Solvent fractionation for production of hard butter is reviewed. Selection of solvent was important for industrial system and acetone was generally useful solvent for palm kernel fat and palm oil, though it was less effective for concentration of 2-oleo-dipalmitin in PMF and hexane was better for this. Ethyl alcohol was useful for the separation of unsaponifiable matters from shea butter. Addition, minor components in hard butter and their influence to the physical properties were investigated. Diglycerides has functioned as retarder of crystalization and polymorphism and contraly, tripalmitin worked as accelerator of crystalization but not much effective to polymorphism.
To gain an understanding of the mechanism by which silicone oil (SO) has effect on the dissolution of iron into fats and oils was examined. 1. Soybean oil and linseed oil with (0.1100ppm) or without SO were heated with iron plates in a beaker for 2, 4, 6h at 180°C, and the same oils (12.525g) were also heated on an iron plate (23×30cm) for 10 to 50min at the same temperature. The iron content in those heated oils was determined by the atomic absorption method. The content of iron in oils heated with SO was lower than in those without SO. Thus, SO may possibly prevent effectively the dissolution of iron into the heated frying oils. 2. Soybean oil with (1ppm) or without SO was treated with 5% of iron powder (wt/wt) for 10min at 100°C, and then filtered to remove the iron powder. The treated oils were again heated for 4h at 180°C, and the degree of oil deterioration was evaluated by the viscosity ratio, carbonyl and acid values and transmittance. The iron-treated oil with SO deteriorated much more than the non-treated oil. This appears to indicate that a certain amount of SO in iron-treated oil was adsorbed by iron powder. The suppressing effect on the dissolution of iron into fats and oils is apparently one of the functions of SO in frying oil.
The amount of water dissolved in safflower oil at the frying temperature (180°C) was 5181012ppm, allowing water to drop continuously (0.035g/2min) into the oil for 13h. When the oil was heated with metal plates under the same conditions, the amount of dissolved water in the oil increased more than in the absence of the metal plates. In case of stainless steel, the amount was 1.26 to 1.33 times, and with aluminum plates, 1.06 to 1.13 times the amount without plates. When these metal plates were heated with the oil under the above conditions, the water dissolved the metal of the plates into the oil. In case of stainless steel, iron dissolved from 0.17 to 0.77ppm, nickel, 0.04ppm and chromium, from 0.02 to 0.03ppm. Similarly, the amount of aluminum dissolved from the aluminum plate was from 0.10 to 0.45ppm.
Methyl linolenate autoxidized at 40°C for 4 days in the dark was separated into polymers, monomers and degradation products by chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 column. Each fraction eluted was allowed to react with bovine pancreatic β-trypsin at 37°C, pH 8.0 for 1h. The change in amidase activity of the reaction mixture was then observed using α-N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide as a substrate. Among the fractions obtained, amidase activity was obviously accelerated by a group of degradation products (DP II). The interaction between DP II and trypsin was thus further studied and the following information obtained : (1) the action of DP II to accelerate amidase activity was caused by reaction of DP II with trypsin but not with the substrate; (2) neither the esterase nor proteinase activity of trypsin was accelerated by the reaction of DP II with trypsin nor was there any change in substrate specificity; (3) the reaction between the carbonylgroups of DP II and ε-amino groups of trypsin was essential for the occurrence of the accelerating action of DP II on the amidase activity of trypsin.
A method for the determination of phospholipid composition was developed in collaboration with seven laboratories. The phospholipids were separated on two-dimensional silica gel thin-layer chromatography, using basic and acidic solvent systems in conjunction. The phosphorus content of each fraction was determined by colorimetry after digestion with perchloric acid. Five different conditions to develop this method were carried out using several phospholipid mixtures such as commercial soybean lecithin and egg yolk lecithin. The repeatability and reproducibility values determined from a statistical analysis of the results indicated that the determination of phospholipid composition by this method could be carried out to an acceptable degree of precision for the major phospholipid components of both commercial lecithins described above.
The following oligomers were prepared and their defoaming properties are discussed : poly [(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) -co- (2-hydroxyethyl acrylate)] P (IOA-HEA), poly [(n-octyl acrylate) -co- (2-hydroxyethyl acrylate)] P (NOA-HEA), poly [(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate) -co- (2-hydroxyethyl acrylate)] P (IOMA-HEA), poly [(n-octyl methacrylate) -co- (2-hydroxyethyl acrylate)] P (NOMA-HEA), poly [(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) -co- (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)] P (IOA-HEMA) and poly (n-octyl acrylate) -co- (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) P (NOA-HEMA). Their defoaming powers were evaluated by the Ross-Miles foam tester (JIS K3362) for aqueous solutions of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDBS), as foaming agent. The rate of adsorption of the oligomers at the aqueous solution/air interface was determined by the vibrating jet procedure. The defoaming powers of the oligomers was found to depend on their molecular weight (Mn) and composition. P (IOA-HEA) showed the highest defoaming power. The most effective molecular weights for these oligomers were Mn 5001000. Oligomers containing IOA as a hydrophobic group showed better defoaming power than those containing NOA. The introduction of a methyl group to the oligomeric chain enhanced the instability of the foams.
The solubilization of oil soluble azo dyes by anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants was studied by spectrophotometric methods : these systems are sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) -alkyl polyoxyethylene ethers (CmPOEn; m=12, 14, 16, and 18, n=10, 20, 30, and 40). The limit of solubilization and solubilizing power by pure CmPOEn solutions were exceeded those by pure SDS solution. The influence on the limit of solubilization and solubilizing power was due to greater difference in hydrophobic groups in nonionic surfactants than in hydrophilic groups. When the two surfactants were mixed, the limit of solubilization increased with alkyl chain length in the nonionic surfactant. With increasing oxyethylene groups in the chain, however, the solubilization remained essentially constant. The amount of increase was larger in the system in which two kinds of rich-micelles exist than in a system of mixed micelles. The presence of the oil soluble azo dye resulted in the formation of a mixed micelle.