SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 109 , Issue 1
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Atsushi KOTERA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 1-27,157-158
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    The research that has been done to date on marriage customs during the pre-Qin 先秦 period forms an enormous volume of literature;however, no standards of textual criticism concerning the one of the most frequently quoted source materials on the subject, the Zuo-Zhuan 左伝, exist to date. In the present article, the author applies Hirase Takao's content outline and "implicit" structural theory to the items in the Zuo-Zhuan concerning marriage, and investigates the geneologies of the major kingdoms. As a result of this analysis, the author shows that the work refutes the spouses and descendents of the Jiang 妾 family, a representative family of the Qi 斉 dynasty, showing a tendency towards breaks in lines of descent. Here, a "form" other than the form discovered by the Hirase can be indentified for the Zuo-Zhuan, in which the Lu 魯 and Jin 晋 Periud aristocrats, the San-Huan 三桓 and Jin period Han 韓, Wei 魏 and Zhao 趙, and the Jin period Han and Qi period Chen 陳 all correspond, forming a triplex structure. The Zuo-Zhuan contains items on marriage that degrades all families other than the Han, in order to legitimize the Han kings of the Warring States period as descendents of Han Xuan Zi 韓宣子. In addition, the marital evaluations contained in the relatively new tales and dialogues contained in the Zuo-Zhuan negate matrilineal lines deriving from the Ji 姫 name. Also, in pre-Qin times there are regions in which matrilineal blood lines were emphasized, as indicated in the extant bronze inscriptions and bamboo documents from the period. What this means is that checks existed against any attempt to legitimize one's authority based on a marital affiliation with a women with a Ji name, leading one to believe that the Zuo-Zhuan was ideologically opposed to the involvement of women in politics. The Zuo-Zhuan was thus a very politically influenced work utilized to legitimeze the power structure to which its editors advocated. On the contrary, other works of the Qi period, the Chun-Qiu 春秋 and Gong Yang Zhuan 公羊伝, for example, took positions concerning marriage contrary to the Zuo-Zhuan. It was in this way that the various kingdoms of the Warring States period attempted to legimitize their authority by either utilizing marital relations from the past or refuting those of their political rivals, a process within which views about marriage were gradually institutionalized and traditionalized for future generations. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind the fact that the concept of marriage went through a transition half way through the period.
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  • Noboru KARASHIMA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 28-30
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Keiji IMAMURA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 31-54,154-157
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    The Nihon Shoki records that Emperor Tenmu prohibited silver coins and ordered the use of only copper coins in A.D.683. Although the silver coins in question have been linked with round silver objects with a center hole, known as "plain silver coins, " the nature of the copper coins has remained an enigma. In January 1999, the Nara National Institute of Cultural Properties published the results of its archaeological discovery of copper coins marked with the characters fuhon from layers of the second half of the 7^&tl;th≷ century at Asuka-ike site, Nara Prefecture. This resolved the problem of the copper coins dated 683 and provided a secure starting point for rethinking the characteristics of early coinage in Japan. Silver coins of Wado-kaiho (or Wado-kaichin) issued from the fifth month of 708 have long been believed to be the first minted in Japan. From an ordinance of 721 and other records, it can be inferred that from the beginning they were assigned the face value of 1/4 liang (a weight unit of Tang China that was also adopted in Japan) of silver. Their real individual weights were less than 1/6 liang. So, Wado silvers, which were short of weight equivalent to their value, had the character of nominal money. The earlier plain silver coins were actually 1/4 liang in weight. The correspondence of the legal value of Wado silvers with the real weight of the plain silver coins cannot be accidental;therefore, we can infer from this that Wado silvers were supposed to be exchanged with the plain silver coins at a one to one ratio. After the first issue of Wado copper coins in the eighth month of 708, the Ritsuryo government promulgated a series of laws from 709 to 710 restricting, abolishing, and prohibiting the use of silver coins. The aim of these laws has not been sufficiently explained so far. From above inferred purpose of the issue of Wado silvers, the following policy can be assumed:the government aimed to obtain marginal profits by replacing the plain silver coins with Wado silvers, and then forcing the exchange of Wado silvers for Wado coppers, the value of which was fixed at a high rate. Almost all laws and social phenomena related to the issue of early coins can be clearly explained from this point of view. As a precondition to this policy, plain silver coins must have been circulating fairly widely and, as countable money, valued by quantity as well as weight. Accordingly, the former understanding of the plain silver coins as magical charms or primitive money used for exchange only by weight value on rare occasions is erroneous. The order of the year 683 was a precursor to the policy of replacing silver coins with copper ones that was enforced after the issue of the Wado coins. The effective withdrawal of the order after only three days by way of allowing "silver" suggests resistance to it resulting from the wellestablished use of the plain silver coins by that date. The increasing number of plain silver coins excavated recently from archaeological sites supports this hypothesis. As mentioned above, an almost identical policy was put into execution 25 years later, this time with a deliberate double-step program (from plain silver coins to Wado silvers, and then from Wado silvers to Wado coppers), which reveals that the circulation of fuhon copper coins was not as successful as the government had intended. The government pushed the policy of the suppression of silver coins and promotion of copper coins not only because of the shortage of silver but also because silver coins (even Wado silvers) could not be valued independently of the value of silver in China. By contrast, the government presumably thought it possible to control the monetary value of copper coins, heavier relative to their value compared to silver and cast in a distinct form. The government made efforts to maintain the value of copper coins at least ten times higher

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  • Akemi BANSE
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 55-80
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Motoka NISHIBEPPU
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 81-91
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Masatoshi SATO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 92-104
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Hiroki KIKUCHI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 104-114
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Minoru TAKADA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 114-124
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 124-
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 125-129
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 129-131
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 131-133
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 133-134
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 134-
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (147K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 135-
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 136-153
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages 154-158
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: January 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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