In order to detect foreign fats in lard, differential thermal analyses were carried out by raising the temperature from 0°C, using lard, beef tallow, horse fat, mutton tallow and hardened lard, and mixed with beef tallow, horse fat or hardened lard in 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 or 80% amount. 1) The samples were melted at 60°C, rapidly cooled to 0 in 30 minutes, tempered at 20°C for 24 hours, and the temperature gradually raised at the rate of 3°C/min. 2) Lard showed two and beef tallow showed three endothermic peaks, and scattering of peak temperature was small among the same species. Mutton tallow showed the same curve as beef tallow, and their peak temperature was about the same but horse fat did not show any clear peak. 3) Presence of 10% beef tallow in lard can be easily detected because of the peak on lowtemperature side characteristic to beef tallow, and this was more sensitive than the Bomer number. The amount of beef tallow mixed in lard can be known from the shape of the curve and ratio of peak height. The same would probably be true in the presence of mutton tallow. 4) Presence of more than 10% of horse fat also showed the same tendency as that of beef tallow, but the presence of 1040% of horse fat cannot be discriminated from that of beef tallow. However, consideration of the ratio of peak height will make it posible to discriminate between beef tallew and horse fat.
The extracts from soiled undershirts were obtained by ethylether and benzene ethanol (80/20) extraction. The fiber surfaces of untreated and after extraction with solvents were observed by scanning electron microscope. After qualitative analysis of two extracts carried out by IR spectrometer and thin-layer chromatography, the extract obtained with ethylether extraction was quantitatively separated into several lipid groups by column chromatography using dry column and silicic acid treated with isopropanol-KOH, and gas chromatography. The extract with benzene-ethanol was separated into urea, deteriorated materials and other organic compounds. The composition of extracts consists of hydrocarbons (1.8%), squalene (9.3%), cholesterolesters and other sterolesters (2.0%), waxes (18.0%), triglycerides (20.1%), diglycerides (2.0%), monoglycerides (2.4%), free fatty acids (26.4%), free fatty alcohols (0.8%), cholesterol and other sterols (1.3%), urea (6.1%), deteriorated and unidetified materials (9.5%) and which is similar to those of Europian and American skin lipids.
The molecular distillation of marine oils has been studied in order to prepare edible oils, acid the distilled oil was found rather unstable because of the presence of higher unsaturated fatty acids. The author had previously evaluated the effect of thermal polymerization, in preliminary before the distillation, of whale oil on the stability. This paper deals the results of purification of distilled oil obtained from thermally polymerized whale oil. And further, the author could confirm an antioxidation effect of unsaponifiable matter from soybean oil against oxidation of whale oils, purified, distilled or hydrogenated. Crude whale oil was polymerized at 260°C in the presence of active earth under nitrogen atmosphere, followed by molecular distillation. The distilled oil was refined, bleached, and deodorized as usual. The stability test of each oil by the A.O.M. accelerating method disclosed that the change of A.U.M. stability was 10.5 hr for thermally polymerized oil, 4.0 hr for the distilled oil, and 9.0 hr for the purified oil as contrasted to 3.3 hr of the original whale oil (Table-3). Unsaponifiable matter recovered from the distillate of soybean oil deodorization was added to the purified or hydrogenated whale oils and its antioxidative ability was determined. It was observed hat the unsaponifiable matter had great antioxidative effect against the oxidation of hydrogenated whale oil and that optimum concentration was 0.8 % (Fig.-4). Then 0.8 % of unsaponifiable matter was added to the above mentioned purified distilled oil and it was ascertained that the addition of unsaponifiable matter greatly improved its stability. The A.U, M. stability of purified, distilled oil from thermally polymerized whale oil was over 200 hr when it was incorporated with soybean unsaponifiable (Fig.-5).
Author devised a very simple and reliable method to determine quantitatively the amount of ammonium cetylsulf ate produced by the reaction between cetyl alcohol and sulf amic acid. By means of this method reaction rates between cetyl alcohol and sulfamic acid were measured at various temperatures in the absence or presence of the catalyst such as acid amide or organic amine. It was found that the acid amides used as catalyst increased the reaction rate in a distinct degree, while on the contrary the amines used decreased it slightly. The results were kinetically analyzed, and the mechanism of reaction and the effect of catalysts were discussed, thereby, the author proposed an appropriate theories.
Methyl linoleate, methyl linolenate and safflower oil were respectively isomerized rapidly to the conjugated esters with addition of potassium tert-butoxide, and dimethyl sulf oxide or dimethyl f ormamide at zoom temperature. The loss of ester group in the conversion was little. The conjugated diene/conjugated triene ratio in the isomerized linolenate was approximately 3 : 1. The isomerization of linoleate gave the cis, trans conjugated dienoate chiefly. The isomerization of cis, traps- and trans, trans-9, 12-octadecadienoate gave the mixture containing 4153% cis, trans- and 47 '59% traps, traces conjugated dienoate. This suggests the proceeding of the cis, trans isomerization toward equilibrium composition in the conjugation process. At the tert butoxide concentration of 0.050.3 mol, the rate of isomerization of trans, trans dienoate is expressed in the following form : rate = K (tert-butoxide) 2.5 (polyenoic acid ester). However, at higher concentration the rate becomes independent of base concentration. In the isomerization in the sealed tube at 70°C, methyl linoleate mostly changed to the tert-butyl ester of the conjugated acids, and methyl linolenate to the polymerized products, which did not show maximum absorption at 265270mμ.
α-Polyoxyethylene alkylphosphonates were prepared according to the following process : III (R : C1 'C12, R' : C1 'C11) In the reaction I, Et3N or CH3ONa was used as a catalyst, and the reaction rate was greater for the case of CH3ONa. In the reaction with acetaldehyde the yield was poor because of the low reaction temperature. The reactivities of dioctyl- and dilauryl phosphate to aldehyde were very low, and then α-hydroxyalkyl phosphonate was not obtained. Addition reactions of EO to α-hydroxyalkyl phosphonates were carried out at 100°C with BF3OEt2 as a catalyst. Surface tensions of aqueous solutions of α-polyoxyethylene alkylphosphonates were 3037 dyne/cm. These surfactants were relatively stable in the neutral and acidic solution.