Hydrogenation of soybean oil and cottonseed oil with nickel catalyst in the presence of catalyst poisons was investigated. Catalyst poisons (carbon monoxide, non-sulfur contained amino acids and sulfur contained amino acids) greatly affected the activity of the catalyst. Though carbon monoxide deactivated the catalyst below 180°C, it did not deactivate the catalyst over 220°C. It was found that trans isomer slightly increased when carbon monoxide was introduced. Non-sulfur contained amino acids deactivated the catalyst weaker than sulfur contained amino acid did and affected no increase of trans isomer. Sulfur contained amino acid deactivated the catalyst intensively and affected increase of trans isomer. Selectivities (S31, S21) during hydrogenation by nickel catalyst with carbon monoxide or sulfur contained amino acid were substantially equal to those by nickel catalyst without catalyst poison.
It is very important to know the relation between solid fat content (SFC) and the composition of hardened oils on studying the hydrogenation of edible oils and fats by nickel catalyst. Solid fat content of some hardened vegetable oils and fish oils and their randomized oils were investigated by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) which is Solid Fat Content Analyzer (SFC-900), and compared with solid fat index (SFI) by dilatometry. It was found that SFC of natural or hardened oils and fats at t°C were accurately measured with free induction decay (FID) from the next equations (2), and (3) instead of the equation (1). (1)_??_ (2)_??_ (3)_??_ where, FS (t) is FID of sample at t°C. FO (t) is FID of olive oil at t°C. FS (60) is FID of sample at 60°C. FO (60) is FID of olive oil at 60°C. FS (tc) is FID of sample at the lowest temperature (tc°C) that it was melted completely during measurement. FO (tc) is FID of olive oil at tc°C. The results obtained were as follows. 1) The average standard deviation of SFC of hardened sunfower oil by NMR was smaller than those of natural fats (coconut, palm) and approximately equal to that by dilatometry. 2) The difference in SFC between hardened oils and their randomized oils showed that the melting ranges of hardened soybean oil and rapseed oil after randomization became narrow, and the melting ranges of hardened cottonseed oil and fish oils before and after randomization were little varied.
The sterols produced by various species of fungi have been investigated by gas liquid chromatography and in some case by mass spectroscopy. Ergosterol, ergosta-5, 7-dienol and cholesterol were identified in fungi of the class Deuteromycetes, the percentages of these sterols varying among the species, Ergosterol, ergosta-5, 7 dienol and ergosta-7-enol were identified in the species of the order Mucorales, the percentages of these sterols varying among the species. 24-Methylenedihydrolanosterol was found in Mortierella isabellina IFO No. 7824 of the Order Mucorales.
Effect of the interaction between fatty acid soils and surfactants on removal of a triglyceride soil from cotton fabrics was studied in relation to the interfacial tension in a liquid paraffin (Nujol)/water system. Triolein as a model triglyceride was mixed with equal amount of individual fatty acids such as lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid and the mixtures were applied to cotton fabrics from chloroform solution. Triolein mixed with individual fatty acids was removed more easily than triolein alone in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The effect of saturated fatty acids on removal of triolein increased slightly with increasing carbon chain length of fatty acids. Further, the interfacial tension in the Nujol/SDS solution was lowered markedly by the addition of palmitic acid. From the calculation of the adsorbed amounts of palmitic acid and SDS at the Nujol/water interface by Gibbs' equation, the ratio of palmitic acid to SDS was approximately 1 : 2. When the effect of the surfactants, SDS and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), on the removal of triolein in the presence of palmitic acid was compared, SDS was more effective than LAS. Further, in the system of which oil phase contained palmitic acid, SDS lowered the interfacial tension more than LAS did. From these results, it is concluded that the complex formation by the interaction between fatty acid and surfactant at the soil/solution interface facilitates the removal of triolein by emulsification.
1, 4-Diketones, which are important intermediates for synthesis of jasmonoids and terpenoids, were prepared by the reaction of alkyl vinyl ketones with nitroalkanes catalyzed by tributylphosphine (TBP), followed by Nef reaction of the resulting nitroketones. The Michael reaction of 3-butene-2-one to nitroethane was carried out by using a variety of tertiary phosphines as catalyst in benzene at room temperature, 2-nitro-5-heptanone being obtained in 86% yield by tributylphosphine catalyst. Nitroketones thus obtained in 6895% yield were subjected to the Nef reaction to give 1, 4-diketone derivatives. The latter compounds were converted to dihydrojasmone, 5, 6-dimethyl-5-heptene-2-one and Karahanaenone, respectively.
Oxidation stability of extracted oils from cottonseeds of various stages of maturity and storage period was investigated. According to experimental results, it was confirmed that the oxidation stability of the extracted oil from mature cottonseeds was higher than that from immature cottonseeds. After one and two years of storage, the extracted oils from those cottonseeds had the oxidation stability lower than that from immature cottonseeds which were harvested directly. Antioxidative components of crude cottonseed oil and were identified as tocopherols, gossypol, carotenoides and peptide-like substances by TLC.
Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride was treated with four long chained alcohols (dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl alcohols) to form four DTPA-monoalkyl esters (C12-, C14-, C16-, and C18-esters) being complexane-type surface active ligands. The equivalent reactions between the complexanes and several metal ions gave the corresponding (1 : 1) metal chelates in good yield (84% in average). All metal chelates prepared were easily soluble in water. The surface and interfacial tensions of the aqueous chelate solutions increased with an increase in alkyl chain length of the chelates, ranging from 23 to 47 dyn/cm and from 0 to 8.6 dyn/cm, respectively. The emulsifying (water/kerosene) and dispersing [TiO2/toluene-butanol (1 : 1)] powers, however, increased with an increase in the alkyl chain length. The emulsifying and dispersing powers of these chelates synthesized in this study were superior to those of the chelates which had been so far reported by authors.
The amounts of squalene produced by various species of fungi have been studied by gas chromatographic technique. Some species of the order Mucorales were found to contain 0.3-0.6% of squalene to dry weight of cultivated mycellium.