Parsons' Theory in his latter half indicates his works about after 1960. They consist mainly of 1. structural-functional analysis and its revised theory, as it were, structural-processual analysis, 2. neo-evolutionism theory, which includes the theory of evolutional universals, evolutional change (differenciation, adaptive-upgrading, inclusion, value-generalization), 3. pattern variables revisited, four functional paradigm which is reconstructed by new framework ; external-internal, instrumental-consummatory, 4. a paradigm of the human condition (Physico-chemical system ; A, human organic system ; G, action system ; I, telic system ; L). Parsons convicted that the four functional paradigm has universal applicability everytime and everywhere. This is a kind of Weltanschauung outside of scientific world. We can find there his theory's limitation. But we believe that value of his achievement in theoretical sociology never diminish.
According to my opinion, the construction of the social theory needs to synthe-size the theory of action and the theory of social system. This view agrees with Parsons' conception. But the theory of Parsons fails to explain fully the interrelations of action and “Handlungszusammenhang” i.e. social order. This task is, however, the problem assigned to Parsons but also to the modern sociology as a whole. For the basic feature of the social theory lies in the attempt to set both “Subjektiv gemeinter Sinn” and the social structure into the view. N. Luhmann suggests that in order to explain actions, the theory of social system in general should be integrated with the conception of action, which pays attention to actors' “Subjektiv gemeinter Sinn”, and that at the same time the theory of action needs to be based on the theory of social system. Anyway, Luhmann thinks of “Konstitutionszusammenhang von Handlung and System” with the help of concepts of “Selbstreferenz” of the social system and “Basale Selbst-referenz” of actions. From this perspective, Luhmann thinks that the basic conception of the theory of social system makes a new approach to “actions” possible. In this thesis, an attempt is made to discuss the central point of Luhmann's theory.
Symbolic interactionism deals with social interactions mediated by symbols. It tries to clarify human subjectivity produced by “interpretative” process. Here is a main characteristic of this theory. This paper considers developments of symbolic interactionism in macro-level of society. Symbolic interactionism has been thought of as a micro-scopic approach. But G.H. Mead, H. Blumer and many other symbolic interactionists have treated of macro-level problems. Symbolic interactionism is possible to clear up human subjectivity in macro-level. A concept of “generalized other” is useful to do it. And the image of society in symbolic interactionism is not a fixed, static “social structure”, but a fluid, dynamic “social process”. With the idea of “society as process”, macro-level society can be regarded as negotiations among actors, and as ongoing process including social changes.
So long as we approve of a study from the point of middle range theory, a study of sociological theory must involve three parts of the 1st Concept Analysis, the 2nd Theory Analysis and the 3rd Proposition Analysis. Now, though we can't elaborate these three parts clearly enough, tentatively we will give the following directions for them. That is to say, so provisionally. Concept Analysis =Analysis of the Concept itself which constructs theories and and/or propositions. Theory Analysis =Analysis of the limit and/or the effective range with the theory itself : Proposition Analysis =Analysis of the proposition itself which constructs theory and/or is infered from theory. Now then, in the present prevailing study of sociological theory, I think that we have a great lack of Proposition Analysis. So, in this paper, I concentrate my attention on Durkheim's egoistic suicide proposition and attempt make a Proposition Analysis about it from the point of the relationships between suicide and war in Japan during the period 1929-1939. And the outcome of Proposition Analysis on egoistic suicide proposition is as following. 1. Suicide rate decreases in the war time. 2. Unemployment rate decreases in the war time. 3. Because of that (findings 2), suicide rate decreases in the war time. 4. But decrease of suicide rate in the war time significantly has been caused by social integration which Durkheim's egoistic suicide proposition insisted on.