SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 93 , Issue 7
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages Cover1-
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages Cover2-
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Natsuko Furuse
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1147-1183,1290-
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    One of the more important changes which occurred in the structural plan of various imperial palaces (including the Nara palace) in ancient Japan before the construction of the Nagaoka palace in 784 is the transformation from the straight line alignment of the tenno's residence (dairi 内裏), the great hall of government (dai-goku-den 大極殿) and the government ministries (chodoin 朝堂院) to an arrangement separating the dairi and the chodoin. Previous research dealing with this change has asserted that it was brought about by the insistence on a separation of private and public interest within the government. However, such a hypothesis has yet to be proven. This essay attempts to re-investigate the related source materials and look at the problem more fundamentally. Within the Nara palace (Heijo-kyu 平城宮), 1)the palace floor plan in the same way as the former palaces of the Asuka region was designed so that every morning court status holders could gather before the tenno in the great hall, and then begin their government duties ; 2)according to Nara period law codes, the daigoku-den's gate was kept open while bureaucrats went about their duties in the chodoin ; 3)a comparison of the fifth article in the code for court decorum within the T'ang and Japanese systems shows that the Japanese code does not follow the Chinese precedent of scheduling bureaucrats' morning attendance in the great hall according to status category, indicating that functionally the daigoku-den and the dairi were yet unseparated. Therefore, we can say that from the viewpoint of the tenno, the daigoku-den functioned not only as a ceremonial place, but also as a place where the daily government duties were performed. However, according to a document reporting an imperial edict (senji 宣旨) dated 792 (Enryaku 延暦 11), a significant change in the above related custom occurred. In this document the tenno recognized the number of days which those central government bureau (dajokan 太政官) officials of fifth rank and above were to carry out their duties in the dairi. Therefore, after 792 the auditorium of the dairi became the location of the tenno's daily affairs, while the chodoin became the place where the tenno would appear for state ceremonies only. This functional specialization may be thought of as corresponding to the structural separation of the dairi and chodoin. Such a change was reflected in the plan of the Heian palace built in Kyoto in 794. As the tenno came to supervise the affairs of government in the dairi through councilors of state in the dajokan (sangi 参議) who were permitted certain work days in his presence, the rules of execution for the bureaucracy also went through various changes. First, the ceremony for reporting administrative affairs (kosaku 告朔) to the tenno in the chodoin, a ceremony which was held monthly until the end of the Nara period, became during the Heian period a symbolic ritual which was carried out at the beginning of each of the four seasons; and administrative monthly reporting was done through documents sent from various offices to dajokan. Secondly, during the Nara period on the day of the kosaku ceremony, the four member management staff (shitokan 四等官) of each office would report to the tenno their number of work days. However, from 809 (Daido 大同 4) those monthly reporting to the tenno were limited to the sangi and above. Thirdly, there was the creating of the very important position of geki 外記, the secretary of this privy council. In this way the bureaucracy, which had previously been thought of as officials "directly at hand" due to the fact of the tenno's daily appearance in the great hall, came to be considered in a more conceptual way as the mechanism consisting of administrative offices, dajokan and tenno. In other words, up until the abandonment of the Nara palace, the tenno appeared daily in the daigoku-den to supervise the affairs of

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  • Sanae Yoshida
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1184-1204,1289-
