SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 95 , Issue 1
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Hideo Yamaguchi
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 1-37,144-145
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In this paper, the author tries to clarify the relationship between the general description in the Ryo 令 codes and the more detailed explanation in the Engi-shiki 延喜式 codes concerning maki, state managed pastures for breeding mainly equestrian horses. Then, in order to deduce the origins of the several forms of maki stipulated in the Engi-shiki codes, he describes the transition of those offices in the central government which administered maki. As a result, the author is able to offer the following hypothesis concerning the actual state of public pasture lands. 1)In the Engi-shiki codes, we find Shokoku-no-maki 諸国牧 (provincial pastures), Mimaki 御牧 (those under direct imperial control) and Kinto-no-maki 近都牧 (pastures in the capital vicinity). It also mentions the horses presented to the central government as tribute, which are Kunigai-no-uma 国飼馬 (horses bred in provinces), Tsunagigai-no-uma 繋飼馬 (horses raised on a tether) and horses from Mimaki. The tributary horses from Shokoku-no-maki were Tsunagigai-no-uma. In Kinto-no-maki the horses were not sired but rather were delivered from the province to the capital and raised. The system of Kunigai-no-uma required that provinces sent horses, which were usually bred there, to the capital on the demand of the central government. So it was similar to the system of horse tribute. 2)From the beginning of the Ryo system, the maki in the provinces near the capital sent the horses which were sired there to the central government in the form of Kunigai-no-uma ; and the maki in the provinces far from the capital presented horses in the form of Tsunagigai-no-uma from Shokoku-no-maki. Some of the former maki also took on a function similar to Kinto-no-maki by breeding horses from the latter maki. 3)Mimaki originated from the maki managed by the Uchi-no-umaya-no-tsukasa 内廐寮 (the government agency of horse breeding under the immediate control of the Emperor, established in 765-808 A.D.), and was the most recent form of the various forms of maki stipulated in the Engi-shiki codes. However, the way to establish Mimaki was to shift some of the maki which had already existed under direct imperial control. This was done under the influence of the political situation around the middle of the 8th century. Therefore, each of the maki did not go through any important changes except for the alteration of the government office which had jurisdiction over it. 4)These forms of maki were arranged and reorganized when management failures began to increase at the beginning of the 9th century. The various articles concerning maki in the Engi-shiki codes show the result of such arrangements and reorganizations.
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  • Kensuke Yoshimori
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 38-61,142-144
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This paper suggests that the government of Tsao-Shuang, the last one of the Tsao dynasty, can be seen as a transitional stage leading from the nepotistic rule of the Han (漢) dynasty to the aristocracy of the Wei-Chin Nan-Pei (魏晉南北) dynasties. However, due to the Tsao-Shuang government's radical policy of centralization, opposition from local powers arose resulting in its overthrow by Ssu ma-I (司馬懿). Consequently, Ssu ma-I, recognizing the reason's for the failure of the Tsao-Shuang, government, implemented a revision of the Chung Cheng system, which respected local power. In A.D. 249 the imperial government of the Wei (魏) State at Loyang (洛陽) was overthrown by Ssu ma-I, a general under the Tsao dynasty. This incident would ultimately lead to the establishment of the Western Chin (西晉) dynasty in A.D. 265. At the time of Ssu ma-I's revolt, de facto political power was held by Tsao-Shuang, an imperial prince who was adviser to the young emperor Tsao-Fang (曹芳). This arrangement, which was in accordance with the last wishes of the previous Emperor Tsao-Jui (曹叡), involved a situation in which political power was shared by royalty according to kinship ties and co-provincial (common birthplace) ties with the Emperor. A pattern of nepotistic rule was also apparent during the reign of the Han dynasty ruler Weich'i (外戚). Another aspect of political power under Tsao-Shuang concerns the careers of those in the upper echelons of the political structure. Most were noted literati, famed for their literary works and general scholastic ability. They had gained positions of great influence by cultivating ties with the scions of distinguished families in the court of Emperor Tsao-Jui. The Emperor, suspecting these literati of stirring public opinion against Confucianism, instituted various represive measures to counteract their allegedly destructive influence. The literati found the young nobles to be sympathetic to their plight and, following the Emperor's demise, were able to use their connections to attain prominent positions under the new ruler, Tsao-Shuang. Later, He-An (何晏), a head of the Lipu (吏部), the government office, placed members of the literati and the notables in positions of power in an attempt to establish an effective political base. It is believed that the Wei-Chin Nan-Pei dynastic Period was characterized by a largely aristocratic polity consisting of the notables and literati. Scholars believe that the notables and literati had great influence on public opinion and their status was recognized in return by the general public. If this point of view is accepted, the government of Tsao-Shuang, can be seen as a transitional stage leading from the nepotistic rule, which characterized the Han dynasty, to the aristocracy of the Wei-Chin Nan-Pei dynasties, despite the fact that the overly centralized power wielded by the government of Tsao-Shuang was effectively counteracted by local public opinion. Ssu ma-I overthrew the government of Tsao-Shuang with the backing of local public opinion and attempted to reform the aristocratic basis of government by instituting the Chiu P'in Chung Cheng (九品中正) system, whereby public officials were assigned on the basis of public opinion. The Chou Ta Chung Cheng (州大中正) system was later established to expand the Chung Cheng system by instituting the Chou Ta Chung Cheng, which was positioned above the existing Ch'un Chung Cheng (郡中正) and insured local rights in governmental personnel affairs. Prior to Ssu ma-I's revolt this policy had not been implemented due to the opposition of these close to Tsao-Shuang, who had established the right of the Lipu to handle civil service personnel affairs. The implementation of the Chou Ta Chung Cheng system is usually regarded as an instance of centralization of administiative power. However, in view of the historical trend described in this paper, it is seen more as an

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  • Masahiko Yamada
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 62-88
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Kyoko Yamamuro
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 89-96
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Takafusa Nakamura
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 97-101
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Hiromichi Yamashiro
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 101-107
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 108-115
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 116-117
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 117-119
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 119-120
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 120-121
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (252K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 121-122
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 122-123
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 123-124
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 125-141
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 142-145
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 146-
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (47K)
  • Type: Cover
    1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: January 20, 1986
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (47K)
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