Heating differential thermal analyses were carried out on four kinds of beef tallow, five kinds ofcotton seed oil and five kinds of soyban oil, all having different degree of hardening, and examinations were made on variation in the DTA curve according to the degree of hardening. 1) Unhardened beef tallow #50 (I.V.49.6) showed only one broad endothemic peak but hardened beef tallow #30 (I.V.29.8) showed one peak at 49.5°C after storing at 0 or 20°C fox 1 hour, while shouldered peak appeared at 4043°C when stored for 24 and 120 hours. Beef tallow #15 (I.V.14.8) showed only one sharp endothermic peak at 56°C when stored at 0, 20 or 40°C, . and nochanges occured with changes in the period of standing. Fully hardened #0 (I.V.0.3) showed a large endothermic peak at 60°C and exothermic peak at 46°C when stored at 0 or 20°C, but the exothermic peak disappeared when stored at 40°C. 2) Hardened cotton seed oi1 #80 (I.V.76.7) and #60 (I.V.60.3) showed only one broad endothermic peak because of the largea mount of liquid oil, but #40 (I.V.40.0) showed a large endothermic peak at 49°C when stored at 0°C, and another small endothermic peak at 34°C when stored at 40°C. #20 (I.V.22.5) showed a large endothemic peak at 55°C when stored at 0 or 40°C, without change according to the period of standing. #0 (I.V.2.8) showed a large endothermic peak at 61°C, with addition of an exothermic peak at 45°C when stored at 0°C. 3) Hardened soybean oil #80 (I.V.81.3) also showed a broad curve as in the case of cotton seed oil, #60 (I.V.58.4) showed great variation of its curve, with less sharp peaks. #40 (I.V.38.9) showed two endothermic peaks when stored at 0 or 20°C for 1 hour, and the peak became less sharp when stored at these temperatures for 24 hours. A clear, endothermic peak sappeared at 57°C and 49.5°C when stored at 40°C but the peaks became less sharp and formed a broad peak with lapse of time. #20 (I.V.17.1) showed only one large endothermic peak, under any of the conditions tested. The fully hardened #0 (I.V.0.4) showed two endothermic peaks at 60°C and 68°C, and one exothermic peak at 51°C when stored at 0°C or 20°C for 1 or 24 hours, and the peak at 60°C disappeared when stored at 44°C for 120 hours.
There were scarce reports in the research of the rehological aspects of hard butters for chocolate or other confectionery, but this field comes rather from experiences. In the first of this report the author investigated the viscosity of cacao butter, illippe butter and hydrogenated coconut oil, especially the relation between viscosity change and tempering. During this tempering, seeding the stable crystal of cacao butter the period of tempering shortened to 2/3. The melting behavior of mixed fat, cacao butter and illippe butter, resulted in mathematical average in good agreement. This means the same or similar crystal pattern for cacao butter and for illippe butter; As for the cacao butter and hydrogenated coconut oil, melting, point of these mixing series resulted in more below than mathematical average. And these facts were also comfirmed from the results of thermal curve. Furthermore, the hardness was investigated from the solid content index.
In this report, the preparation of hard butter from whale oil was investigated. The author could attain favorable results by means of (1) selective hydrogenation of whale oil, and (2) interesterification of hydrogenated whale oil and hydrogenated coconut oil. Use of “flake nikel” was excellent most as the catalyst. Experimental data showed that the most favorable conditions were as follows; 0.3% of catalyst, temperature 180°C or 210220°C, pressure 1 kg/cm2 and reaction time required 60 minutes. The characteristics of reaction products in the former hydrogenation process were judged from S.F.I. curve. In the latter process of interesteri-fication between hydrogenated whale oil and hydrogenated coconut oil, the favorable softening point of hydrogenated whale oil was 54.8°C and this was successively interesterified in the ratio of the former oil 30 to the latter 70%, thus obtaining good hard butter.
The polymerization of methyl linoleate in the presence of oxalyl chloride, phosphorus trichloride, phosphorus oxychloride, and phosphoric acid was studied under various reaction conditions. In the case of oxalyl chloride and phosphorus trichloride, the polymers were obtained in high yields and both maximum polymer contents of the crude reaction products were about 66%. The dimers separated from reaction products with phosphorus trichloride and oxalyl chloride catalysts were analyzed. The results show the presence of six-membered ring structure in the dimers and it is considered that the polymerization reaction with phosphorus trichloride catalyst involves mainly the Diels-Alder reaction.
The oils of six species of shells and the oil of Incillaria confusa were studied by gas-liquid chromatography for their fatty acid composition. The analysis showed the presence of fatty acids with chain lengths from 12 to 22 and zero to six double bonds. Certain major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid 18.4 to 48.9%; palmitoleic 7.4 to 19.9%, stearic 1.3 to 20.0% and oleic 3.7 to 19.4%. C20-and C22-polyunsaturated acids were present in the oils of Solen strictus Gould, Paphia undulata and Crassostrea gigas.
The characteristics of seed oils from A. aspera, V, awabuki, A. lobatum, C. tinctoriaand T. albidum were investigated. Each oil was obtained by extraction from the dried seeds with ether, , followed by treating with n-hexane. The characteristics of seed oils (Table-1) and fatty acid compositions by GLC (Table-2) were investigated. In order to examine the glyceride compositions in seed oils, the purified triglycerides obtained by TLC were hydrolyzed into, β-monoglyceride by the action of pancreatic lipase. The β-monoglyceride separated by TLC was esterified into methyl ester with 0.2 N-sodium methoxide solu. to examine the composition of fatty acids in 2-position of triglyceride by GLC (Table-2). Triglcyeride compositions in seed oils were also calculated (Table-3)
1) Examinations were made on general properties, fatty acid composition, and physical properties of 9 kinds of American margarine (sample No. 14 soft type in cups, No. 59 in cartons) and 10 representative domestic margarine (sample No. 15 in cups, No. 6 10 in cartons). 2) Melting point of the American samples was x 31. 1°C for cup and 32.3°C carton, the difference, being only about 1°C, but the iodine value differed markedly, being 104.8 and 85.5, respectively.. Japanese samples also showed a difference of 1°C in the melting point between cup and cartonn samples, and only a minor difference in iodine value. 3) Linoleic acid content was 36.4% for cup and 17.0% for carton in American samples, showing a distinct difference, but Japanese samples showed small difference, the value being 18.2% for cup; and 13.9% for carton. The content of C18 : 1-trans acid was x 30.7% in American sample and 20.9 % in Japanese sample as analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, and these figures of vegetable oily products were close to the total trans acid observed by IR, infering that C18 : 2-traps acid would be : little. 4) American cup margarine is very soft at a low temperature and shows a very small S, F.I. value : but the American carton product is same as the domestic carton product. Some of the Japanese cup; margarine showed the same tendency as those o the American product and these contained around. 20% of linoleic acid.