The oxidative effects of sorbitan esters on lemon oil and γ-terpinene in emulsion and solubilization were investigated. The oxidation was followed by gas chromatography (GC) and peroxide value (POV). The determination of the site of γ-terpinene within micelles was made by ultraviolet spectro scopy (UV) and solubility measurement. The summary of the results is shown below. 1) The formation of p-cymene from γ-terpinene during deterioration of lemon oil was shown. 2) Sorbitan esters strongly inhibitted oxidative activities. 3) The monomolecular film of sorbitan esters appeared to inhibit the oxidation. 4) Lemon oil in the emulsion of O/W type did not oxidize, while in that of W/O type it did, 5) The site of γ-terpinene within the Tween 20 micelles was deep penetration of the palisade layer. 6) Suspended or emulsified γ-terpinene was oxidised at greater rate than solubilised γ-terpinene. Then, Tween 20 micelles were considered to inhibit the oxidation of γ-terpinene.
The fatty acids of the seed and the mesocarp oils of Litsea japonica (Thunb.) Juss, (Japanese name “Hamabiwa”) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Each component was identified by comparing with authentic compounds. The major components of the seed oil were lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids, while those of the mesocarp oil were palmitic and linoleic acids. The each oil from the fruits which were collected in February and March was compared. With the ripeness of the fruit, the contents of the saturated acids increase, while those of the unsaturated acids decrease.
The preparation and properties as an antif oamer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide adducts of branched 1, 2-glycols, such as 2-butyloctane-1, 2-diol 2-hexyldecane-1, 2-dial, and 2-octyldodecane-1, 2-diol were described. The antifoaming power of these adducts was evaluated by the Ross and Miles method for the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzenesulf onate. The results were presented as immediate reading of foam height (foam production) and reading of foam height after 5min (foam stability) as a function of concentration of the adducts. The results of these experiments are shown in Fig, -12O. It was clear that the introduction of 12 molecules of ethylene oxide or propylene oxide to branched 1, 2-glycols improved their antif oaming power considerably. Also it was found that the ethylene oxide adducts were more effective antifoamers than the corresponding propylene oxide adducts.
Separation and determination of detergent grade AOS and LAS mixture were studied by NMR, TLC, and GLC. After conversion to methyl esters, the molar ratios of AOS and LAS were determined by NMR. The mixtures of these methyl esters were then separated and prepared by TLC. Isolated LAS was converted to thiol derivative and analyzed by GLC with an OV-101 glass capillary column. AOS was converted to TMS derivative and also analyzed by GLC with a 2% OV-17 0.5 m column. Gas chromatographic results of the derivatives agreed well with those of the raw materials.
The effect of emulsifier blending on the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the mixture was studied by measuring the phase inversion temperature (PIT, HLB-temperature). The effective pair of emulsifiers was also investigated by determining the emulsion properties such as size distribution and stability. The following results were obtained. 1) When the difference of the HLB of emulsifiers to be blended was small, the emulsifier mixture showed the weight average HLB number of the emulsifiers and expected emulsifying performances were obtained, and 2) when the difference of the HLB numbers of emulsifiers to be blended was large, the observed HLB number of the mixture was not their weight average number and the mixture gave a less stable emulsion. It is clear from the present result that an emulsifier which has moderate solubility behavior towards water and oil is necessary in addition to hydrophilic or lipophilic emulsifiers in order to stabilize emulsions in a wide range of HLB-temperatures.
A series of bis (aminimides) (BAI) with a general formula, [RCH (OH) CH2NMe2NCO] 2Y, (R : n-C4n-C10, Y : - (CH2) n-and p-phenylene, n : 08) were prepared by the reactions of diesters of aliphatic and aromatic dibasic acids with aminimines derived from 1, 2-epoxyalkanes and 1, 1-dimethylhydrazine. The yields were 3040% for the aliphatic series and 7080% for the aromatic series. For the aromatic series, it was found that BAI and half aminimide esters were selectively obtained in high yields by the control of molar ratio of aminimide/carboxylic diester. Some surfactant properties of these products were examined and compared with those of corresponding monoaminimides (MAI), RCH (OH) CH2NMe2 NCOR'. BAI without methylene bridge between two aminimide groups have a high Krafft point and are insoluble in water at room temperature, while no Krafft point is observed for BAI with n=28. BAI except for the lower members show a characteristic cloud point in analogy with poly (oxyethylene) type nonionic surfactants. The cloud point decreases linearly with increasing n, but no appreciable effect of n on cmc, aqueous surface tension (γcmc) and molecular area (A0) of adsorption film at air/ water interface are observed. The cmc and γcmc of BAI are slightly higher than those of MAI (4, 5). A0 of BAI is about twice as large as that of MAI. BAI are generally inferior to MAI (4, 5) in wetting and foaming abilities.
Various allylketones were prepared from carboxylic acids and allylmagnesium chloride. For example, the reaction of allylmagnesium chloride with hexanoic acid (1) gave 1-nonen-4-one (2). When these allylketones were treated with various acidic or basic catalysts, they were isomerised to the corresponding α, β-unsaturated ketones or methyl ketones. For example, tans-2-nonen-4-one (4) was obtained by the isomerisation of 1-nonen-4-one (2) with p-toluenesulphonic acid. By treating of 1-nonen-4-one (2) with 3 N sodium hydroxide solution, 2-heptanone (6) was obtained. These ketones can be used as starting materials for the synthesis of terpenes. For example, a new terpenic ketone, 3, 7-dimethyl-1-octen-5-one (10) was obtained from 6-methyl-trans-2-hepten-4-one (9) and vinylma gnesium chloride.
Responses of cholesterol oleate, cholesterol, oleic acid, tri-, di-, and monoolein to the internal standard (methyl oleate) on the TLC plates which were charred after spraying 10% sulfuric acid were determined using a photodensitometer of a zig-zag scanning mode. The relations between the ratio of peak area and that of weight were linear and reproducible over a range of loads (0750μg triolein and 0125μg other lipids) under the same conditions. The responses of cholesterol and its ester, however, were found to be variable by changing charring conditions. The quantitative analysis of yeast neutral lipid revealed that the method was useful and convenient for the estimation of neutral lipid composition indicating approximately 18% of maxium coefficient of variation.