The washing mechanisms of fabrics detergent were studied from the standpoints of builder effects and physico-chemical properties of new surfactants. The builder effects of zeolite and water-soluble builders were determined from zeta potential and potential energy by the DLVO theory and hetero coagulation theory. Zeolite was found to have antiredeposition effect due to coagulation with soil particles in detergent solution. The effects of water-soluble builders came about through changes in potential energy of the soil and fabric, due to adsorption on the fabric and increase in the zeta potential. α-sulfo fatty acid methyl esters showed good detergency performance. Detergency was found closely correlated with good properties such as high calcium tolerance, superior emulsification power, and high solubilization capacity.
The antioxidative and synergistic effects of nitrogen-containing phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine (PMME), phosphatidyl-N, N-dimethylethanolamine (PDME), and phosphatidylserine (PS) were investigated using fish oil as the polyunsaturated substrate during autoxidation at 30°C in the dark. The phospholipids had remarkable synergistic effect on mixed tocopherol (Toc). Based on the increase in time for each Toc isomer to disappear due to the addition of phospholipids during autoxidation, the synergistic effects of the phospholipids appeared to result from the regeneration of Toc from tocopheryl radicals formed at the start of autoxidation. Amino groups may promote the regeneration of Toc since some amino compounds such as ethanolamine and n-butylamine exert strong synergistic effect. The order of synergistic effect intensity of phospholipids was PE >PMME>PDME · PS>PC, and was in direct proportion to the number of amino hydrogens.
The authors developed a sensitive and efficient HPLC method for determining alcohol from wax in vegetable oils. Wax isolated by silica gel cartridge was hydrolyzed with alkaline solution followed by 9-anthroyl derivatization. The derivatives separated by a reversed phase HPLC were detected by fluorescence detector. The limit of detection was about 0.1 ng. Under the conditions used phytol, present as an ester, could be determined at the same time. The present method was shown applicable to the determination wax, such as residual wax in dewaxed oil, at low level with satisfactory recovery, repeatability, and sensitivity.
The alcohol specificity of phospholipase D prepared from fresh cabbege leaves was evaluated by transphosphatidylation between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 22 different alcohols, which were not only primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols having different carbon numbers, but also mono-, di-, and trihydric alcohols differing in carbon length. Based on conversion ratios of PC to corresponding phosphatidylalcohols at less than 0.04 M alcohol in the water layer, the enzyme activity of which was not inhibited by any alcohol, the specificity of phospholipase D in transphosphatidylation was clearly shown not to be affected by carbon length. The ratios of primary monohydric alcohols were essentially the same as those of primary dihydric alcohols with the same carbon length, although the ratio of trihydric alcohol was less than that of any monohydric or dihydric alcohol. For monohydric alcohols having the same carbon number, primary alcohols were incorporated more easily into PC than secondary alcohols, but no tertiary alcohols were incorporated at all. Primary hydroxyl groups transfered more readily than secondary hydroxyl groups when using dihydric alcohols with the same carbon number.
Examination was made of the biochemical and histological effects of a nickel (Ni) catalyst obtained following the hydrogenation of oils and fats. Five groups of male rats (5 per group) were fed diets containing different amounts of the Ni catalyst (0 : control, 20, 50, 200 and 500 ppm as Ni) for 4 weeks. A comparison was made of growth and tissue weights, Ni content in various tissues, and fecal and urinary excretion of Ni from the rats. Liver and kidney morphology was also observed. 1) Body weight gain and food intake in all Ni-supplemented groups were the same as in the control group. Also, weights of liver, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, brain and testis in all Ni-supplemented groups were not different from those of the control group. 2) Liver, heart, lung, spleen, brain, testis, fur and blood nickle content was less than 0.6 ppm in all Ni-supplemented groups. Kidney in the 500 ppm Ni-supplemented group showed a relatively high level of Ni, about 1.6 ppm compared to less than 0.2 ppm in the 0 to 50 ppm groups. The value for the 200 ppm group was intermediate. Dietary Ni catalyst was excreted almost completely into the feces, with only small amounts found in the urine. Fecal excretion from all Ni-supplemented groups constituted more than 98% the total excretion. 3) Microscopic observation of liver and kidney disclosed no histological anomalities even in the 500 ppm Ni-supplemented group.
The compositions of furan fatty acids (F acids) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta testis were easily determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. For this determination fatty acid methyl esters from triacylglycerols of mature chum salmon testis, containing 14.1% F acid of all the fatty acids, were separated on a reversed-phase column (25 cm × 4.6 mm i. d., 5 μm particles), Supelcosil LC-18. Several μg methyl esters dissolved in acetonitrile were admitted to the column and eluted using acetonitrile. The effluents were monitored at 227 nm UV to detect F acids. Satisfactory separation of F2, F4, F5, F6 and F8 acids was acchieved within 20 min. F acid compositions (mol %) were as follows : F6, 58.6, F4 20.1, F5 14.4, F2 5.2 and F8 1.7%. These values were in good agreement with those obtained by gas liquid chromatography.