A major constituent of the characteristic "goaty odor" 4-ethyl octanoic acid (4EOA) was previously shown to have no primer pheromone activity. This was also confirmed by our own bioassay system utilizing the recording technique of neural activity of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator in goats. However, when the synthetic 4EOA solution was kept at room temperature for several months, primer pheromone activity appeared in the same solution. Headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed that there were several newly formed substances in addition to 4EOA samples with primer pheromone activity. These results suggest that 4EOA derived substance(s) but not 4EOA itself is(are) primer pheromone in goats.
Stress-induced hyperthermia is observed in animals exposed to stressful conditions. In our previous study, plant-derived fragrances such as green odor and alpha-pinene were shown to suppress this stress response in rats. In the present study, we examined the concentration-dependence of the alpha-pinene effects on stress-induced hyperthermia. Male rats carrying telemetry transmitters were transferred individually to a new cage containing bedding that had been sprayed with 0.3, 0.03, and 0.003% concentrations of alpha-pinene or control solvent. Following transfer to the novel environment, the body temperature increased significantly, and this response was clearly suppressed when the cage was scattered with 0.03% alpha-pinene only. These results suggest that the effect of alpha-pinene on stress-induced hyperthermia can be observed only at a certain concentration.
Immune system is organized by the influence of both neural and endocrine systems. NK activity plays an important role in the innate immunity. In this study, we observed the effects of restraint stress on chicken peripheral blood NK activity. Viability of FITC-labeled RP9 was measured with PI after treatment with the effector cells. Chicken peripheral blood CD8α+ cells expressed strong cytotoxic activity, in contrast to thrombocytes, while peripheral blood CD3+ CD8α+ cells and CD4+ cells had little cytotoxic activity. Con A supernatant enhanced the cytotoxic activity of CD8α+ cells. Therefore, it is considered that these cytotoxic activities measured by flow cytometory (FCM) analysis are NK activity. When chickens were exposed to restraint stress, the levels of serum corticosterone increased transiently over a short period of time while the NK activity decreased. The decreased NK activity, however, did not recover to the intact levels for a long time, even once the serum corticosterone levels had recovered. These data indicate that chicken NK activity is able to be measured by flow cytometric analysis and that restraint stress causes severe damage to the chicken NK activity.
The pressure-flow relationships and the longitudinal distributions of pulmonary vascular resistance in normal and heartworm-infected (HWI) dogs were compared in an isolated, blood perfused preparation. The pulmonary circulation was partitioned into pulmonary arterial, middle, and venous segment based on the concept of a five element lumped model. The pulmonary arterial pressure-flow relationships were found to be non-linear and convex to the pressure axis in both normal and HWI lungs. The pressure-flow relationships of the pulmonary arterial and venous segment were linear and these slopes in the HWI lungs were significantly higher than the normal lungs. The pressure gradient of the middle segment was increased as flow increased at lower flow range, however, it was not increased during higher perfusion range in both lungs. At higher flow, the pressure gradient of the middle segment in the HWI lungs was significantly higher than the normal lungs. These results suggest that the ohmic resistance was almost equal to the sum of the two slopes of the pressure-flow relationships of the pulmonary arterial and venous segment because the pressure gradient of the middle segment was not altered as flow increased during higher perfusion rate. Because the slopes of the pressure-flow relationships of the pulmonary arterial and venous segment were increased with heartworm infection, the ohmic resistance of HWI lungs would be higher than normal lungs. The intercept pressure on the pressure axis of the linear portion of the pulmonary arterial pressure-flow relationship, a critical closing pressure, was regarded as pressure gradient of the middle segment during higher perfusing rate because the intercept pressures of pressure-flow relationships of pulmonary arterial and venous segment were almost equal to zero. Therefore, the critical closing pressure of HWI lungs would be higher than normal lungs. The pulmonary hypertension of filariasis appears to be due to an increase in ohmic resistance and elevated critical closing pressure.
