(1) I wrote up this treatise as a prart of my treatise, “The Nature and Function of the systematic theory in sociology, and, the Structural-Functional-Historical Method of the Social System, and particularly the method of the Structural-Functional Requisite Analysis-on the focus on my understanding of the sociological methodological theory of suck the recent American structural-functionalist, as parsons and Levy, etc, on the social system. (2) this time, I have handled the general nature and function of the systematic theory, and the structural-functional method of parsons. I have presented and interpreted it in dividing three parts : (1) The character of the systematic theory. (2) the function and the final aim of the systematic thory, and particularly the fundamental systematic thory, or the fundamental conceptual scheme. (3) I have refered to his treatises : ” The present position and prospects of systematic theory in sociology “” The position of sociological theory “., in Talcott Parsons Essays in sociological theory, pure and Applied 1949, ” Values Motives and systems of Action., : in Parsons and Shils (edt), Toward a General Theory of Action, 1951, and 1st chapter of “The social system” 1951. (4) The aim of this study-I have projected this study as a methodological work for my understanding of the structural-functional theory of the social system. (5) My criticism of the thought of Parsons and the problems whether this method is valid or not for the systematic observation and deseription and explanation of the structure and change of the social system as a whole is left after I shall present the structural-functional method of Levy and others. particularly in connection with my coneret study of social systems.
I, Though the functional social theory of Malinowski consists in the analysis of those processes in which basic needs of human organism are satisfied, in its very nature, the derived need-satisfaction processes also form another part of his theoretical subjects, To him culture appears at once as a vast instrumental apparatus for needs-satisfaction, and as an organisation of community members, but both these aspects must be melted away into basic needs-satisfaction processes of individual organism, and this needs-satisfaction defines the concept of function. Therefore, it is, on the one hand, needs referring to in finite extents of culture and human nature, and the organisation of “institution” in his paradigma only roughly conceived on the other, which the criticism by the french school in social anthropology is directed to. II, Radcliff-Brown standing for the french school, composes his own functional theory upon a series of sociological concepts, among which social system, social structure and social status are characteristic in contrast with those of Malinowski's culture, institution and human organism. The former refers the concept of function to the sociological level of approach, and defined it as a contribution done by some item of social process to the integrative maintenance of a social system, drawing down the function as “basic needs-satisfaction” from the front stage. III, This contrast forms a polemic polarity in functional anthropology. But it must be modified to make a crucial conceptual means in sociology possessed with the complexity of object-realm and disciplinary tradition. So Merton elaborates the paradigma of functional categories, to which corresponds Parsons' sophisticated structural categories of the social system. Sociologising processes of the functionalism, however, are at the same time to be seen as a remoulding process of the latter to a sociology as a special social science. Parsons manage to deal with the social system starting from the voluntaristic aspect of social action to derive institutionalised value patters by means of combinating 5 pattern-variables, but he does not ask about the contents of those patterned value structure, and the concept of function, therefore, is defined only in accord with the continuum of conformity-deviance showed in mechanisms of socialisation and social control. This tendency to some normative patternism may be apparent in contrast with the concept of functional system in Maclver's sociology. Functional system as particular historical institutional complexes means a considerable modification of above reflected series of functional social theories.
Sociological studies of language can be divided into two main classes. One is the study of the language in general especially taking its social functions into consideration and the other is that of a language in relation to a particular society. Since these studies, however, are mainly interested in its phenomenal descriptions, they can not explain the causes bringing about various types of languages and their changes, but only understand or interpret them. If they try to pursue its causes, they must have recourse to some assumptions which are often of psychological nature. Nevertheless a language must be treated as a social fact which has its own raison d'etre. So it has to be explained by itself, that is, in its own term without resorting to such an assumption. 1) We must be careful to reseach a language as a whole, because dividing it into units must not lead to the vanishment of the nature of totality. It must keep the nature even when it is operationally divided into its constructive units. What is this nature ? It consists in the fact that it is a pattern, which means an organization, for example, an arrangement in such a form as a sequence of time-series. In short, it may be taken for granted that a language is a patterned form of representation, which is possible only by an arrangement of its representation elements. So we must bivide a language into its representation elements and (re-) integrate them into a pattern. We, sociologists, must be interested in this way of (re-) integration. 2) But there are three levels of the study of language corresponding to the levels distinguished by Weaver, which will presumably correspond to the levels of integration ; that is. (1) technical level of communication, (2) semantic level, (3) effectiveness level. Therefore, we must choose the technique appropriate to each level. Now, while level (1) is included in the statistical information theory, (2) must be treated by the semantic information theory, because the probability theory which corresponds to these two levels respectively must be distinguished ; the former is the statistical one and the latter the inductive. By the statistical description of a language, we can explain the objective aspect apart from its meaning and by the description of its inductive probability the subjective one, that is, the aspect of its meaning. On the basis of these descrption, we shall concern with level (3), that is, the behaviorial or effective aspect of a language. However, in this paper we shell concentrate our attention only to the problems of the former two, because only by the establishment of the logical foundation of description, we can proceed on the problem of causality empirically.
This article treats of the social structure of “Sumiyaki Buraku”, to observe the evidences with reference to composition of status and social changes in the community brought about by the introduction of charcaol-making and its management. We shall take an example from one of the communities lying in the south-western side of the foot of Mt. Fubo on the southern board of the Zao's. This survey was done at Yokokawa, Shitigasakimura, Kattagun, Miyagiken in Dec., 1954 and July, 1955. The interview and the case study methods were used. The results of this survey are as follows : Among the mountains of the Ou range in Tohoku district there have developed in many places small communities depending for their livelihood on the utilization of natural resources. But for the physical and geographical reasons the utilization was limited to such an extent that it seems to be so precarious as compared with the development of agriculture. Therefore the utilization has been managed to carry on together with self-supporting agriculture which always had its basis on narrow mountains-wamps of poor productivity. These atagnant states of production apparently indicate the insecure livelihood of the inhabitants, and it can easily be imagined that their living system would easily be disorganized, once they face some new and unfamiliar situations. Many gradual changes have, of course, been made so far in improving their ways of production by the constant aplication of various effective elements. With the recent change of economic system which made the source of money-income necessary and indispensable to maintaintheir means of living, and with the improvement of roads and transportation facilities (by trucks), merchantile utilization of woods-products has been magnified and these small communites are now each showing its own peculiar sign of progress.