A great many people have discussed and made investigations on higher education, but few of them have pain attention to the nepotism and paternalism in the Japanese academic world. Radical student political movement and academic freedom are of course seriously important, but these problems will not be solved until we improve the quality of college professors and eliminate the pre-modern elements in the Japanese academic world. We have studied career patterns of college professors these five years and some of our previous findings were already published in the following publications : Nippon no Daigakukyoju Shijo (Academic Marketplace in Japan), 1965 ; Asahi Journal, Vol. 5, No. 47, Nov. 24, 1963 ; Comparative Study of Career Paterns of College Professors, International Review of Education, Vol. X, No. 3, 1964. In order to make a more detailed study on the relationship between education and career, the recruitment system, and the promotion system of professors in universities or colleges of various countries, we sent about 2, 000 questionnaires to professors in about 40 countries. About half of them were randomly chosen from the contributors to the latest academic journals in each country, and the another half were sampled from the World of Learning 1964-65. The questionnaire consists of the following three parts : 1) personal history : age ; birth place ; citizenship ; education ; occupational career ; annual income ; position or status ; scholarly achievement. 2) social origins : father's education and father's occupation 3) administration and others : formal licence required for college professors such as German Habilitation or French Agrégation ; procedure of getting the doctor's degree ; the average age of getting degree ; the average age of getting degree ; the average standard and procedure of application for employment ; the procedure of appointment and promotion. The response rate was about 40 per cent. Because it was extremely difficult to get the accurate adresses of the respondents, the response rate was much lower than we had expected. Therefore the following analysis of the academic world cannot represent the whole situation in each country. We mainly analysed full professors in the following major countries : The U.S.A. ; the U.K. ; France ; Germany ; Italy ; Australia ; Canada. The responce rates in these countries were higher than average and the number of the respondents in these countries were large enough to be analysed independently.
The major hypotheses of this study were formulated within the institutional theoretical framework. The relationship between the total average scores of scaling items and the transforming ratings were obtained within the instutional continuum -the most traditional versus the least traditional. Within the consequences of their assimilation and cultural acculturation into the American society, the generational differences are positively associated with the changing pattern of their marriage and family-relationships from traditional-authoritarian to democratic-equalitarian. Conclusively, the suggestive interpretation of the results of the present study will be as follow ; 1. Most of the Issei immigrants who came from the rural folk societies in Japan worked in the fields or on the land in certain rural areas in the United States and thus difficulties in getting professional occupations in urban areas. 2. The Nisei (second generation) families are more mobile than Issei (first generation) families horizontally and vertically. Through the interaction with heterogeneous social factors and accomodation to the American middle-class value system, Niseis and Sanseis are fast losing the traditional pattern of marriage and family relationship. This can be seen especially among Sanseis since they have almost completely lost the conceptual of the traditional household (Ie). 3. Issei families were able to keep traditional and stable ways of family life within the ethnic group, but not Niseis and Sanseis. These results manifest that the traditional pattern of the family had shifted to accomodate to new generational forces. 4. Because of poor educational backgrounds and socio-economic status, Isseis were enthusiastic about giving higher education to their children. Among Issei generation the children were the center of their concern. On the other hand, Niseis realized the poor conditions of an Issdi's life in the pioneer period and tried to express their appreciation toward Isseis by emphasizing the traditional attitudes of filial piety. However, among most of the Sanseis, the center of their concern transformed from the family line to individuality. 5. While younger generations are adopting and assimilating into the larger society, the social bases for maintaining the Japanese traditional cultural heritage have been weakened. Most of Niseis' grand-parents did not reside in the United States. On the other hand, even if Sanseis' grand-parents are in the United States, they have much difficulties of verbal communication between them.
Wir können die soziologischen Analysen der Gesellschaft in den swei Formen etwa folgendermassen kennseichnen : 1. Wir können nicht die Gesellschaft ohne die gewisse Integration durch gemeine Normen denken. Die soziologischen Theorien müssen die Prozesse behandeln, die eine Ordnung erhalten. 2. Wir können die Gesellschaft ohne deen gewissen Konflikt infolge der Verteilung unzureichender Güter denken. Die soziologischen Analysen müssen die Prozesse behandeln, die eine Teilung der Interessen strukturieren und verwirklichen. Unter diesen zwei soziologischen Analysen ist R. Dahrendorf, der soziales System von T. Parsons kritisiert, für den Konfliktstheoretiker gehalten geworden. Durch die Erforschung seiner Aufsätze halte ich aber seinen Standpunkt für einen Kompromissmus. (Damit bei der Erklärung seines Integrations- und Konfliktsmodells müssen wir bemerken, dass er nicht einen Begriff “Autorität” in Betracht zieht.) Aber Dahrendorfs Kompromissmus ist nicht angemessen, weil er seine Modelle bloss komplementär zu verwenden versucht. Daher ist die Überwindung dieser unzulänglichkeit seiner Theorien mein Anliegen und als geeignetes Beispiel dazu will ich den analytischen Begriff “Betrib” von Shelsky ansehen. Der Betrieb hält in sich gleichzeitig die Integration und den Konflikt und auch bezeichnet vielen Ambivalenzstrukturen. Ich denke, dass wir den Kompromissmus nicht von komplementären Theorien von Integration und Konflikt, sondern von Synthesis beider Theorien positiv entwickeln können.