SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 100 , Issue 2
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (23K)
  • Koichi Horikoshi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 159-197,302-30
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Il existait des organisations collectives s'occupant d'activites side-rurgiques dans les regions productrices de fer au Moyen Age. En Champagne (le pays d'Othe) et en Normandie (entre l'Orne et l'Avre) l'existence de ces organisations de ferons (des forgerons ou metallurgistes qui fabriquent du fer brut) se confirme des le XIII^e siecle. Dans le pays de Foix (Vicdessos) et en Dauphine (Allevard) les communautes d'habitants possedaient jusqu'au XV^e siecle les droits coutumiers et exclusifs de l'exploitation du minerai de fer et de sa transformation. Traiter les documents provenant de ces quatre organismes du point de vue legislatif, et envisager les relations entre les seigneurs hauts-justiciers et les communautes, nous entrainent a emettre des hypotheses sur certaines caracteristiques de la politique siderurgique seigneuriale. Les organisations des ferons de Champagne et de Normandie monopolisaient le droit de produire du fer brut sur de vastes territoires, comme en pays d'Othe et en Normandie au sud de la Seine, ou s'etendaient les pouvoirs hauts-justiciers des comtes de Champagne et des rois de France. On peut dire qu'en concedant ces privileges, Les seigneurs reglementaient les ferons en les soumettant a un systeme identique a celui des corporations de metiers. Comme on pouvait exploiter du minerai de fer a ciel ouvert dans ces deux regions, il aurait ete difficile d'imposer le controle des activites minieres, et la notion de droit minier meme n'aurait pas toujours ete bien claire. Dans ce cas-la ne peut-on dire que les princes, qui voulaient usurper et accaparer le droit minier du fer sur les domaines ne dependant pas de leurs seigneuries, auraient cree la prerogative miniere du fer independamment des autres droits seig-neuriaux fonciers en organisant les ferons en corporation comme dans ces pays. En Foix et en Dauphine, ou on exploitait du minerai de fer en creusant des galeries, nous pouvons suivre les vicissitudes des prerogatives des communautes d'habitants a l'aide des chartes de franchise et des documents concernant les activites industrielles. Au XIII^e siecle on y confirme l'existence de la prerogative communautaire sur les mines de fer, grace a laquelle les habitants exercaient le droit exclusif de l'exploitation miniere et metallurgique dans les domaines des communautes. Mais le developpement de la production y causa une stagnation et des desordres d'exploitation au XV^e siecle, et il influa sur les regions adjacentes. C'est pourpuoi en vue de stabiliser l'industrie et la metallurgie regionales du fer, les seigneurs hauts-justiciers etablirent le controle minier et la reglementation de la production et du commerce du fer brut. Par l'institution de ce controle rigide, les prerogatives communautaires furent integrees au droit regalien minier s'exercant sur la totalite des regions. Donc nous pouvons conclure que dans la France medievale la prerogative regalienne sur les mines de fer appartenant aux rois et comtes s'est constituee selon deux politiques: l'organisation des ferons en corporation et le controle de l'exploitation miniere du fer. Cette situation ne correspond pds exactement aux politiques vagues et moins severes exprimees dans l'ordonnance de Charles VI (1413) qu'on considere souvent comme le moment capital de l'etablissement du droit regalien sur l'industrie miniere generale par le pouvoir royal.
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  • Yasuhiro Takeuchi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 198-232,301-30
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The theory that the five-rank system, consisting of gong 公, hou 候, bo 伯, zi 子 and nan 男 bestowed by Zhou kings 周王 upon feudal lords actually existed can be seen in the classical scriptures and historical documents. In so far as we accept this theory, we therefore must consider that the Zhou kings, after their overthrow of the Yin 殷, reorganized their territorial domain and various 'tribes' once subjected to the Yin. Although the real existence of such a system is now in doubt, the reorganization of the ruling structure by the Zhou kings is accepted by the experts. This, however, will resort in a contradiction. Furthermore, even if the theory of the 'five-rank system' itself is a later fabrication, the reference in the bronze inscriptions to gong, hou, and bos, for example, suggests that that theory as a whole is a later fabrication. As a result of having examined this problem as seen in the Chun-qiu, one of the classical scriptures, the author has found that only in the case of the hou and bo are their founders in the main members of the Zhou royal family. He has also found that, on the other hand, many of the members of the Zhou royal family were given the titles of hou or bo. In addition, it is observed that after the middle of the Chun-qiu period there are many states whose historical background is unclear and yet begin to appear frequently on the historical scene and are given the title of zi. We should, therefore, say that the main purpose of early Zhou feudalization was to make the members of the Zhou royal family into hou or bo and was limited at most to assigning them to their respective feudal proprithorships. In other words, at the beginning of the Zhou we know from the bronze inscriptions that there existed the hou and bo who were enfeoffed by thd Zhou kings, as well as those hou and bo titles remaining from the Yin kings. This leads us to conclude that the reorganization of the Zhou ruling structure mentioned above was not carried out in such a way as to extend to the entire regions, "tribes", and "clans" under the rule of the Yin royal court.
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  • Hiroyuki Sato
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 233-241
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Akihiro Kajita
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 242-253
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Makoto Kimura
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 253-261
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 262-263
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 263-264
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 265-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 266-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 267-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 268-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 269-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 270-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 271-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 271-272
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 273-299
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages 300-302
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages Cover3-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: February 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
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