Dams have played a central role in water and energy development in the last few centuries in various part of the world. At the same time, it also has increasingly recognized that dams also had negative impacts on human life and ecosystems on Earth. Recent argument on large dams on a global scale highlighted a sharper contrast between costs and benefits of large dams, involving a wide range of stakeholders. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) was established to review the development effectiveness of large dams and prepare internationally acceptable standards and guidelines on dams planning, construction and operation. Its final report was published in November 2001, including the global review of large dams, and recommendations for future decision making on development. The report received varied reactions from organizations involved in dam issues, but based on the information and materials produced through the process, coordinated follow-up was requested by the WCD stakeholders. At this request, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been preparing the “Dams and Development Project (DDP)” which will assist each stakeholder in following up the WCD in sharing and exchanging information on large dams. As a country with many dams existing, under construction or planned, further discussions and dialogues among multi-stakeholders in Japan could be conducted based on the WCD materials and in association with future dialogues at the international level, particularly through DDP.