The influence of the season on serum vitamin A, E and β-carotene concentrations was studied in Japanese Black breeding cattle. Blood samples were collected from 13 cows once a month for a year to determine the serum vitamin concentrations. Mean serum concentrations (± SE) of retinol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were 21.3 ± 0.5 μg/dl (range 9.9 to 44.9), 215.9 ± 8.0 μg/dl (range 59.7 to 551.6) and 67.3 ± 5.1 μg/dl (range 10.6 to 425.2), respectively. All these concentrations were lower than the recommended levels. Serum retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations in summer were lower than those in winter. These results suggest that the vitamin A, E and β-carotene status of Japanese Black breeding cows is inadequate, and feeding high quality forages or dietary vitamin supplementation during summer should be recommended.
The effects of intravenous infusion of hypotonic lactated Ringer's (LR: n=14) on plasma volume and venous blood gases were compared to those of hypotonic Ringer's solutions (RS: n=7) in diarrheic Japanese Black breed calves with metabolic acidosis. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and after, and at 24 hr after the fluid infusion therapy. The LR and RS infusions increased relative plasma volume to 147.1 ± 25.5% and 134.2 ± 18.6%, respectively, just after the fluid therapy. The LR infusion induced an increase in the BE value (+5.1 ± 4.8 mM) at 24 hr compared to that of RS. LR infusion should be explored as a treatment for dehydration and moderate metabolic acidemia caused by naturally occurring diarrhea in calves.
Unthrifty calves occurred sporadically in Japanese Black (beef cattle) in an area in northeastern Japan. The states of unthrifty development, pedigree, clinico-biochemistry and the secretory function of bovine growth hormone (bGH) in pituitary were investigated. The total cholesterol concentration and CK, AST and LDH activities in the serum showed higher values than those of control calves. Basal bGH concentrations in the serum and bGH secretory reactivity in the insulin tolerance test (ITT) were showed to be significantly lower than those of the control calves. Furthermore, sperm donated from a specific bull had been used for these unthrifty calves. This study suggested that the present occurrence of unthrifty calves represented ateliosis possibly caused by congenital hypopituitarism which decreased of bGH secretory function.
Strongyloides venezuelensis (SVZ) infection was chronologically monitored in 85 Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR), which were orally inoculated with approximately 1,000 infective larvae. In order to describe the characteristics of migrating larvae (MLS) in various visceral organs (the liver, lung, cardiac blood, and small intestine), 5 SDR were sacrified at 20 min, 45 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, 16 hr, 48 hr, 72 hr, 96 hr, 120 hr, 144 hr, 168 hr and 192 hr post inoculation (PI). MLS were recovered from the liver and blood 20 and 45 min PI and measured 788 ± 26 μm and 846 ± 40 μm in length, respectively. MLS were first observed in the lung tissue 45 min PI and measured 925 ± 38 μm on the average. In the trachea, MLS measuring 849 ± 75 μm appeared 3 to 96 hrs PI. Adult worms (AWS) measuring 1,926 ± 521 μm to 2,956 ± 159 μm in length were observed in the small intestine from 120 hr PI. The worms appeared to mature more than 168 hr PI and attained the average maximum length of 2,420 ± 532 μm. At 3 hr PI focal hyperemic and necrotic lesions were evidently observed in the liver and lung, together with eosinophilic infiltration in the stomach, liver, and lung. The parasites were histologically detectable in the lung tissues but were very difficult to find in the liver and the epithelial layer of small intestine. These data demonstrate that SVZ parasites take 20 min to reach the liver via the stomach and only three hours to reach the trachea through the same route. The development from eggs to adults takes 168 hr in the SDR model.
Setaria digitata and S. marshalli larvae were observed in the cerebrospinal cavity of 2 paralyzed cattle in Taiwan. The 2 affected cattle showed quadriplegia and lumbar paralysis, respectively. At necropsy, which was performed 7 days after the 7-month-old cattle became quadriplegic, three and nineteen S. marshalli larvae as well as two female adult worms were found in the cranial cavity, spinal cavity and peritoneal cavity of the cattle, respectively. Necropsy on the other 8-month-old cattle was also performed 3 days after it showed lumbar paralysis, and ten S. digitata larvae were found in the spinal cavity. In both cattle, many mononuclear inflammatory cells mixed with a few eosinophils were seen accumulated in the connective tissue around the root of the spinal nerves. Infiltration of eosinophils and mononuclear inflammatory cells into the epidura and arachnoidea of the brain were also observed. The major inflammatory cell was lymphocytes, but neutrophils and eosinophils were also present. The number of cells in the cerebrospinal fluid collected initially from the two affected cattle were 105/0.01 ml and 143/ 0.01 ml, respectively. This is the first report of cerebrospinal setariosis in cattle associated with S. marshalli.
