Polyvinyl acetate emulsions stabilized with soap have a considerable resistance against the coagulation due to the addition of sodium sulfate solution. These coagulation behaviours have been easily observed by means of capillary chromatography. In case of emulsions stabilized with nonionic soaps of polyethylene oxide type, the stabilization effect was found to increase with increase in chain length of ethylene oxide in the soap, and also found that lauryl ether type soaps had better effect on the stability than nonylphenyl ether type.
Authors investigated the separation of even-numbered (C12C18), normal aliphatic alcohols by means of reversed phase paper chromatography. Liquid paraffin or kerosene (bp 185215°C) was used for the stationary phase, and various concentrations of aqueous acetic acid as the mobile phase. The chromatogram was allowed to run on Toyo-roshi No. 2 paper at 68°C. It was found that kerosene was better for the stationary phase than liquid paraffin and mixtures of the alcohols could be separated satisfactorily by employing 8095% acetic acid as the developing agent.
Lately, in Japan, “a crude ustilagic acid” was formed from glucose by Ustilago maydis, and the acid can be used as raw material for synthetic musk, exaltolide, or may be for synthetic polymers. In this paper, authors have studied about the separation method of methylustilate A and B, obtained by methanolysis of “ustilagic acid”, and also about the quantitative analysis of ustilic acid A and B by potentiometric titration. By means of column chromatography, using silica gel absorbed with 7% of water and methanolchloroform (5 : 95) solution as an eluent, good separation was achieved into three fractions, I, II and III. These were confirmed as that I is a mixture of lower fatty acid esters by gas-chromatography and IR-spectra and II (mp 8485°C, no lowering in melting point was seen by mixing with Lemiuexs' sample ; C 67.02%, H 11.41%, νc=0 1738 cm-1) is methylustilate A, and III (mp 73.575.0°C ; C 63.80%, H 10.71%, νcc=0 1714 cm-1 and the same IR-spectra was shown by Lemiuex) is methylustilate B. Ustilic acid A and B were derived and confirmed. Among them, methylustilate A alone showed the characteristic bands in its IR-spectra. The mixture of ustilic acid A and B could be analysed quantitatively by potentiometric titration of pyridine or dimethylformamide solution of the acids, using tetra-n-butyl-ammoniumhydroxide in iso-propanol as a titrant and a combination electrode of the glass-electrode and saturated calomel reference electrode. In preparation of the sample for analysis, some care must be taken so as to remove lower fatty acids or their methylesters by steam distillation or washing with water. The ratio of ustilic acid A to B in “ustilagic acid” was measured to be 1.81.9.
Sodium salts of sym-secondary alcohol sulfates containing 1123 carbon atoms were prepared from the corresponding purified sym-secondary alcohols which were synthesized by reduction of ketones with aluminium isoproxide. The ketones used in this studies were obtained quantitatively by ketonic decomposition of β-ketoesters. Some properties of sulfates solution, concerning surface tension, interfacial tension, wetting, foaming, emulsification and detergency, were measured and basic properties as anionic detergent were clarified. Furthermore, conductivities were measured and compared with strong electrolyte to investigate correlative change in the equivalent conductance vs concentration and then critical micell concentration was determined. As a result, it was found that sym-secondary alcohol sulfates have excellent properties as anionic detergent and the properties are improved with increase in length of the carbon atom up to C19. Thus, pentadecane-8-ol sulfate and nonadecane-10-ol sulfate have best properties.
The thermal decomposition of various types of cationic surface active agents (CSA) with a long chain of alkyl group at 180°C were studied. The volumetric titration by Sodium Tetraphenylborate using Methyl Orange as an indicator was applied to the analysis of CSA. Other determining methods did not afford the accurate results to the analysis of various types of CSA. The thermal decomposition rates of C12H25N+ (CH3) 2C2H4OH, A- containing various anion ; F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, 1/2 SO4--, NO3-, H2PO4-, ClO4-, CH3COO-, CCl3COO-, C11H23COO-, 1/2 (COO-) 2, _??_-COO- and CH3-_??_-SO3- were determined. CSA containing ClO4-, CH3-_??_-SO3-, NO3- and I- were superior to others. By arranging CSA of hydrogen halide in the order of heat stability, the following result was obtained ; I->Br->>Cl->F-. This ordering supports C.K. Ingold's decomposition mechanism of CSA (J. Chem. Soc., 1933, 526). Organic acid salts showed poor heat stability. Chemical constitution of cationic parts of CSA did not so affect as were anionic parts.