The poultry red mite (PRM; Dermanyssus gallinae) is a hematophagous ectoparasite that mainly infests chickens, and its infestation causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry. In this study, we examined the use of RNAscope-based in situ hybridization (ISH) to characterize gene expression in PRM. We analyzed the mRNA expression of Dermanyssus gallinae cathepsin D-1 (Dg-CatD-1) and Dermanyssus gallinae cystatin (Dg-Cys). RNAscope ISH analysis revealed that mRNA expression of Dg-CatD-1 was observed in the digestive tract, and Dg-Cystatin mRNA was expressed in the ovaries in addition to the digestive tract. RNAscope ISH could be applicable for the analysis of gene expression in each tissue of PRM and is an effective method to investigate the characteristics of target genes.
We monitored swine-derived Escherichia coli on a Japanese farm where colistin had been used for the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria and investigated colistin resistance and the presence of mcr-1 in 36 E. coli strains isolated before and after the withdrawal of colistin use. Through the withdrawal of colistin use on the farm, the prevalence of colistin-resistant and mcr-1-positive E. coli was markedly reduced but not eradicated because mcr-1 had been maintained in multiple plasmids and various sequence types of nonpathogenic E. coli carried in healthy swine. The monitoring of sequence types of mcr-1-positive E. coli is expected to be important for controlling colistin resistance in swine or other animals.
A 6-year-old castrated male Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was referred to the Animal Medical Center, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, for examination and treatment of recurrent pneumothorax. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed multiple cavitary lesions in the caudal right posterior lobe. These lesions were surgically excised via thoracotomy. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed paragonimiasis. In the postoperative review, we found that the owner had fed raw deer meat to the dog four months earlier. Deer meat has attracted attention as a source of Paragonimus in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Paragonimus infection in a dog due to deer meat consumption.
A 2-day-old male black calf presented with neurological symptoms, including opisthotonus. It was unable to stand due to hindquarter paresis. At 5 days old, the calf was able to stand, but exhibited a crossed forelimb gait. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the expansion of the sutures between the squamous-lateral part of the occipital bone and between the occipital-temporal bone, cerebellar tonsillar herniation, posterior displacement of the brainstem, and cervical syringomyelia at 12 days old. This is the first case report of a live calf diagnosed with Arnold Chiari malformation classified as Chiari type 1.5 malformation in humans.
Cryptorchid bulls have low economic value owing to the effects of masculinization. Moreover, surgical removal of an ectopic testis is difficult in certain clinical cases. Recently, immunocastration has garnered popularity as a nonsurgical castration method in pig farming; however, the effects of immunocastration on cryptorchid bulls are yet to be yet. Herein, we investigated endocrine changes due to immunocastration in cryptorchid bulls and studied its effectiveness. This study included 13 Holstein bulls diagnosed with cryptorchidism and classified into two groups based on pubertal period: <8 months of age (pregroup) and ≥8 months of age (postgroup). Antigonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine was used for immunocastration, and two vaccine doses were administered. Blood testosterone and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were measured and analyzed for endocrine evaluation. The testosterone levels significantly decreased following the start of immunocastration in both groups, thereby confirming the efficacy of antiGnRH vaccination in cryptorchid bulls. The AMH levels significantly increased in the pregroup with two antiGnRH vaccination, suggesting a compensatory response via the neutralization of GnRH antibodies. The AMH levels did not significantly change in the postgroup, indicating the partial suppression of AMH secretion in Sertoli cells during sexual maturation and failure of Sertoli cell maturation. Thus, we successfully restrained the serum testosterone levels in cryptorchid bulls using antiGnRH vaccine. The testosterone levels are a useful indicator of the immunocastration effect on cryptorchid bulls. Hereafter, a vaccine program that can sustain the castration effect on cryptorchid bulls is necessary.
The purpose of this study was to survey and compare the amounts of elements in the serum of stranded sea turtles from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. The sea turtles from the Gulf of Thailand had Ca, Mg, P, S, Se, and Si concentrations significantly higher than those in sea turtles from the Andaman Sea. The Ni and Pb concentrations of sea turtles from the Gulf of Thailand was higher, but not significantly so, than in sea turtles from the Andaman Sea. Rb was detected only in sea turtles from the Gulf of Thailand. This may have been related to the industrial activities in Eastern Thailand. The concentration of Br in the sea turtles from the Andaman Sea were significantly higher than those in sea turtles from the Gulf of Thailand. The higher serum concentration of Cu in hawksbill (H) and olive ridley turtles (O) than in green turtles may be due to hemocyanin, as an important component in the blood of crustaceans. The higher Fe concentration in the serum from green turtles than for H and O may be due to chlorophyll, which is an important component of chloroplasts in eel grass. Co was not found in the serum of green turtles but was found in the serum of H and O. The monitoring of important elements in sea turtles may be used as a tool to assess the levels of pollution in marine ecosystems.