The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis caused by Babesia equi and Babesia caballi in northeast China has remained unknown, although the People's Republic of China is recognized as an endemic country for the diseases. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Jilin province, a part of northeast China. A total of 111 serum samples were taken from horses in eastern Jilin, and examined for diagnosis of B. equi and B. caballi infections by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with recombinant antigens, equi merozoite antigen-1 and P48, respectively. Of the 111 samples, 38 (34%) and 36 (32%) samples were sero-positive for B. equi infection and B. caballi infection, respectively. In addition, 14 (12%) samples were sero-positive for both B. equi and B. caballi infections. These results indicate that equine piroplasmosis is widespread and therefore a cause for serious concern in northeast China.
A novel macrolide antibiotic was administered orally to 5-week-old Jcl:Wistar rats at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks, and then a half of animals were maintained without any treatment for 10 weeks. A white discolored lesion with horizontal stripes developed on the surface of the upper and lower incisors after dosing for 4 weeks, and these macroscopical incisal lesions disappeared with the eruption in 4 weeks after stop of administration. Histopathologically, increase in number of karyopycnosis of ameloblast at the transitional stage, vacuolar degeneration of ameloblast and cystic change in the maturation stage, and impaired iron pigment secretion at the pigmentation stage were observed. Microradiography, calcio-traumatic zones, which means hypocalcification, were observed on the superficial layer of enamel. These results suggest that the primary lesion induced by a novel macrolide antibiotic is the increased karyopycnosis of ameloblast at the transitional stage, and followed by later stage.
In situ hybridization (ISH) protocol including microwaving pre-treatment regimes was developed and compared with protease digestion as a pre-treatment regime for its effects on detecting feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue. We found that optimum results were obtained using microwave pre-treatment. The results showed that the use of microwave irradiation would be recommended as a means of supplementing ISH methods, especially when using long-term formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.
Five 2 day-old colostrum-deprived piglets were inoculated with tissue homogenates from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. One of the five piglets developed icterus and died 23 days post-inoculation. Histologic examination revealed acute hepatitis. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) antigen and nucleic acid were detected in hepatocytes and phagocytic cells. Ultrastructurally, hepatocytes and phagocytic cells had large numbers of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were composed of electron-dense paracrystalline arrays of small non-enveloped viral particles approximately 17 nm in diameter. Apoptotic hepatocytes were confirmed by the TUNEL method and electron microscopic examination. These findings may indicate that hepatocellular necrosis is associated with replication of PCV-2. Apoptosis of hepatocytes also contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatic lesions in this case.
Milk, especially colostrum, contains different kinds of macromolecules abundantly, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), lactoferrin (Lf), transferrin (Tf), and growth factors. These are essential for the development and maintenance of health, which greatly depends on the absorption and transportation of macromolecules to the target organs. To evaluate the macromolecular transport, and concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), colostrum was fed to newborn calves followed by milk and milk replacer, and maintained up to the 4th week under farm conditions. Plasma and CSF were collected at different times, and were analyzed for Lf, Tf, IgG and iron concentrations. Lf, Tf and IgG concentrations were steeply increased in plasma and CSF after colostrum feeding, and fluctuating patterns were observed during the experiments. Furthermore, intraduodenal administration of bovine Lf alone in young calf experiments revealed that the Lf concentration reached a peak at 4 hr, and was 7 and 4 times higher than preadministration in plasma and CSF, respectively. To explore the transport mechanism of Lf into CSF in young calves, epithelial membranes of the choroid plexus were prepared and a binding assay for Lf receptors (Lf-R) was carried out with 125I-Lf. The saturation kinetics revealed that the Bmax of epithelial membranes was 26.15 nmol/mg protein with a Kd of 0.11 μM, which also showed that Lf-R is saturable and specific. Scatchard plot transformation showed the presence of a single type of Lf-R in the choroid plexus. These results suggest that Lf is transported into the CSF through receptor mediated transcytosis in young calves, and that Lf may play an important role(s) in brain function.
The seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection among pet cats in Japan and Korea and stray cats in Japan was investigated by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique and PCR test. Forty-four (14.2%) of 310 pet cats in Japan were seropositive, as were 15 (41.7%) of 36 stray cats in Japan and 10 (8.6%) of 116 pet cats in Korea. The antibody positive rate in stray cats was significantly higher than that in pet cats, but there was no correlation between the rates in Japanese and Korean pet cats. In this study, the prevalence of C. burnetii infection among cats in different living environments was found and it is difficult to deny that stray cats would be one of the important sources of infection for human Q fever.
Enamel matrix protein (EMP) was applied for regeneration of periodontal tissue in 2 dogs with spontaneous periodontal disease. Case 1 had bony resorption around the root and root apex of the maxillary fourth premolars. Case 2 had vertical resorption of bone between the mandibular first and second molars. A flap was formed in the buccal gingiva, and EMP was applied onto the surface of the exposed root. One or 4 months postoperatively, increased bone level and clinical attachment were recognized. EMP was therefore suggested to be effective to induce regeneration of periodontal tissues in the cases with periodontal disease.
To evaluate the effects of compression atelectasis on the composition of pulmonary secretions in anesthetized horses, cytological and biochemical examinations were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids obtained from both dependent and independent lung regions. Six horses were anesthetized with isoflurane and oxygen for 120 min, and were positioned in right lateral recumbency. Percentage of neutrophils and total protein concentration in BAL fluids significantly increased at the end of anesthesia, and total phosphorous concentration significantly decreased at 72 hr after anesthesia in dependent lung. Such changes were not observed within 168 hr after anesthesia. These findings suggest that the effects of compression atelectasis on the composition of pulmonary secretions may be eliminated within 168 hr after anesthesia.
The effect of fusion/activation protocol on in vitro development of porcine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos constructed with foreign gene-transfected somatic cells were investigated. NT embryos were produced by using enucleated M II oocytes and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene-transfected or non-transfected porcine fetal fibroblasts. One group of NT embryos received a single electrical pulse to induce fusion and activation simultaneously (FAS). The other group was fused 2 hr before activation (FBA) using two kinds of electrical pulses. Electrically activated NT embryos in both groups were treated with cycloheximide (CHX) before culture to assess the development to the blastocyst stage. After 6 days of culture, all morulae and blastocysts derived from EGFP-transfected fibroblasts emitted green fluorescence without mosaicism, and EGFP-gene product was also detected in all morulae and blastocysts examined. NT embryos undergoing FAS showed higher developmental capacity to blastocysts than those undergoing FBA, regardless of the EGFP transfection into the nuclear donor cells. The results also indicated that EGFP-gene transfection into nuclear donor cells has no obvious deleterious effect on the development of NT embryos to blastocysts.
Parentage testing was performed in sixteen litters by canine artificial inseminations with frozen semen from different sires on Days 5 and 7 after the LH surge. It became apparent that only 25% of dams had superfecundation, but 43.8% of dams were whelped after insemination only on Day 5 after the LH surge and 31.3% of dams after insemination only on Day 7. Of the total 87 puppies, 46% were born after insemination on Day 5 after the LH surge and 54% after insemination on Day 7. This result strongly suggested that canine artificial insemination with frozen semen could be sufficiently successful also on Days 5 and 7 after the LH surge.
Canine parvovirus type-2a (CPV-2a) and type-2b (CPV-2b) have recently been isolated from domestic cats. The pathogenicity of CPV-2b in domestic cats is still unclear. In this study, we performed infection tests to examine the pathogenicity of CPV-2b, FP84 strain, isolated from a domestic cat. The results demonstrated that the CPV strain FP84 is able to infect and replicate well in domestic cats. Two of the 3 cats used in the test died. They showed loss of appetite, diarrhea, leukopenia and dehydration. Since FP84 was found to be virulent to domestic cats, it is necessary to examine the efficacy of inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines against CPV infection in domestic cats.