Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen of a variety of aquatic animals that displays extreme diversity in drug resistance, phenotypes, virulence genes, and virulence. In this study, eight pathogenic A. hydrophila strains were isolated from diseased Amur sturgeons and investigated for their sensitivity to select antibiotics, their phenotype, virulence genes, and virulence. According to the phylogenetic analysis of the DNA gyrase subunit B protein, the eight isolates formed a single branch in the A. hydrophila group. The antibiotics ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, and cefepime appeared effective against them. All of the isolates possessed the virulence genes for aerolysin, flagellin, heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin, heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin, hemolysin, and elastase, while only one isolate, HZ8, possessed the gene for lateral flagella. The cytolytic enterotoxin and lipase genes were present in all isolates, except in ZJ10 and ZJ12. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR indicated that the eight A. hydrophila isolates could be divided into four types. Isolates YW2, TR3, HZ8 and ZJ10, each representing a different type, were selected for challenge experiments. The challenge tests revealed that isolate HZ8 had the lowest lethal dose, causing 50% mortality at 2.30 × 104 colony forming units (cfu)/ml. The isolate ZJ10 had the highest LD50, 1.25 × 106 cfu/ml. Knowledge of the characteristics of the A. hydrophila isolates obtained from Amur sturgeon will be beneficial in developing potential disease control strategies.