Echinococcus multilocularis causes zoonotic disease, alveolar echinococcosis. The life cycle of E. multilocularis is maintained by the predator-prey relationship between red foxes and rodents. Infection to red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of E. multilocularis is considered that rodents take eggs of E. multilocularis, then red fox forage the rodents. However, it has been not known how to take eggs by rodents. On infection process of E. multilocularis from red foxes to rodents, we predicted that rodents would forage or touch with feces of red fox to use undigested materials within the feces. We monitored rodent’s response to fox feces and their distance to the feces by using camera trap from May to October 2020. Myodes spp. and Apodemus spp. touched fox feces, and touch rate of Apodemus spp. was significantly higher than that of Myodes spp. We found smelling and passing as contact behaviors to fox feces by Myodes spp., while Apodemus spp. showed behaviors which oral directly contacted feces. There was no significant difference on the shortest distance between Apodemus spp. and Myodes spp. The distance between 0 cm and 5 cm was mostly observed for both rodents. The results that Myodes spp. did not forage feces and their contact to feces was low frequency suggested that the infection from red foxes to Myodes spp., the main intermediate host, was to be other pathways. The approach to feces and the act near feces might increase the probability attached with eggs.
Bats can be phylogenetically classified into three major groups: pteropodids, rhinolophoids, and yangochiropterans. While rhinolophoids and yangochiropterans are capable of laryngeal echolocation, pteropodids lack this ability. Delicate ear movements are essential for echolocation behavior in bats with laryngeal echolocation. Caudal auricular muscles, especially the cervicoauricularis group, play a critical role in such ear movements. Previously, caudal auricular muscles were studied in three species of bats with laryngeal echolocation, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies on non-laryngeal echolocators, the pteropodids. Here, we describe the gross anatomy of the cervicoauricularis muscles and their innervation in Cynopterus sphinx by using diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography and 3D reconstructions of immunohistochemically stained serial sections. A previous study on bats with laryngeal echolocation reported that rhinolophoids have four cervicoauricularis muscles and yangochiropterans have three. We observed three cervicoauricularis muscles in the pteropodid C. sphinx. The number of cervicoauricularis muscles and their innervation pattern were comparable to those of non-bat boreoeutherian mammals and yangochiropterans, suggesting that pteropodids, and yangochiropterans maintain the general condition of boreoeutherian mammals and that rhinolophoids have a derived condition. The unique nomenclature had been previously applied to the cervicoauricularis muscles of bats with laryngeal echolocation, but given the commonality between non-bat laurasiatherians and bats, with the exception of rhinolophoids, maintaining the conventional nomenclature (i.e., M. cervicoauricularis superficialis, M. cervicoauricularis medius, and M. cervicoauricularis profundus) is proposed for bats.
Serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes were evaluated in nine zoo-managed Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) using a commercial agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) kit. CK was separated into two major fractions, CK-BB and CK-MM, along with a small fraction of macroenzyme-CK type 2 (mCK2); CK-MM was the largest fraction. LDH was separated into five fractions (LDH1–5); LDH3 was the largest fraction. Age was negatively and positively correlated with the percentages of CK-BB and CK-MM, respectively, and negatively correlated with CK-BB and mCK2 activities. These results indicate that an AGE kit can be used to evaluate CK and LDH isoenzymes. Routine isoenzyme testing may enable early detection of disease and physiological changes.
A two-week-old white-tailed eagle presented with an inability to stand and flex its limbs. Despite hatching naturally and owing to lack of parental attention, the bird was raised indoors by zookeepers with no access to sunlight. Palpation and radiographic examination of the bilateral tibiotarsus and femur bone revealed pronounced deformation and curvature, and bilateral decreased bone densities, respectively. The reduced calcium concentration in the blood was treated with calcium gluconate injections and calcium-supplemented feeds. Chopped mouse tails were fed directly, and whole pink-skinned nude mice were fed weekly. The zookeeper also gently massaged the bird and dressed it with a bandage. Sunlight exposure was provided daily. Saliva containing chicken feed was obtained from the mother. The bird could stand properly after four weeks of treatment, and the blood calcium concentration was restored to normal levels.