SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 123 , Issue 11
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages Cover1-
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages Cover2-
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Zen AOKI
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 1929-1968
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article studies the perceptions of Korea and China among the people in Japan during the latter part of the 19th century. The antecedent research has explained that the people had become to transfer their own sense of inferiority to their East Asian neighbors, whose Westernization had been stagnant, and disdained them because the people's opposition to Westernization had been crushed by means of the suppression of the revolt. This interpretation ignores the contradictory situation of a nation of people unable to internally resolve their own opposition to Western culture, while looking down on other nations based on those same Western standards. In order to show the way such a contradiction was dealt with in the Japanese mass consciousness, this article takes up the popular entertainment, especially kodan (講談), the Japanese traditional storytelling, to extract the Japanese people's understanding of Western culture and their hopes represented by the images of Korea and China on a deeper level than what was expressed in rebellion. In presenting the evidence, the author attempts to clarify the features of narrative of the popular entertainment in order to interpret its depiction of Korea and China in terms of popular understanding by focusing on the mentality of popular entertainment, as well as the changes of national entertainment policy, trends and social contexts. In concrete terms, the author identifies two conflicting types of narration in popular entertainment at the time: the satirical style that originated on the urban scene during the late Edo period and the oratorical style, which first appeared during the 1880s, against a backdrop of increasing migration from the countryside into the cities. In the performances taking up such events of the early 1880s as the Imo Incident (July 1882) in Seoul, Korea and the Sino-French War (1884-85), we find satirical narrative showed its twisted sympathies with "obstinateness" of the forces of resistance in both countries and ridiculing the shallow Westernized behavior of the Japanese people. On the other hand, when dealing with the 1st Sino-Japanese War, the oratorical style pours invective and abuse upon the Chinese, while the satirical performances objectified them and counteract with words of sympathy for the Koreans and Chinese. In the presence of such conflicting narrative styles, the Japanese people became aware of Korea and China not only as scapegoats for its own oppression, but also as a means of escaping from the constant anxiety of being confined within the limits of the Western code of civilized behavior. However, the difficulty in confronting the fallacy of its civilized self-image became expressed in the Japanese people's hesitation to empathize with its Korean and Chinese counterparts. Such a way of adopting Western civilization, which skillfully grants dispensation from self-denial, can be called, in the opinion of the author, one of the "privileges" accorded the masses living under imperial rule.
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  • Hideki HORIUCHI
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 1969-1971
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Issei YAMAMOTO
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 1972-1991
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    This paper focuses on teachers working at public schools in Qingdao, Shandong Province, between the Wang Jingwei regime period (1940-1945) and the post-war Nationalist government regime period (1940-1949). Having gone through many regime changes during the first half of the twentieth century, Qingdao well represents the typical Chinese city at the time, and its history provides us with insights into the institutional structures within public schools, which remained unchanged in the face of the otherwise ever present political instability. To focus on public school teachers is particularly productive, since public schools in a modern nation deal with the everyday lives of the general population at an early age, as governments try to utilize them as an effective tool to implement state ideology and political influence. Teachers at public schools, therefore, are placed in a highly ambivalent position; that is, while as agents of the state they are expected to enforce its policies and exercise its control among their pupils, these very same pedagogues, as local intellectuals, were themselves subject to state regulations and control regarding freedom of expression, etc. This paper examines what it meant for schoolteachers and the institutions they served to be working in the midst of constantly shifting regional political power, using the case of Qingdao. The historical research on the subject to date tends to stress discontinuity; that is, any change in political regime invariably brought about many changes in educational policy and institutional structure. This is especially true of historians of Chine with leanings toward revolutionary historiography. On the other hand, there is a group of historians who have recently shifted their focus to the historical continuity that marked China under both the Wang Jingwei and PRC regimes. This article, which follows the latter approach, attempts to illuminate such continuities, beginning with an examination of the transformations experienced by the Qingdao school system, including the question of why the number of primary schools in Qingdao increased between the 1900s and 1940s. Then the discussion shifts to the careers of a number of representative teachers at the primary school level, the analysis of which shows a large amount of continuity in the status of teachers within the profession. Finally, the author examines how the post-war Nationalist government dealt with the legacies of the preceding regimes, the case in point being the emergence of "teachers in continual service", which the author discusses based on pension application records. Throughout the article, the author attempts to show how the status of many teachers within the school system remained the same, despite numerous political and social changes going on around them in Qingdao and comes to the following conclusions. First, the analysis of teachers' reports shows that while personnel matters of city districts (shiqu 市区) were highly susceptible to political change, those of townships (xiangqu 郷区) were not, as demonstrated by a large contingent of "continually serving teachers" there. Secondly, the analysis of pension application records reveals the existence of tension between individual teachers and their superiors regarding how teaching experiences during the Japanese occupation were to be treated for the purpose of pension calculation. Based on the above analysis, the author argues that a given regime had only a limited influence on the status of teachers in the public school system and many of these pedagogues, though placed at relatively low levels in the state power structure, proactively struggled to effectively protect their interests and their statuses within the profession.
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  • Yoshie TAKAMITSU
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 1992-2016
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Takayuki TOGAWA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2017-2023
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Hisatsugu KUSABU
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2024-2030
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Koichi NAGAHAMA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2031-2038
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2039-2040
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2040-2041
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2041-2042
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (245K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2042-2043
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2043-2044
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (227K)
  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2088-2084
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2082-2083
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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    Download PDF (112K)
  • [Author not found]
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages 2081-2045
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages App1-
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages App2-
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages App3-
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages Cover3-
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    2014 Volume 123 Issue 11 Pages Cover4-
    Published: November 20, 2014
    Released: July 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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