SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 101 , Issue 7
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages Cover1-
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages Cover2-
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Chiaki Nagai
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1235-1266,1399-
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The Zong-Ling Suo (總領所) of the Southern Sung period was the financial and military institution, which was in charge of the commisariat for Da-jun (大軍), the force disposed on the borders of the Jin (金). There were four Zong-Ling Suo all over the country. Of them, Huai-Dong Zong-Ling Suo, located in Zhen-jiang (鎭江), was the easternmost and nearest to the capital, Lin-an (臨安), and engaged in transporting military supplies to the Da-jun of Zhen-jiang and Huai-dong Lu (淮東路). The intent of this article is to reconstruct the financial administration of Huai-Dong Zong-Ling Suo, especially in quantitative terms. The author estimates the scale of finances makes clear the quantity and distribution mechanism of money, rice, etc, and addresses several questions about this mechanism: by which circuit (lu 路); from which prefecture (zhou 州) or superior prefecture (fu 府) ; at which point of Zhen-jiang or Huai-dong the provisioing were made. Then he calculates the amount of consumption by the army. The Huai-Dong Zong-Ling Suo maintained a financial scale of 'seven hundred thousand dan (石) of rice and seven million min (緡) of money' at least up to the mid-Southern Sung period. The portion of the Autumn-tax (qiu-shui 秋税) placed at the disposal of the central government of Jiang-nan dong Lu (江南東路) or Jiang-nan xi Lu (江南西路) and the official procurement of grain (he-di mi 和糴米) of Jiang-nan xi Lu were the source of the food supply. Money was supplied by the income from the monopoly on salt and miscellaneous taxes (za-shui qian 雜税錢) from Liang-zhe xi Lu (兩浙西路), Jiang-nan dong Lu and Jiang-nan xi Lu. There were about seventy or eighty thousand soldiers in Zhen-jiang and Huai-dong. They were supplied from Huai-dong Zong-Ling Suo. As the military burden grew toward the end of the Southern Sung period, many soldiers battalions were inclined to move from Zhen-jiang to Huai-dong.
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  • Jun Suzuki
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1267-1295,1398-
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For cocoon reeling, cocoons must be warmed in water to soften the natural gum with which the fibre is covered. In modern silk mills, boilers are used to make steam, and the water in the basin, in which the cocoons are placed, is kept at the proper temperature by means of the steam. In old Japan, a basin for cocoon reeling was warmed over an open fire, but it was difficult to keep the water in the basin at a uniform temperature. Also the thermal efficiency of this system was not good. In the early-Meiji era, the French cocoon reeling system was imported to the national silk mill at Tomioka, nearby Nagano pre-fecture. Some managers of indigenous silk mills and some enterprisers soon realized the necessity of boilers. Because the imported boiler was very expensive, they requested native casters and coppersmiths to make thems. These native makers made them by means of casting iron or rivetting sheet copper, according to the native Japanese technique, because the performance demanded of those boilers was not so high. These boilers costs less than one fifth of the imported ones. It was difficult to make larger ones, so in the 1880's, large silk mills purchased Western-style (mainly Cornish) boilers from makers in Tokyo and Yokohama. On the other hand, in 1879, a native coppersmith (MARUYAMA Yasaburo)developed the new boiler, which was made of imported thin (1/8 inch) iron plate. It was more efficient than cast iron, and the cost was not very different. Many medium and smaller scale silk mills used them. In the 1890's, makers in this area began to produce better boilers, which were combinations of the cornish and Multitubular boilers, and could serve as the largest boilers demanded in the area. At the same time, due to increasing demand, some skilled craftsmen came from Tokyo and Yokohama, opened iron works and entered the boiler making industry. The silk mills in this area could now buy any size of boiler, which cost about one fifth of those bought by silk mills in other districts. The above mentioned development of the boiler making industry was an important condition for the growth of cocoon reeling in Nagano prefecture and its environs.
