Based on the results reported in the preceding paper, temperature dependence of household margarine was examined with five brands having different hardness including, very hard (one), soft (one), standard (three), and butter as the control Panel test was carried out on each of the samples and its correlation to temperature dependence was examined. Further, fat was separated from each sample, and its S.F.I. and hardness were measured. 1) Hardness was measured by the A.O.C.S. method, in the temperature range of 5 to 30°C. Sample No. 5, which principle fat component is presumed fish and whale oil and contains much quantities of C16+C18+C18 : 1 trans acid, showed the highest hardness, while sample No. 3, using most quantities of liquid oil, showed the lowest hardness. 2) Result of the panel test showed that margarines having the hardness index in the range of 150300 were “most desirable”, while those with the index below 50 were “too hard” and those with the index above 400 were “too soft”. 3) Samples cut into a block of 5×2×2 cm were placed on filter paper for 48 hours to measure the oil-off and the results showed approximately the same tendency as the hardness. Sample No. 3 showed the highest value at all the temperatures and collapsing of the form was observed at 30°C, while No. 5 showed only 1.5% oil-off even at 30°C. 4) S.F.I. values were between 27.8 and 32.1 at 10 for all samples except No. 5, showing better cold spreading properties than butter. Results of panel test also gave the evaluation that S.F.I. values of 2515 were the “most desirable”. 5) There is a functional relationship between S.F.I. and oil-off values. Plotting of the two values on the logarithmic scale and comparison with the temperature showed that both curves crossed the temperature curve, i.e., S.F.I. values in the range of 1520 and oil-off values in the range of 1.52.0 %, and that these point corresponded to the temperature evaluated as the “desirable hardness” in the panel test.
Open-tube melting point and polymorphism were measured with five kinds of soybean oil and four kinds of beef tallow of different degrees of hardening, which were allowed to stand at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 50°C for 1, 5, 15, 24, 120 and 480 hours. Correlation of these points with S.F.I. and composition of fatty acids was also investigated. 1) In hardened soybean oil, polymorphism was later for the higher degree of hardening and for the lower temperature. In extreme hardening #0, polymorphism was entirely absent whn lfet at 0 and 20°C, and there recognized nearly no change in the melting point. With #20 (I.V. 17.1) and #40 (I.V. 38.9), the polymorphism was practically absent when left at 0°C, taking β-form when left at 40°C for 15 and 24 hours, and difference in the melting point due to time and temperature was also great. With #60 (I.V. 58.4) and #80 (I.V. 81.3), the polymorphism was much faster. 2) Hardened oil contains a considerable amount of C18 ;1 trans acid, therefore, the S.F.I. values became greater as the degree of hardening became higher and as the temperature of standing became lower. The S.F.I. value was 100% in #0 and #20, and over 50% in #40. Polymorphism was slow. 3) Hardened beef tallow also showed the same tendency as the hardened soybean oil but the poly-morphism was generally slower than that of soybean oil. Consequently, difference in the melting point due to the time and temperature of standing was smaller. 4) The amount of trans acid in beef tallow is smaller than that in hardened soybean oil and the value of S.F.I. is smaller, except in #0. The slower polymorphism of beef tallow than that of soybean oil is considered to be due to the complex composition of the glycerides and fatty acids
Each kind of the two esters of stearic acid and ethylenediamine (mole ratio 1 : 8) were refluxboiled together. As a resulf, it was made clear that the reactivity of each ester to ethylenediamine was different greatly by the kind of alcohol composing the ester and the chlorohydrin ester changed into the corresponding substituted amide more easily than the methyl ester. Several products obtained from the chlorohydrin ester were investigated.
Authors synthesized three dibasic alkoxy acids; 1, 2-his (carboxy methoxy) -ethane, 1, 2-bis (β-carboxy ethoxy) -ethane and 1, 2-bis (β-carboxy ethoxy) -propane; by the cyanoethylation of ethylene-and propyleneglycol and by the oxidation of triethylene glycol with nitric acid. These acids were then reacted with octyl-, dodecyl-, benzyl-, and 2-ethyl hexyl-alcohols by the routine method, thus obtaining diesters. Diamides were also obtained by the reaction of dimethyl esters of those dibasic acids with octyl-, dodecyl- and benzylamines. Diesters and diamides thus obtained were investigated for use of P.V.C. plasticizer. As a result, these diesters were excellent in low temperature performance, and the diamides were excellent in mechanical properties, especially, the didodecyl ester of 1, 2-bis (-carboxy ethoxy) -propane had good thermal stability with excellent low temperature characteristics.
The behaviors of natural fatty soil extracted from soiled cloth and its model substances on polyethylene in various washing solutions were observed. Rolling up phenomenon did not occur for the natural fatty soil placed on polyethylene in 0.1 % NaDBS aqueous solution. It was observed that the small liquid drops removed continuously from soiled surface in aqueous solution of alkaline builders such as STPP and sodium metasilicate. Any change for the state of soil model substances such as tristearin, stearic acid and paraffin wax was not recognized in all solutions. However, rolling up phenomenon was observed for the squalene in aqueous solutions of both NaDBS and STPP. The change of behaviors of mixtures having various compositions between squalene and oleic acid was also observed as a function of immersion time in aqueous solutions of both NaDBS and STPP and of 1 : 2 mixture of NaDBS and STPP. Further, the mechanism of the removal of the fatty soil wa discussed.