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Fujiwara no Munetada 藤原宗忠 (1062-1141), who held the title of Udaijin 右大臣 during the years of the rule by ritired emperor Shirakawa-in 白河院, is well known for his diary, Chuyuki 『中右記』, a basic historical source for the period. However, Munetada also kept in his possession two family commentaries on the ceremony for the appointment and promotion of officials, the Joi Shidai and Jimoku Shidai 毎汨譽・恂汨譽. The Jimoku Shidai has been quoted in the Heian period work on the ceremony, Nakayama Naifu-sho ?R内府抄 which listed it as the Nakamikado Ufu-sho ?莓蜑E府抄; and during the Kamakura period the original was kept by the Kujo 九条 family and called the Nakamikado Ufu Jimoku-sho (Akaki-jiku) ?莓蜑E府除目抄・赤木軸. A Kamakura period copy of the Jimoku Shidai was placed by the Hirohashi 広橋 family into the care of Shimonogo Kyosai-kai 下郷共済会 in Shiga prefecture, which has preserved it to this day. While missing some chapters, this copy, according to a notation at the end of the text, was prepared in 1299 by Sangi Nakamikado no Munefuyu 中御門宗冬, the sixth generation grandson of Munetada. The manuscript used for this purpose was passed down from Munetada to his son Muneyoshi 宗能, then to the latter's son Muneie 宗家 ; and finally ended up in the archives of the Kujo family. The content of the jimoku Shidai consists of an explanation of the ritual order during the three days of official appointments and promotions in the spring, particulars for similar ceremonies held for capital officials (kyokan-jimoku 京官除目) and in extraordinary situations (rinji-jimoku 臨時除目), and finally a general summary of the whole ritual. The text has also been richly annotated with personal opinions, doubtful points and precedents set by former participants. Personages appearing in the work include Fujiwara no Tadazane 藤原忠実, Oe no Masafusa 大江匡房 and Minamoto no Toshifusa 源俊房. During the Nanboku-cho period, the Jimoku Shidai was quoted in the ceremonial writings, the Gyorogu-sho and Gyorogu-betsuroku 『魚魯愚抄』・『魚魯愚別録』, which listed it as Munetoshi-kyo-sho and Soseki-sho @俊卿抄E@赤抄 Munetoshi is of course Gondainagon Fujiwara no Munetoshi 権大納言藤原宗俊, the father of Munetada, which indicates that the main text may have been of his authorship. The fact that it was circulated as Munetada's Jimoku Shidai probably stems from the many annotations added by Munetada himself.
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  • Masaaki Yasuno
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1204-1229,1288-
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In dieser Arbeit beschaftigt man sich mit dem Vorbereitungs prozeB der Ministerprasidenten-Konferenz zu Munchen im Juni 1947. Die Konferenz, deren Initiative die bayerische Staatsregierung ergriffen hatte, sollte das erste Zusammentreffen der deutschen Ministerprasidenten aller vier Besatzungszonen werden. Aber schon beider Vorbesprechung von der Tagesordnung am 5./6. Juni verlieBen die Vertreter der sowjetischen Besatzungszone Munchen. So muBte die Konferenz schlieBlich nur unter Teilnahme der Ministerprasidenten der drei westlichen Besatzungszonen stattfinden. Ihr Resultat war eine Ankundigung der Spaltung Deutschlands. Nach den meisten Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte der Nachkriegszeit, die bis zur Mitte der '60er Jahre publiziert worden sind, sei die Konferenz unter dem Druck der Besatzungsherrschaft und des Ost-West Konfliktes gescheitert. Die Konferenz war dabei analysiert im Rahmen der Geschichte der Teilung Deutschlands, die sich hauptsachlich auf den internationalen Ost-West Konflikt bezieht. Aus diesem Blickwinkel beurteilte man die Konferenz als einen Fehlschlag. Neuere Forschungen, die seit den '60er Jahren erschienen sind, haben dagegen einen bis dahin vernachlassigten Aspekt der Konferenz hervor : ihre Wichtigkeit fur den Konflikt innerhalb der drei westlichen Besatzungszonen um die zukunftige Staatsgestaltung. Das Ziel der Arbeit ist, durch die Analyse der Reaktionen der verschiedenen politischer Krafte der Westzonen einen wesentlichen Aspekt der Vorgeschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland darzustellen. DemgemaB konzentriert man sich auf die Hintergrunde der Initiative Bayerns und die Haltung der SPD-Fuhrung und zu klaren, versucht, welche Rolle der Konflikt Foderalismus vs. Zertralismus beim VorbereitungsprozeB der Konferenz gespielt hat.
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  • Akira Yoshida
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1230-1237
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Shin-ichi Suzaki
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1238-1244
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Yasushi Aoki
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1245-1250
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1251-1261
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1262-1263
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1263-1264
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1265-1287
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1288-1291
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages 1292-
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages App1-
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 93 Issue 7 Pages Cover4-
    Published: July 20, 1984
    Released: November 29, 2017
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