Japanese Development has two meanings in its term. Which is right the term of “Development” with Prof. Okada ask for us human or social ecology insist on Hatten or Kaihatsu. According to my personal opinion, ecology stand for control the Development of nature, but it has the meaning Hatten has not Kaihatsu. Because, Japanese speciality of “Mujokan” conclude the factor of Hatten concerning the social change gradually. After modern recent time, in our country, human ecology appeared with “Development” means Kaihatsu-a study facilitate Development. I wish to inquire into the reason of Kaihatsu about social ecology in Japan. The notion of Kaihatsu about Japanese social ecology are due to modern recent time merchant's worth living and highest order in Japan Merchant-Chonin-their economic action to aquire his own interests. Merchant-Chonin, at that time in Japan operate the class of samurai, ruler of Japanese feudalism society behind their back, so their remote control based on financial ability, consist on the notion of Kaihatsu in Japan. Supremacy of Japanese Merchant-Chonin, with ecomomic aspect, they have the initiative of social change and continuation. Meet the Japanese restoration era in Meiji, Merchant-Chonin and low class samurai, Powerlessness people in the old feudal government, changing suddenly, jump on the surface of social structure. Add to European Depression for Japan, fallen in us crisis to keep the independent of our country, the action of pursuit of Private benifit, and profit becomes to advance to belief. Under the mask of serve take off and establish the national capitalism, public interest and public welfare, merahant deed of profit acqwsition makes furn into outhodox thought of Japanese people. Seek after private interests look upon always goodness, absolutely. Our traditional “Mujokan” means Hatten, change into Kaihatsu at that aspect. We have to gaze, what is remain behind take away from the recent modern time comouflaged worth of Living and conception of the world, lead by commercialism consist on since middle era of Tokugawa feudalism society. I take up enlightenment philosopher Yukichi Fukuzawa, for the purpose of research for the Japanese traditional view of value, penetrate for “Mujo-kan” -through, the “Mu” -nothing accomplish the self realize without pursuit our own interest-possessed with aquire material world or make for tune. If that the case of calling of economic amimal toward the Japanese, found on our tradition, our racial spirit and natonality?
The aim of 'sociology of science' is to investigate the social and cultural factors having influence on the development of science, especially on natural science. This discipline was originated from R.K. Merton's work, “Science, Technology & Society in 17th century England” (1938). In this work, Merton made a research in the social-cultural environment of natural science stood at macroscopic point of view. After world war II, Merton's research was focused on the function of scientific communities, i.e. societies of scientists. In this context, the tacit assumptions brought in by him and his disciples are (1) the function of scientific communities is the most important factor having influence on the development of science, (2) the real scientific method is the organized empirical method, (3) scientists always migrate from one research area to another so that they can 'produce' articles much effectively and gain high reputation. In 1970's, new groups of sociology of scientists began to criticize these points. One of main trends is channeled by T. Kuhn's “paradigm thesis”. This group made an assertion that science did not develop continuously, but that the mode of science changed discontinuously and in a Gestalt-like way. Sociologists of this group are investigating the inner structures of scientific communities from the empirical point of view. In this approach, one of the most useful techniques is regarded to be 'co-citation analysis' adopted by H.G. Small.