The physico-chemical properties of the aqueous solutions of some of chelating-type ether polycarboxylates containing malonate groups and/or acetate groups were measured and compared with that of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). And the correlation between the building performances and those properties has been discussed. The detergency were tested on naturally soiled cotton patches and the detergency powers were evaluated by Scheffe's method in a detergent system formulating alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS). Measurements were made on the surface tensions, the critical micelle concentrations, and the emulsifying capacities of the builder solutions with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS), The buffering and dispersing capacities for carbon black and manganese dioxide in the aqueous builder solutions, and the chelate stability constants of the builders against alkaline earth metals were determined. These results indicated that the washing efficiencies of the detergents containing malonate-type as well as acetate-type builders correlated well with calcium ion sequestration capacities, but did not correlate well with their dispersing capacities for manganese dioxide of the aqueous malonate-type builder solutions. Other physico-chemical properties of the builder solutions had no relation to their washing efficiencies.
Trans-2- and trans-3-unsaturated aliphalic alcohols and aldehydes (carbon numbers are C6C12) which were known as protective substances secreted from Anthropoda were synthesized in good yields via condensation of corresponding aldehydes (C4C10) [1A] [5A] with malonic acid, followed by reduction with lithium aluminium hydride. Aldehydes (C4C10) [1A] [5A] were prepared from alcohols (C4C10) by catalytic dehydrogenation with copper and zinc under reduced pressure.
Enzymatic hydrolysis is a useful method for obtaining fatty acids from fats and oils. It was reported that the enzymatic hydrolysis of castor oil could not be effected completely. The reason for this phenomenon was assumed to be the formation of estlides between ricinoleic acid molecules liberated from the castor oil. It was also observed by TLC that there were a number of substances other than estlides in the reaction mixture. The authors are trying to perform further examination of the mechanism of the enzymatic hydrolysis of castor oil. It is desirable to use pure glycerol triricinoleate for more detailed study on the hydrolysis mechanism. So, an effective isolation procedure of glycerol triricinoleate from castor oil was investigated. It was found that pure glycerol triricinoleate could be isolated readily in high yield by a repeated distribution of castor oil between polar and nonpolar solvents.
Thermal oxidation of tocopherols in lard was effectively inhibited by the addition of commercial soybean lecithin (Table-1, Fig.-1). There was no difference among α-, γ- and δ-tocopherol in the degree of inter-action with soybean lecithin (Table-2). Glycerides synthesized from a fatty acid mixture of lard was very unstable to thermal oxidative deterioration as compared with the original lard, but was highly stable to autoxidation. The instability of the glycerides to thermal oxidation could not be recovered even by the addition of soybean lecithin or unsaponifiable matter from lard (Table-3).
It has been found that monothiuronium salts derived from ω, ω'-dichloropoly (oxyethylene) and thiourea were treated with sodium hydroxide in ethyl alcohol to give monothiacrown ethers in much higher yield than those attained by the known method of thiacrown ether synthesis, Monothia-15-crown-5, -18-crown-6 and their homologs with high alkyl (C8C12) group were conveniently prepared in good yields with use of the new method. Catalytic action on the reduction of 2-octanone with saturated aqueous sodium borohydride was examined for these products. The catalytic efficiency increased with the increasing ring size and alkyl chain length of the macrocycle. The efficiency of decyl-monothia-18-crown-6 was found to be comparable to that of perhydrodibenzo-18-crown-6. However, these alkylthiacrown ethers showed no catalytic action on the substitution reaction of octyl bromide with aqueous potassium iodide.