats and thus facilitate intraspecies transmission. Conflicts for living space between the flying foxes and the ebony leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) were observed, and this caused daily roosting shifts of flying foxes. The ecological interactions between bats and other wildlife increase the risk of interspecies infection. This study provides the details of the flying fox’s behavior and its interaction with other wildlife in South-East Asia that may help explain how pathogen spillover occurs in the wild.
A striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) calf stranded alive because of a Salter-Harris fracture type 1 of a caudal vertebra and remained in a provisional rehabilitation facility for 3 days where the fracture stabilization was attempted, but he died the day after bandaging. Serum and urine samples were collected during hospitalization (days 1, 2 and 3 serum and day 2 urine). Serum analysis showed increased urea, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and serum amyloid A values, while creatinine was below the lower limit. Urine analysis showed urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio of 5.3 with glomerular proteinuria. Postmortem analyses demonstrated a severe rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric nephrosis, suggestive of capture myopathy syndrome. We report, for the first time, the clinico-pathological changes during this condition in a striped dolphin.
Ambystoma mexicanum kept as pets are affected by a variety of diseases. However, no reports regarding the incidence of specific diseases are available. This study aimed to identify the diseases that occur frequently in this species by surveying the incidence of conditions in pet A. mexicanum specimens brought to a veterinary hospital. The sample comprised 97 pet A. mexicanum individuals brought to the authors’ hospital during the 82-month period, i.e., from January 2008 to October 2014. In total, 116 diseases were identified. The most common disease was hydrocoelom (32 cases; 27.5% of all cases). Elucidating the pathogenesis of hydrocoelom, which has a high prevalence rate, is vital to maintaining the long-term health of A. mexicanum pets.
Currently, there are no complete parameters established for serum biochemistry and hematology for the determination of health status of rescued common palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). In this study, blood samples were obtained from 18 adults and 15 juvenile civets caught on Singapore Main Island. Significant age-related differences (P<0.05) were noted in the hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, packed cell volume (PCV), total serum protein and globulin concentration in the adult civets showing higher values compared with the juvenile civets. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in juveniles compared with adult civets.
Progressive pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis involving the mandible or maxilla of captive macropods, referred to as “Lumpy jaw disease (LJD)”, is one of the most significant causes of illness and death in captive macropods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of LJD and plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos. Plasma samples obtained from moderate (n=24) and severe LJD (n=12), and healthy kangaroos (n=46), were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. Plasma endotoxin activity was measured using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma endotoxin activity was higher in kangaroos with severe LJD (0.199 ± 0.157 EU/ml) than in those with moderate LJD (0.051 ± 0.012 EU/ml, P<0.001) and healthy controls (0.057 ± 0.028 EU/ml, P<0.001). Our results suggest that the severity of LJD in captive macropods may be related to the plasma endotoxin activity.
The eastern bent-winged bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) is an insectivorous bat that lives in the caves, throughout Japan . The bats aggregate in cave in populations of tens to thousands of individuals. We examined the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of bats in Wakayama, Japan, and divided them into 35 haplotypes. The sequences of 3 haplotypes in Wakayama were the same as those of 10 Miniopterus fuliginosus individuals living in China. Given the substitution rate of the D-loop region, we speculated that the bats had moved between Japan and China within the last 16,000 years. We could not determine how the bats crossed the sea; however, it is possible that the bats undergo dynamic movement widely throughout East Asia.