Two methods for the determination of the Bömer value comprising ethyl ether procedure and acetone procedure were studied collaboratively. Lard, beef tallow, and lard mixtures containing 5, 10, and 20% beef tallow, respectively, were used. Good agreement between two methods was obtained for lard, beef tallow, and lard mixtures containing 5% and 10% beef tallow. However, in case of a lard mixture containing 20% beef tallow, the value determined by ethyl ether method was slightly higher than that by acetone method. Conclusively, from the practical viewpoint, the Bomer value can be determined by two methods.
In order to examine the catalytic action of imidazole in nonaqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants, the pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) for the reaction between p-nitrophenyl acetate and imidazole in carbon tetrachloride was measured as a function of the concentration of imidazole at fixed molar ratios (0.5, 1.0, 2.0) of imidazole to surfactants. By analyzing of kobs-[Imidazole] profile obtained, the second and third rate constants (k2, m and k3, m) for imidazole monomer and the catalytic rate constant (kA) for imidazole aggregates were obtained. Both k2, m and kA values increase with the increase in the molar ratio or the oxyethylene chain length of surfactants, but the increase is small for k2, m. The catalytic action of imidazole in water solubilized into the imidazole/surfactant/CCl4 systems is enhanced with decrease in polarity of the interior of aggregates.
The solution behavior of ionic surfactant in brine and oil was studied in the presence of cosurfactant such as long-chain alcohol. In this system, ionic surfactant changes from lipophilic (oil-soluble) to hydrophilic (water-soluble) with increasing temperature. Hydrophile-lipophile property of ionic surfactant is just balanced at certain temperature (HLB-temperature) at which three-phase consisted of water, oil and surfactant phases appears. HLB-temperature goes up with increasing salt or cosurfactant contents whereas it decreases by using longer chain hydrocarbon (oil), or shorter chain cosurfactant. From these phenomena, Hydrophile-Lipophile-Balances of ionic surfactants were estimated. The order of hydrophilic ionic surfactants is R8SO3Na>R8_??_SO3Na>R12OSO3Na(R12N(CH3)3Cl)>R11COONa>R15COONa>Aerosol OT. The stability and the types of emulsion were also studied in these ionic surfactant system. The emulsion types change from W/O to O/W at HLB-temperature. The effect of temperature on the stability of emulison is reversed to that of nonionic surfactant system.
The reaction of 2, 5-dimethyl-2H-furan-3-one (1) with butyl vinyl ether catalysed by aluminium trichloride in acetic acid gave a mixture of 2-(1-buthoxyethyl)-2, 5-dimethyl-2H-furan-3-one (2) and 2-(2-buthoxyethyl)-2, 5-dimethyl-2H-furan-3-one (3) in yield of 30%.