Recent progress of immunologic aspects of liposomes for medical applications are reviewed. Liposomal application for immunoassay, targeting and adjuvant activity for vaccination are discussed. Development of complement dependent liposome immune lysis assay enabled to measure small amount of serum proteins, such as cancer markers, and extended to various microbial toxins. New technology of targeting for malignant tumors have been developed. The use of liposomes as an safe, versatile, universal adjuvant that can induce humoral and cellmediated immunity to antigen have been investigateted increasingly.
The contents of α-tocopherol, chlorophyll, carotenes and squalene in the lipid extract of palm leaflets from fronds of different frond numbers and palm ages were determined. The results showed the average contents (%, dry basis) of α-tocopherol, carotenes and squalene in the leaflets of the same frond number as obtained from palms of different ages to increase with frond number. The average contents were 0.02 %, 0. 21 % and 0. 40% for α-tocopherol, 0. 05%, 0. 13% and 0. 22% for carotenes, and 0. 006%, 0.1 % and 0. 2% for squalene in frond numbers 1, 17 and 33, respectively. In the case of total chlorophyll, the average content appeared to be maximum at a frond number 17, and were 0. 48%, 0. 62 % and 0. 53 % in leaflets at frond numbers 1, 17 and 33, respectively. Since oil frond (frond number >33) is available in abundance from frond pruning in oil palm plantation, these materials should be usable for the extraction of α-tocopherol, carotenes and squalene. The fatty acid composition of lipids was also determined.
The lipids of seven species of Basidiomycotina (Lepista sordida, Amanita pantherina, Russula emetica, Russula nigricans, Lactarius vellereus, Clavulina cristata and Polyporus squmosus) and three species of Ascomycotina (Morchella esculenta, Morchella elata and Pezia vesiculosa) were studied for determination of total lipid, neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid content and fatty acid composition. The major fatty acid components of all samples were 16 : 0, 18 : 1 and 18 : 2, but 18 : 0 was found in L. vellereus in considerable amounts. Two unusual fatty acids cis-9, trans-11, trans-13, cis-15-octadecatetraenoic acid and cis-9, cis-14-, octadecadien-, 12-ynoic acid were also detected as fatty acid components of C. cristata. Their structures were assigned based on chromatographic and UV and GC-MS spectrometric data as well as a comparison with the authentic samples.
Commercial margarines, cooking fat and lard in Germany were assessed for quality, using 16 brands of margarine (including 4 of high linoleic type), 9 of low fat spread (including 4 of high linoleic type), 4 of dairy spread (compound type, 2 ; low fat butter, 2), 11 of cooking fat and 8 of lard, totaling 48. 1) Lipid and water content averaged 80.0 and 19.4% in margarine, while 39.5 and 56.8% in low fat spread, respectively. The latter had about half calories of the former. Sorbic acid and stabilizers of emulsion were added to the low fat spread. 2) Almost all margarine samples were fortified with vitamins A and D3, and vitamin B6, was also found in some cases. To all high linoleic products, α-tocopherol was added, and tocotrienols were detected in 6 brands of margarine, indicating blending palm oil to possibly be present. 3) Cholesterol was detected only as a trace in products labelled vegetable oil on tha package, but Δ7-stigmastenol and avenasterol were detected in greater amounts in high linoleic products than in others. 4) Since high linoleic margarines comprised of 64.351. 1% (57.7% in average) of c, c-18 : 2 fatty acid, and contained less trans fatty acids, they were considered “zero-trans” products. The ratios of α-tocopherol (mg) /polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) in these ranged from 1.45 to 0.63 (1.00 in average), indicating α-tocopherol to be sufficiently present. 5) Various types of composition were present in cooking fat, most lard product were characteristically present in addition to onion and spices. 6) SFC curves indicated the high linolleic type of margarines to be softer than others in the low temperature region. The dairy spread showed more SFC in the low temperature region, but less SFC in the higher region than margarines. SFC in cooking fat varied considerably according to type, and lard showed a SFC curve with a unique feature of a wide melting range.