The problem of human relations in industry considered here is principally that of the intensity of interpersonal relations in the work place. A tentative plan is suggested for a method of measuring these relations, and is examined for its methodological significance by comparison with sociometry and the social distance measurement.
In the consolidation of the modern state, advanced sections of the community often lead other, less-advanced ones and sometimes enforce consolidation by conquest. In Japan, the four feudal clans of Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa and Higo formed a state through a secure consolidation with the emperor system, and thus brought into being a nation ruled by a feudal clique.
In South-eastern Asia the Annamites have a unique “Communal Property System” (village communal land). This is not a relic of an originally communistic system, but was developed to cope with the population problem. The later increase of population made this system meaningless, but it continued to Persist even after Annam became a French possession because they left the country economically retarded. This system will suffer the sane fate as the “Mir” of Tsarist Russia and disappear with economic development.
Buddhist priest, as a general rule, had to live a single life, but in the Shinshu sect marriage is allowed them. Accordingly, temples have tended to be inherited by the sons of priests, and it is difficult to distinguish the social organization of the temple and that of the family. Such individual families very frequently are part of an extended family group. An outstanding example was the “Ikkeshu”, the extended family group of the Honganji, one of the main temples of the Shinshu sect.
This paper is a critique of Prof. Tadashi Fukutake's article on the family appearing in the recent publication “Feudal Remnants” edited by the Jimbun Kagaku Kai. The criticisms are : 1) MacIver's conception of the family, which Prof. Fukutaka uses, is ambiguous and unclear, and Prof. Fukutake's interpretation of MacIver's ideas is believed to be open to discussion. 2) It is possible to consider that change in the family lags behind that in other institutions, a phenomenon seen even in American and European societies. The source of this lag is related to the fundamental nature of the family.
Fishing communities are generally more backward than agricultural communities. This feature seems to drive from natural conditions and from the high degree of intermarriage within fishing villages. As a result, stagnation takes place. At the same time, new cultural elements are imported from more advanced communities, especially as a result of temporary emigration for work, forced by the pressure of population. Thus an urban and progressive character is introduced to the fishing village. The simpler the community, the clearer is this contradiction. Consequently, in such villages the fishermen have something of a gambler's spirit. While the men who combine fishing and agriculture are more farmers than fishermen, sticking to the earth and living prudent lives.