SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 104 , Issue 2
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Tomohiro Furuoya
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 151-184,294-29
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the financial organization of the ritsuryo central government and the Emperor's involvement in and control of the administration of bureaucratic organization. During the 8th and 9th centuries, the regulations of Sokoryo (倉庫令) stipulated that orders for disbursement should be issued to the Okurasho (大蔵省), the Ministry of the Treasury, and the other ministries in the diplomatic form called Daijokan-pu (太政官符), while in reality these Daijokan-pu were delivered to Okurasho via Nakatsukasasho (中務省), the Ministry of Central Affairs, which transmitted the received orders to the Okurasho in the diplomatic form of Nakatsukasasho-i (中務省移). Being a body of very close attendants to the Emperor, the Ministry of Central Affairs was authorized to command the offices responsible for storing collected tribute. As an extension of this function, the officials of the Ministry were required to present themselves at the warehouses for inspecting receipts and disbursements. The ideal method of the Emperor's control over fiscal administration was that he should supervise in person the process of transforming collected tribute into central government revenue and paying expenditure from this revenue. It seems that the above-mentioned fiscal function of the Nakatsukasasho realized this ideal through the Emperor's indirect presence. However by the middle of the 10th century the system had changed considerably. It became possible for the central government to issue receipts for collected tribute without inspection and spend the tribute under certain administrative directions before it was delivered to the warehouse. Under this system financial affairs could be settled through the transfer of documents without transferring the tribute itself. Along with this change, the Nakatsukasasho was no longer involved in fiscal administration. The bureaucratic organization had obtained the capacity to perform its duties through the transfer of documents, independent of the Emperor's presence, whether it be direct or indirect through the Nakatsukasasho.
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  • Yasuhiro Yamada
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 185-203,293-29
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    This paper attempts to elucidate the gozensata 御前沙汰 proceedings during the late Muromachi era centering on Ashikaga Yoshiharu's regime, by analyzing two documents, tenikki 手日記 and ikenjo 意見状. The gozensata proceedings during this time worked as follows. When a suit was instituted, a group of bugyoshu 奉行衆 tried the case. Following this, the results of the trial and other information were announced to the shogun through the naidanshu 内談衆, the staff closest to him. The naidanshu was authorized to report their collective views about a variety of topics to the shogun. Until these collective views were compiled by the naidanshu, they had to undergo one of at least three types of proceedings. Once a consensus was reached, a nichigyoji 日行事, an official appointed from among the naidanshu, made a final draft of the collective statement in the form of a tenikki and reported it to the shogun. The naidanshu seems to have reported such consensus opinions whenever it liked. However, these views did not restrict the shogun's discretion, and the shogun had every power to reject any tenikki. Now, if a tenikki was a report from the naidanshu to the shogun, an ikenjo was a sort of report prepared by the bugyoshu, hereditary legal officials in the shogunate. Hiroshi Kasamatsu has analyzed these ikenjo records and voiced his view that the outcome of the shogunate proceedings during the late Muromachi era came to depend largely on the bugyoshu. However, a close look at gozensata records dating back to that time reveals some cases where the shogun rejected an ikenjo half-way during a trial and made a decision on his own. And it is difficult to say that the submission of an ikenjo "became a universal formality". Moreover, in the formality of report submission, it has been surmised that it was not the bugyoshu but the shogun (and the naidanshu) that took the leadership. For these reasons, the author cannot help but challenge Kasamatsu's view. However, it is true that an "ikenjo-centered principle" was on the rise in the shogunate during the late Muromachi era. It may be surmised that this is because of the following: in order for the shogunate to survive the serious political unrest during the late Muromachi era, it was essential for the shogunate to make itself more reliable as a dispute arbitrator. And, to that end, it had become vital to leave all decisions to ikenjo statements issued by the bugyoshu, who were legal experts, rather than the shogun and naidanshu. However, letting all decisions depend on ikenjo would have denied the shogun's discretion. In order to avoid this, one preventive measure was taken. While the rise of the "ikenjo-centered principle" resulted in some restrictions on the shogun's power to reject an ikenjo, provision was made to allow the leadership in handling the ikenjo to be taken not by the bugyoshu but by the shogun (and the naidanshu). This measure maintained the shogun's discretion somewhat. It is true that respect for the ikenjo was originally incompatible with the shogun centered principle, but the above preventive measure balanced these two elements in the gozensata proceedings during the late Muromachi era, thus keeping them somewhat compatible.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 203-
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Mari Fujii
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 204-225,291
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Les comptoirs de Saint-Louis, de Goree et de Saint-Joseph, etablis depuis la deuxieme moitie du 17^e siecle, furent des emplacements destines a la traite des Noirs. Ces comptoirs furent les lieux de contact et de rencontre entre la France et l'Afrique occidentale, et assurerent au deux mondes des relations economiques, sociales et politiques, directes et continues. Trois points majeurs. En premier lieu, l'administration de la concession du Senegal et la composition des residants. Sur la structure juridique de la concession, le present article etudie particulierement le reglement du 8 octobre 1734 de la Compagnie des Indes. Ce reglement stipula la creation du Conseil Superieur de la direction du Senegal a Saint-Louis, charge de l'administration generale au detriment de l'autorite du Directeur general. Cette mesure eut une grande influence sur la societe coloniale qui se specialisa sur le plan professionnel et qui se divisa progressivement en deux groupes distincts: l'un, francais qui dirigeait la concession et l'autre, indigene, pratiquant le commerce. En deuxieme lieu, la circulation des marchandises, en particulier les rapports etroits entre les flux des produits venus de France et les structures de l'economie senegalaise. Ensuite sera analysee les circonstances politico-sociales de l'Afrique occidentale qui expliquent le mecanisme de reproduction des esclaves. En troisieme lieu, les intermediaires indigenes qui assuraient la liaison entre la concession francaise et les regions interieures. Leurs reseaux et techniques commerciaux font apparaitre une nouvelle sphere economique. A travers l'analyse de ces differents elements, la traite des Noirs nons parait etre comme l'histoire des contacts entre deux "mondes": celui de l'habitation francaise au Senegal et celui de l'Afrique Noire.
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  • Sumio Hatano
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 226-234
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Hideaki Kikuchi
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 234-241
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Masanori Tsunakawa
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 242-251
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 252-253
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 253-254
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 255-
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (164K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 256-
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 257-258
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 258-259
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (260K)
  • Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 260-290
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 291-294
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (74K)
  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages Cover3-
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: February 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
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