Adsorption of two types of polyvinyl alcohol molecule (PVA) onto carbon black from their aqueous solution were investigated. In this study, two samples of PVA (acetate residue : 0.6 and 18.521.5mol%) were used. They were adsorbed onto carbon black at 20°, 30°, 40°C for 24 hours. In this experiment, accurate determination of PVA concentration in dilute solution (10-410-2%) is necessary. A colorimetric method based on color intensity of blue colored complex formed between PVA and iodine was examined therefor From investigations, the following results and considerations were obtained. (1) In determination of PVA concentration, addition quantity of iodine and boric acid, reaction time and temperature etc. had influence upon coloration. The optimum condition was as follows : PVA (0.0010.1g/l) 10ml Boric acid (38g/l) 15ml Iodine (0.005N, I2 : KI=1 : 4 by weight) 2ml at 5°C, for 48 hours. The color produced in coloration reaction at this condition was very stable and a linear relation between the optical intensity of blue colored complex and the concentration of PVA was obtained. (2) Equilibrium isotherms obtained from the adsorption of PVA onto carbon black showed a good agreement with Langmuir equation. From this result, Δμ°, ΔH° and ΔS° were estimated and the types of bonding between carbon black and PVA molecules were discussed. It was believed that hydrogen bonding mainly contributed to adsorption of PVA-I (acetate residue : 0.6mol%) and hydrophobic bonding, too, related to adsorption of PVA-II (acetate residue : 18.521.5mol%).
The effect of the distribution of oxyethylene chain length of nonionic surfactants on the cloud point has been studied, using homogeneous C12H25O (CH2CH2O) nH (n=08). The broader the distribution of oxyethylene chain length, the lower the cloud point becomes. A small deviation from Poisson distribution does not cause major difference in cloud point. The cloud point vs. oxyethylene chain length calibration curves for commercial p, t-C8H17C6H4O (CH2CH2O) n-H, i-C9H10C6H4O (CH2CH2O) n-H and molecularly distilled C12H25 (CH2CH2O) n-H were obtained. The distribution of oxyethylene chain length of these samples is close to the Poisson distribution. Byproduced polyethylene glycol does not affect appreciably to the cloud point. This cloud point measurement is relatively rapid and accurate for determining the average oxyethylene chain length of nonionic surfactant. While, determination of the oxyethylene chain length by other methods requires elimination of polyethylene glycol, water, etc, and also forces not only to consume the time but alters the distribution of oxyethylene chain length in the process of the elimination, these are the disadvantages of other methods.
Solution polymerization of methyl acrylate was carried out using dodecyl alcohol as a solvent and benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The chemical structure of the obtained telomer is as follows; This telomer (LO) was then treated with water-acetone alkaline solution to obtain the corresponding polyacrylic acids, (H series), with hydrazine hydrate to obtain the corresponding polyhydrazides (HD series) and similarly, with ethylenediamine to obtain the corresponding polyamides (EA series). These reactions proceed smoothly, and the chemical structures of these derivatives were determined by analysis and IR spectrum. The order of solubility of these derivatives from the telomer in water was as follows; HD>EA≥H. Ability of lowering surface tension of water; H>EA≥HD. On foaming power test, SDS, Ameet 105 and HD series showed high values, but MS 25, H series and EA series showed low values. On dispersing power (CaCO3) test, these derivatives, especially HD series, Levenol WX and MS 25 showed good values in the low concentration, while SDS showed good value in the high concentration. As for emulsifying power (gasoline, benzene) every series of H, HD and EA was superior than the control samples.
The addition of 1, 2-Butylene oxide to laurylamine was investigated. It was found that the tertiary amine, N, N-bis (2-oxybutyl) laurylamine, was formed by the reaction without catalyst. A series of polyoxyethylene derivatives of laurylamine-butylene oxide 2 moles adduct were prepared and the changes in their surface activities in aq. and 1N-HCl solutions, such as surface tensions, foaming properties, wetting powers, dispersing and emulsifying powers, by the difference in the numbers of moles of butylene oxide and ethylene oxide, were discussed. In 1N-HCl solution, the wetting power of the butylene oxide adduct is superior, while the surface tension, foaming property and emulsifying power are inferior than those of laurylamine. The wetting power and dispersing power of the butylene oxide·ethylene oxide adducts are excellent in both aq. and 1N-HCl solutions.
Tertiary ether amines were prepared and their surface active properties were discussed. The synthesis of the tertiary ether amines is as follows. * Halogenation of polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether. * N-alkylation of monoethanol amine with the halogenated products. * Synthesis of the tertiary amines having three same chaines of alcoxy ethyl group. The surface active properties such as surface tension, foaming property, wetting power, dispersing power and emulsifying power, were measured and the influence of the number of moles of ethoxy group was discussed. The tertiary ether amines in the hydrochloric acid solution are good surfactants with very low foaming property and good wetting power. The values of surface tension increase with the increase in the number of the moles of ethoxy group, and on wetting power the values decrease. On dispersing power there exists an optimal number of moles of the ethoxy group.
Fifteen percent and 20% solutions of the detergent for kitchen-use were applied on clipped skin of pregnant mice (ICR/JCL) during pregnancy days 1 to 13 at daily dose of 0.5ml per animal. Toxicological observations of maternal bodies were performed and gross, skeletal and histological (central canal of spinal cord) abnormalities of fetuses were examined. There was no difference and no influence between detergent treated groups, water-treated group and untreated group.
In order to examine the behavior of sterols during the processing procedures of oils and fats, four species of animal fat and eight species of vegetable oil were submitted to the processes of deacidification, decoloration, hydrogenation and deodorization. Samples were taken at each of these steps, analyzed for sterols, and results obtained were as follows : 1) Campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were detected in vegetable oils and the change of their compositional ratio was nearly negligible during the processing procedures. 2) A minute quantiy of cholesterol was detected in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, palm oil and rapeseed oil. Stigmasterol was not detected in rapeseed oil and kapok oil, and a minute quantity was detected in cottonseed oil. Brassicasterol was petected in rapeseed oil. 3) Sterol content in oils and fats decreased gradually with progress in processing procedures and the decrease was marked especially in hydrogenation and deodorization processes. The rate of this decrease in vegetable oils and oils of lauric acid system was smaller than that in animal fats and palm oil. 4) Sterol content in purified oils and in purified and hydrogenated oils was characteristic to the species of oils and fats but was also affected by conditions of purification and hydrogenation. In crude oils, sterol content was the smallest in palm oil, being ca. 1mg/g, while the content in rice bran oil was larger, being ca. 20mg/g.