The present writer's last thesis “Nuclear Family Theory and Japanese Families” (Keisu Kenky (Case Study) Nos. 77, 78; 1963), a criticism upon the nuclear family theory, was recriticized by Dr. K. Morioka in his “Utility of Nuclear Family Theory” (ditto No. 81 ; 1964) from the standpoint of an advocate of the same theory. The following article is a review of the latter and a reassertion of the former, and stress is laid upon these six points. 1) Criticism is significant by way of promoting science. 2) The utility of nuclear families as Idealtypus is restricted to the process of their modernization. 3) Comtemporary families actually and potentially contain such units as single, conjugal, sibling, father-children, and mother-children, households. 4) 'Extended family' does not always mean a composite form of nuclear families. 5) Accordingly, the classification of households for the sake of studying comtemporary families should be as follows : I. One-generation Household (() =Head) 1. Single household ((M). (F).) 2. Conjugal household ((H) W, H (W)) 3. Sibling household (e.g. (Br) Br (2) Si (1)) II. Two-generation Household 1. Father-child (ren) household (e.g. (F) -C) 2. Mother-child (ren) household (e.g. M- (C)) 3. Parents-child (ren) ('nuclear') household (e.g. H (W) -C) 4. Other two-generation households (e.g. (An) -Nep.) III. Three-generation Household 1. Household whose first generation is spouseless (e.g. GM- W-C) 2. Household whose second generation is spouseless or entirely lacking. (e.g- (GF) GM-M-C, (GF) GM- (none) -GC) 3. Household whose first generation is spouseless, and whose second generation is spouseless or entirely lacking (e.g. GF- -GC) 4. Household whose first and second generations are complete (e.g. (GF) GM-MF-GC) IV. Four-and-more-genaration Household (Left out) 6) In most of the traditional theories of household composition, midnight has been fixed as its time-basis, but in studying the composition of contemporary families, other points of time in a day should be taken into account.
This paper deals with a monograph of a fishing village (Minamihama-buraku) on the coast of an isolated island (Rishiri) in Hokkaido. Since 1955, Minamihama-buraku has experienced a great change on the forms of fishing and the population structure due to the decrease of fish and the increased demand for labor in the large cities in Japan. In the process of this social change, we find the types of migration as follows : I. Permanent Migration (Rural Exodus) A : Exodus of a whole family (“Kyoka-rison”) B : Exodus of a member or members of a family (“Rika-rison”) Rika-rison can be divided into two types according as its structure : 1) the husband-wife unit migration 2) the single migration II. Temporal Migration (“Dekasegi” --Seasonal labor in a different place) While “Kyoka-rison” is observed among the upper classes in the village, “Rika-rison” of the single member (including the eldest and the other sons) is seen without any connection with the economic basis of the family, and as a new type, “Rika-rison” of the husband-wife unit has occurred recently. In the days of a good haul of fish, the number of family members was large on account of the neccessity of labor force in the fishing season, and when fishermen were free from fishing labor, some of them, especially sons other than the eldest went to another place to work. However, many of them have left home and event the householder and the eldest son are now going to “Dekasegi”. This is a process for turning over to other industry. Thus, “Dekasegi” which had been practiced in order to lessen the members of family as a consumptive unit has assumed such a positive character as to earn wages to support the household economy. As a result of the above-mentioned migration, types of families covering three generations have decreased in number and the new type of the family consisting only of an old couple is now frequently found. What we have found is the interrelationship between the family types and the forms of fishing. 1. All of one-generation families belong to the lowest class which has no motor-boat for fishing. Here in this village, one-generation family consists of a branch family (“Bunke”) and the family whose eldest son has left home. 2. Many of the two-generation families are engaged in the cooperative fishing with families of the same type. In this type of family, the main supporter is either the husband or the eldest son. Whether this type becomes the type of one-generation family or that of three-generation family depends on the presence of the successor in fishery. 3. Three-generation families are in this village engaged in the most wide-scale fishery and the eldest son is taking the main role for production in the family. We can observe the change in the cooperative system. Until now economic and social cooperation was practised by means of kindship relation, but it has now changed into a mutual aid system based on ties of neighborhood and locality. This change coincides with the weakening of social control of a main family (“Honke”) over a branch family (“Bunke”).
For our harmonious common life, conflict is harmful in itself. Although various regulations to the conflict situations have been adopted and accumulated since ancient times, this conflict problem has become increasingly a complex and deep-seated one today. In our theoretical heritage, Social Evolutionism, Historical materialism, German Formalistic Sociology and American Psycho-Sociology have all approached this serious problem. But contemporary sociological theory lacks in the evaluation, acceptance and development of that heritage. Thus this paper places stress on the point that we must deal with a vital whole of social life both in form and move. If it is desirable that we sociologists approach not only to the pattern of social actions, social relations and social groups but also to the moving process in which they become, develop, re-form and strand, we must take account of “social process” and then “oppositional process” as our analytical apparatus. Primarily the social reality is a complex whole of both cooperation and opposition. Therefore, we designate the equilibrating state of these principal processes and other secondary processes as our analytical starting point. That is the social system. Its probability of order is called a structure and its dynamism is called a process. The concept of social structure (not necessarily social structure) or social process (also not necessarily societal process) is an analytical tool in our “theoretical model”. It is most important, anyway, that a social system is able to exist as an equilibriate process or a stable structure comprising its internal contradictions and oppositions.
There are a number of studies on the life-situation in our country. The most elaborate study was concerned with the economy of domestic life, mainly reported from an economic standpoint. It laid stress on the two points, i.e. the standard of living and the way of life. But, recently, the life-situation has been investigated from the sociological standpoint. It emphasizes the problem of situation of individuals in field of reference group, participation in groups, group identification, life space, particularly construction in time and space. In this paper, we shall comment on this socialogicol theory of the life situation-the theory of life setting (seikatsu-kozo) -considering the individual's behavior in relation to his life setting. This term “life setting”, as we shall use it, refers to the situation with which the individual or the group has to deal in any process of activity. With regard to the situation, this activity is planned and its results appreciated. This conception, therefore, contains a set of values and attitudes in conditions of daily life under which we have to act. The life setting involves two kinds of data. 1) The objective conditions under which individuals have to act, in short, the problem of social structure. 2) The mechanism of how the pre-existing or existing values (of individuals or groups) affect the individual behavior directly or indirectly. This is the problem of the integration of values. When we investigate problems of this type we must be concerned with the differences of life setting in terms of regionalism, generation and class which must place restrictions on the individual's behavior, consciously or unconsciously.