This conference paper gives a brief and up-to-date review on physiology and psychology of vision. It is composed of eight chapters as follows : Visual area of cortex, development of visual system, eye movemnet and eyeball, organization of visual features, occluded line and edge, perception of motion, attention and eye blinking.
This paper describes a new audio system to control sound-image distance for 3D TV using arrayed loudspeakers. When every sound wave from the loudspeakers focuses at a point just in front of listeners, a sound-image appears near the focal point. Its auditory perceived distance depends on the relative power of the waves coming directly to the focus. It means that total radiation of the loudspeaker array should be low in order to produce a sound-image close to listeners. Our simulations show that each loudspeaker should be arrayed apart half a wavelength to each other.
We measured ocular accommodation and vergence eye movement simultaneously stimulated by the Parallax Barrier stereoscopic display, using the infrared optometer and EOG. Although vergence is stable, accommodative response stimulated with stereoscopic display shows occurrences of large overshoot and the unstable fluctuations in the steady state in some cases.
In the present study, binary image stimuli with and without face, subtending a visual angle of 10deg×7deg, were presented on the CRT. The binary images were composed of skin color and green or blue and green. Stimulus duration was 0.25s. Three kinds of binary images were prepared equal-brightness condition, equal-luminance condition, and the condition in which green component is darker than the other. In each condition images were presented in positive and negative images. In the detection test, stimuli with face and without face were presented in random order, and the subject responded whether he/she saw a face (yes) or not (no) and in case of yes they answered the position of the face in the image. The lowest percent correct was seen in the equal-luminance negative condition. In all the conditions, stimuli of binaried set of skin color and green showed higher percent correct than those of blue and green. Deterioration of correct response in the negative images is larger in skin color and green than that in blue and green combination. Thus it is suggested that skin color has some kind of superiority in face detection than other colors.
In this study, we investigate whether color and brightness of object affect the memory of object pattern. In the experiment, the stimuli composed of four simple object patterns were presented 800 msec and after 10 sec delay, the observer was instructed to recall the object patterns by drawing them on the answer sheet. Four chromatic (red, yellow, green, or blue) and four achromatic (white, light gray, dark gray, or black) stimuli were used. In the chromatic stimuli, the object patterns and the background gray were matched in brightness for each color. In all the stimuli, perceived sharpness of edges of the object patterns were equalized experimentally. The present results were compared with those of the previous experiment in which perceived shrapness was not matched among stimuli. In the recall experiment, red and blue showed higher correct response than yellow and green in the chromatic stimuli consistent with the previous results indicating that not a sharpness of the edges but color difference between the object and background or saturation of the object is an important factor in pattern memory. In contrast to that, no significant difference was found in the achromatic stimuli in the present study whereas white showed higher score than grays and black in the previous result indicating that not a brightness contrast between the object and background but perceived sharpness of the edges of the object patterns contribute to pattern memory in achromatic stimuli.