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  • Tomoko Takahashi
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1296-1320,1397-
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Dagli anni '70 in poi, gli storici hanno cominciato a ricostruire i ruoli delle balie nella societa occidentale dei tempi passati, specialmente dal punto di vista sociale e familiare. In questo saggio, basandomi su tale corrente di ricerca, mi propongo di analizzare le balie dello Spedale degli Innocenti di Firenze dal punto di vista del baliatico diffuso nella Toscana del XV secolo, e di mettere in luce le loro provenienze sociali, i loro salari, i contenuti dei contratti baliatici ed i loro problemi. L'oggetto dell'analisi e rappresentato delle balie impiegate per l'allevamento dei bambini ammessi al brefotrofio nell'arco di venti anni, dal febbraio 1445 al gennaio 1465; in particolare si tratta di 131 balie interne (cosiddette balie <<in Casa>>) e 2367 balie che vivevano fuori dell'ospedale. Le balie esterne erano donne residenti nella citta di Firenze in diverse zone toscane. Queste ultime assumevano una grande importanza per quanto riguarda l'affidamento dei bambini dell'ospedale, mentre le balie fiorentine erano utilizzate provvisoriamente durante il breve periodo precedente l'affidamento alle balie fuori Firenze. In linea di massima, le balie esterne, sia fiorentine che abitanti fuori della citta, erano donne sposate e avevano stipulato un unico contratto baliatico con l'ospedale durante il periodo da me esaminato.I mariti delle balie (bali) residenti in Firenze erano artigiani, negozianti lavoratori di citta, mentre la maggior parte di quelli che abitavano fuori Firenze erano contadini. Il salario mensile durante l'affidamento oscillava tra 50 e 99 soldi quanto alle balie fiorentine, e tra 40 e 65 soldi per quanto riguarda quelle fuori Firenze. Nel periodo dopo lo svezzamento, invece, il salario veniva quasi dimezzato. In genere il bambino era allattato per 14-16 mesi dopo la nascita, pero l'allattamento poteva allungarsi anche fino al 25° mese circa, secondo la crescita o secondo la salute. Poi, quando il bambino arrivava all'eta di 5-6 anni, doveva rientrare all'ospizio. Tuttavia, molti morivano prima del loro rientro e alcuni, ovviamente, morivano a causa della trascuratezza e della cattiva condotta delle balie. Le balie initerne dell'ospedale, erano costituite da schiave, da serve, da forestiere, da donne che avevano i figli affidati ad altre balie, da povere gravide ecc., ossia, da donne che appartenevano allo strato piu basso della societa dell'epoca. Come parte dell'attivita caritatevole di questo ospizio rinascimentale, e notevole l'utilizzo delle gravide; dovevano allattare i bambini come balie <<in Casa>> in cambio del parto assistito dall'ospedale stesso. Il salario delle balie interne dipendeva molto dai singoli casi e variava dal servizio gratis a quello mensile di 147 soldi. Anche il soggiorno delle balie all'ospedale dipendeva dai singoli contratti, variando dai dodici giorni ai due anni. In ogni caso, nel periodo da me esaminato, tutte le balie interne avevano un solo contratto con l'ospedale. Poiche le donne possono assumere il servizio baliatico soltanto dopo il parto, e difficile pensare che le donne residenti nelle diverse zone della Toscana servissero come balie dopo ogni parto. Il servizio baliatico offerto dall'ospedale era seniz'altro un impegno abbastanza oneroso. Peno a mio avviso, esso poteva costituire anche un servizio di beneficenza da parte delle donne per l'ospedale.
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  • Ichiro Nitta
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1321-1333
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Atsuko Ohashi
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1333-1343
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1344-1345
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (228K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1345-1346
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (243K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1346-1347
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (246K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1347-1348
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (229K)
  • Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1349-1396
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages 1397-1400
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (253K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages App1-
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages Cover3-
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 7 Pages Cover4-
    Published: July 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
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