SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 86 , Issue 6
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (18K)
  • Shigeaki Ochi
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 873-908,1008-1
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper, is to clarify the following points : 1.The typical family (家) in the Han Period consisted of two different types. One type had as its nucleus an adult husband and his wife and in its entirety also had their minor sons. When the father grew old, each of the adult sons set up his own family with his own wife and sons. The parents were requested to belong to the family of one of their sons and to constitute, with an their sons, a loose patriarchal group, whose central ideas were filial piety (孝) and subservience to seniors (悌). The other type of family consisted of a father and his sons and was based on the ideas of filial piety (孝) and subservience to seniors (悌). This subservience to seniors was ideated and associated with loyalty (忠) to the Emperor (皇帝). 2.The first type of family mentioned appeared first in the Warring States Period, while the latter type first appeared in the Han Period and gradually increased in North China due to the method there of using cattle. The Han Dynasty made the former type of family the basis of its governance, while the latter type was made the basis of governance during the Three Kingdoms Period. 3.In the Han Period the government allowed the patriarchal group and the family of father and sons to conceal any crimes committed by their father (容隠). Yet, at the same time it established the principle of mutual responsibility in the eyes of the law, when either a father or son committed a crime. This principle in fact nullified the father's total rule over his sons and was related to the Han Dynasty's reliance on the former type. of family as the basis of its governance. 4.In the Han Period the economic interdependence was considered important among the families of brothers and among of fathers (who were brothers) and their sons. Such families differ from a modern nucleak family with its economic independence. The household (戸) of the household registers constituted. by all the brothers in the Han Period was conceived of in light of such economic interdependence.
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  • Yasuo Takahashi
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 909-950,1007
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    This article will deal with the various meanings of the road called Zushi (辻子) to illustrate certain features of urban development in Japanese history. It first considers Zushi linguistically, studying its orthography, pronunciation, meaning, and origin. It then becomes clear that Zushi derived from Juji (十字) which meant crossroads in the Heian Period. Zushi then did mean a small road, but it also came to mean a newly developed road formed according to principles quite different from those of Heiankyo's traditional system of roads and blocks (Heiankyo Jobo-sei 平安京条坊制). So, this meaning of Zushi thus expresses changes in the nature of the Heian capital. In the medieval period, Zushi acquired the new meaning of a new block, as we see in the growth of Zushi-go (辻子郷) in Nara and Zushi-cho (辻子町) in Kyoto. Thus, Zushi were very instrumental in the formation of new streets and towns at a time when in the Tensho period (1513-1591) the new city planning of Kyoto began and when the redevelopment of towns played an important role in the urban development of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. New words like Tsukinuke (突抜) and Shinmichi (新道), which were formed during the urban development of the Edo period, were words that were really nothing but a fresh expression of the word Zushi.
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  • Shunsui Aono
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 951-976,1006
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
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    Under the Jinarashi system in the Hiroshima clan there were three different systems : the village type Jinarashi, the clan and village type Jinarashi, and the clan type Jinarashi. The purpose of the Jinarashi system was to make up the difference between the actual output and the output recorded in the Kenchicho (検地帳) and also to equalize the profits and losses of the farming population. In addition, it aimed at practicing the Eidairoku (永代禄) system and increasing the receipts from tribute and property rent. The village type Jinarashi was carried out by farmers on a village unit ; the clan and village type Jinarashi by a clan and village ; and, the clan type Jinarashi by a clan. The difference between a village's fixed output (村高) and the Jinarashi's fixed output was made up through manipulation of the Todai (斗代) or the establishment of the Katugidaka (〓高) system. The Jinarashi system in the Hiroshima clan started as the village type Jinarashi in 1649 and then developed into the clan and village type Jinarashi in about 1704 due to the gradual involvement of the clan in its affairs. In 1736 the clan type Jinarashi was enforced in all of Akichi and Kyuchi villages but later abolished due to dissatisfaction from some Kyunin (給人) and from leading farmers in October, 1737. A clan and village type Jinarashi was then adopted and lasted until 1869. At the villages where the Jinarashi system was carried out it only once failed to achieve its aim. Such a failure was due to the inability of lowering the tribute and property rent of the whole village and the village's heavy expense in bearing its costs. Thus, the writer has tried to study the Jinarashi from a broad perspective through the Jinarashi, the Katugi, the Kenchisei (検地制), and the Warichisei (割地制).
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  • Y. Morita
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 977-984
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 985-986
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 986-987
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 987-988
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 989-1005
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages 1006-1008
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    1977 Volume 86 Issue 6 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: October 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
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